Posted at 09.10.2018
This paper can look at decision making on the whole and how feelings play a huge role in it. The paper will provide readers with a short introduction of decision making, that will then move to feelings in decision making and then your methods of decision making and the cognitive process behind it.
It will also explore decision making in video games in general, mother board games, cards and video games alike, and exactly how it influences our decision making in real life. This newspaper will also check out how we make decisions in games
The paper will use examples from a number of game titles which affect how we make decisions in true to life and can conclude by talking about the significance of decision making in games and how it affects us in our everyday activity.
As incomplete fulfillment of the Degree in Animation Fine art, it is required of me to make a 2-3 minute cartoon short throughout a development timeline of fourteen weeks. For this semester, we were necessary to do a brief test animation of the character. I've based my personality on a person who is indecisive and has problems coming up with a solution. At times when he makes a decision, it will always be impulsive and then the decision he made was a bad one. At one point where he stands there deciding over three different options offered to him, the challenge is resolved for him already. Therefore, the idea I am looking to make is that coming up with a solution do not need to necessarily be achieved by you for it could be resolved alone. This little bit of animation deals basically with how decision making performs an important role inside our everyday living.
Using my theme from my cartoon brief as a starting point, this paper is designed to check out how decision making is part of our daily life, be it in playing video games or in true to life, and exactly how decision making in games impact our decision making in true to life. It will commence by providing readers with an introduction from what decision making is focused on, which will lead to the cognitive process behind decision making and the role of thoughts in decision making. Then it'll check out decision making in real life and decision making in video games. The newspaper will explore how and just why humans use emotions to make decisions, and just why it is unwise to do so. The newspaper will also look at
Examples of game titles which affect our decision making will be talked about as well, and the newspaper will conclude by talking about the significance of decision making in games and how it impacts us in our everyday activities.
According to Karl Albrecht (1980), he said, "The typical human life seems to be quite unplanned, undirected, unlived, and unsavored. Only those who consciously think about the excitement of living as a matter of making options among options, that they have found for themselves, ever before establish real self-control and live their lives totally. "
What he intended was that in a life of an individual, she or he may live a life without having to be ready for anything in support of those who lived well prepared will have total control over their own lives. Quite simply, one needs to be prepared to make decisions in life if one looks for to determine himself in contemporary society.
To be able to build oneself, one must grasp decision making.
According to Karl Albrecht (1991), "decision making is defined as the process of making choices among contending courses of action, "
It means that decision making is simply defined as making the decision based on the number of options presented to the individual.
According to Charalambos D. Aliprantis and Subir K. Chakrabarti, we, as humans, have to make decisions inside our everyday life. For instance, a company must decide what way so as to survive and be competitive on the market, the government must make decisions on the policies they have imposed on the general public, students have to select the courses they would like to take up every semester. The list of decisions to make seems to go on permanently and that just would go to show that in our everyday life, folks from all walks of life have to make decisions.
When faced with an issue, we have a tendency to ponder the decisions we will be making and if it's a good one or not. At times, people would spend so enough time just thinking of making the right decision. However, given the same situation to two persons, both of them would make different decisions. Seemingly, one will make the right decision, the other will make the incorrect one. How come this so is based on the fact that each person has a benchmark to measure to, and analyse the decisions following that. Also, different individuals have their own goals and benefits which ultimately will affect the way they make decisions.
An individual can make a better decision and make the right choice by analysing from a set of different alternatives, and by making the right choices; the individual would directly affect the outcome. However, this isn't completely true. Many cases have shown that the happiness or satisfaction that derives from making the right decision, not only is determined by what the individual does indeed, but also from an results of another individual's decision. Such common affinity distributed among different individuals is so excellent to the idea that it has to be, beyond any question, considered when it comes to such situations.
In life, we always make decisions. Decision making is part of your cognition whereby we must bother making a choice out of so numerous others. Every specific has his own way and own substitute approach. It really is helpful to remember that we should not use feelings to help us in decision making. As humans have emotions and are psychological, it is impossible to not use emotions inside our decision making process.
When people use feelings to help in their decision making, wrong and bad decisions were made. For instance, some may be walking among the crowded people on the street. Abruptly he inadvertently steps on someone else's shoes and apologises immediately. However, the person is still furious and makes an ugly landscape, even challenging him to a combat.
If an example may be overcome by his own emotions, he'd be angry because he's still being shouted at and a deal with is inevitable, despite apologising prior. It could not help the situation by any means if one is overwhelmed with emotions for he could just make things worse by arguing back. By not using his thoughts, he uses reasoning and they can recognize that by arguing rear is not sensible, he will walk away instead.
When making the decision and is all full of and stressed with emotions, it would be helpful to take notice that using feelings would not be a good idea for one might wrap up making the wrong decision which would subsequently bring about outcomes. We humans may be mental creatures and there's always a time when emotions come into play, but still, emotions shouldn't be used along in decision making.
An psychological decision is manufactured very quickly. Everything boils right down to our brain whereby it processes the rationality. This is usually the unconscious part of the brain which instinctively influences our decision making whenever we get into quarrels or facing life intimidating situations.
A common kind of emotional decision includes the consumption of reasoning but in the end what drives the decisions is sentiment, which overrides the reasoning to support psychological choices.
Due to the fact that people humans are mental beings, we tend to let emotions have the better of us, and therefore there's a tendency that we would use feelings to make decisions rather than using reasoning. Such a case is defined as reasonable decision making versus mental decision making.
"Thoughts should be left out of the trading process, "
- Warren Buffet
According to him, it is not wise for anybody emotional to purchase the stock market, and associated with the same as to why emotions should not be involved when making a decision.
We should use logic for all your decisions we make during our life span, instead of feelings, mainly because when we use reasoning, the decisions we make are usually right ones. Reason being that decision making with reasoning uses deductive reasoning, rather than our own emotions.
The following can be an exemplory case of two shareholders, one using logic and one using feelings to make decisions. You can find two buyers, John and Mary. John determined to buy 100 stocks of a particular company because he did his homework and did some research on the business, finding out that it's presently undervalued and is an excellent purchase.
Mary, on the other hands, uses her emotional feelings. She will buy 100 shares of another particular company because she remembers using that particular product when she was more youthful. She didn't do any thorough research and impulsively bought 100 stocks based only on emotion itself.
John is much more likely to achieve this investment because rather than using his thoughts to decide, he used reasoning to think about what would be the best option for him. Only by doing research that he discovered this particular company is undervalued and for that reason he made the right choice in purchasing the shares of that company.
According to neuroscientist Antonio Damasio, he does a study on patients who experienced brain accidents and realised that they had lost their sense of feelings because the area of the brain that produces emotions have been harmed. The patients possessed trouble making decisions. They know very well what they need and should do but found it hard to make simple decisions like locating a place to eat or live.
At the point where we decide to decide, our emotions play an enormous role. Despite what we believe that to be logical decisions, if the logical decisions do not feel right, we will believe that it is not right. This is an feelings that originates from within our subconscious mind. It really is this part of the mind our thoughts stem from and that whatever decisions we make, sentiment is always a part of it.
When it involves making decisions, there are plenty of methods and techniques, plenty of options and plenty of individuals inclined to remain their necks out merely to make a decision, yet some prefer to play it safe.
In our everyday lives, we make countless decisions. Some of the decisions we make are lovely straightforward and does not require much thought into it. For instance, is this essay prepared to be submitted to the lecturer? The apparent answer is only when the article is completely completed in support of the individual writing the article will know. Yet, there are other decisions that are not heading to be as simple and direct. Such decisions require a chance to ponder over it. A good example would be a boss deciding over lots of potential job applicants.
When it involves intricate decisions, it tends to involve a few typical issues such as doubt, complexity, high-risk effects, alternatives and interpersonal issues.
Under uncertainty, there are a certain variety of facts which maybe unknown to the individual choosing. Under complexity, you can need to take into consideration to the fact that there a wide range of correlated factors. As for high-risk consequences, it needs to be known that the consequences of making the decision could be severe. For alternatives, each decision that comes into play has its problems including the consequences and uncertainties. Lastly, interpersonal issues imply that each individual has different reactions to your choice being made.
Considering the issues at hand when making such difficult decisions, it might be helpful to use a highly effective method which will help to make better decisions. Yet, of all decisions we live making out there, how do we realize whether we are making the right decisions? Here's where the value of decision making methods will come in. Reaching the ultimate goal all boils down to the key decisions we make.
A simple decision making tree is an example of a successful method employed by many business companies out there. it helps them straighten out their options and alternatives carefully and this allows us to understand how people arrive at the decisions they make. According to Arkes and Hammond (1992), "Your choice machine needs only 4 types of information to create a conclusion Tree".
1. What are my possible training of action?
2. What exactly are the events that may follow from those activities?
3. What's the probability of each event?
4. What's the value of each event if you ask me?
A decision making tree offers us enough time to believe and choose the options shown to us. Decision making in true to life is really as such. However, decision making in game titles are totally different from decision making in true to life and within the next chapter I will be looking at video games and decision making, and types of game titles that affects our decision making in true to life.
"Alpha Protocol is situated in the spy genre, and has certain trappings because of that, but because the game is based quite simply in the modern day, we wanted to reflect the ambiguity real world decisions. There are very rarely clear-cut good and bad decisions in true to life, and as a modern day RPG, we wanted to mirror that, "
- Matt Hickman, Maker, Alpha Protocol
Matt Hickman is the maker for the game, Alpha Standard protocol. What he means is the fact that he is striving to incorporate real life decisions into the game. In the last chapter, I looked at decision making generally, and how it is done in true to life, the cognitive process behind it and the techniques to making a powerful decision. Using games, however, we don't have the luxury of your time to believe and ponder in what decision to make. For example, First Person Shooter game titles require you to make quick, split-second decisions or you might get wiped out by the enemy. Yet, one needs to be extremely alert to his / her surroundings for they might end up capturing their own teammates instead of the adversary.
Other games, offer you time to ponder over the next move. Once you reach a point in the game, the available options will appear and you can choose which option to make.
Video games apart, there are table games which additionally require the need to make decisions, such as Risk, where making an incorrect decision could signify an entire army being destroyed.
Video games that are suitable for entertainment purposes can participate the players more using their realistically modeled environment and units. Players will be more immersed in to the game and it gives them a feeling of realism. The greater practical it is, the more players will feel they can connect it to real life. In such video gaming, players suppose the role or persona of your personality, and bring their morals and motivations into question. The decision they make in the overall game, for example, as long as they opt to save the hostage or should they just disregard the hostage and keep on their mission, plays a huge role in how the game will come out. If they decide to act on the morals, they'll decide to save the hostage and compromise their mission that may lead to a couple of consequences that they will face later. Or if indeed they based on their motivations, they might just carry on ahead with the quest as prepared and leave the hostage only. Either way, it gives players an opportunity to face the consequences after making their decision. In cases like this, decision making in video games impact how certain people make decisions in true to life. They call after both morals and motivations. For fast paced action video gaming such as First Person Shooter game titles, requires players to make split-second decision in the face of incoming enemy fireplace.
From here on, I'll look at the various types of decision making games that affects our decision making skills in true to life.
According to a study released on September 15, 2010 by experts from the University of Rochester, it is believed that such decision making skills can relate with everyday living. The researchers studied the skill pieces of two groups of people, gamers, and non-gamers, and put them through a set of tests which required these to make simple decisions. In one particular research, these groups of men and women were to look at some dots and determine the course of where in fact the dots were via. The results show that gamers could actually identify the direction faster and judge quicker than the non-gamers. In another review where that they had to go through a reading test whereby noises would be read from the kept hearing or the right ear, the gamers do well and were also able to determine quicker which direction the sound was being heard.
According to the experts, only such fast-paced action games can relate with real life decision making. Other non action game titles such as strategy game titles and role playing games are not as effectual as action game titles. Non-gamers who have been made to play such action video games for prolonged durations also revealed a impressive improvement in their decision making. The reason why that action game titles improve decision making skills is basically because players who play such games, makes right and appropriate decisions for every device time. Therefore, if some may be a soldier in the center of a battlefield, such a skill decides between life and loss of life.
People use probabilities to make decisions. These computations are constantly at work inside your brain and this process is known as "probabilistic inference".
What happens is the fact that the brain gathers tiny amount of aesthetic and auditory data, finally collecting enough to produce a decision. Fast paced action game titles like Call of Responsibility and Medal of Honor are what cause players to make split-second instantaneous decisions according to the current situation taking place around them.
Most decision making game titles comprises elements from these three types of video games, game titles of skill, game titles of chance, and game titles of strategy. It aspires to provide players a host where they can learn to hone their decision making skills.
For example, the Game of Life. This game is a simulation of one's life, giving players an opportunity to experience life on the whole and the decisions you have to make in life, such as choosing between heading to university or going out and starting a profession.
Other video games which involve uncertainty, for example, cards such as Blackjack and Yahtzee provides players a sense of risk, doubt and probabilities. In Blackjack, one has to produce a decision when he has to draw more than three cards. He could then take a risk by attracting an extra cards and hoping to get a perfect report of twenty-one or less and desires the opponent ratings less point than him. If he scores any point above twenty-one, he manages to lose. For Yahtzee, it needs players to make decisions through the play as to which dice he or she should choose to keep while in the procedure for making combinations. Probabilities are involved as well.
Chess is also another game that involves a lot of decision making. Chess is known to help develop and hone our visualising skills and coming up with being successful strategies.
"You sit at the plank and abruptly your heart leaps. Your palm trembles to pick up the part and move it. But what chess teaches you is that you need to remain there calmly and think about be it really a good idea and whether there are other better ideas. "
Life is merely just like a game of chess. While playing chess, one needs to be able to read his opponent, must be able to read his next move, and become on the lookout for any indicators of risk. Humans, however, can at times be unstable and shock you along with his next move. All one has to do is to keep participating in, keep reading the board, until one of them wins.
In life and in video games, whatever decision has been made, one will bring about a series of events that comes after that. it will come about as a consequence, or it can be a good one. It can be predictable, or possibly unpredictable, whatever it is, to avoid yourself from being tied down by the chain of events set in motion, you have to take these occasions into consideration and respond to them properly.
An individual can control the outcome of the game and how it'll fold out, only once he is participating in against himself. Usually, one can never be in control of the game's result. This is why game titles like Chess and Game of Life are interesting. The game will not move forward if one is still deciding his next move. Until a decision has been made and an action considered, then your game will carry on, and the key reason why an example may be taking his time to decide is merely because he wishes to help make the correct choice. He is taking the time to think and make sure he does not make a mistake.
As you play, your sense of awareness improves and it will be much easier to read your opponent. This gives rise for you coming up with different ways of use in different situations and get the game. However, this can only be achieved if you improve the standard of your game by studying the proven strategies, and also playing against much better and stronger opponents. You either get, or you lose, and you simply learn from this, gain some valuable experience and this will keep you going.
In another game that was lately developed by game builder Jane McGonigal, it is a game that seeks to improve recognition through decision making. This game is called Evoke. This game helps players to become good problem solvers and what it does is that they want young people worldwide to band together and help to solve all the world's problems, in other words, make an effort to save the entire world by learning sociable innovation skills.
"we're witnessing what portions to a minimum of a mass exodus to virtual worlds and online game environments, "
- Economist Edward Castronova
What that means is the fact gamers feel more sense of achievements in the online world. The average child will have put in 10, 000 hours of playing online flash games by enough time he or she hits the age of age 21. That is why this game seeks to get young people from all over the world to band along and help solve some of the world's biggest problems.
In an earlier research released early on this season from Tx A&M International University has shown that video gaming depicting assault can cause some players to be hostile and hostile.
For example, the game Grand Theft Automobile. It allows player to car jack, whip out a weapon and shoot randomly people, and even eliminate policemen. That, however, was how it was when then 18 season old Devin Moore shot useless three policemen from Alabama.
"Life's like a video game. You need to die sometime. "
- Devin Moore
Those were the words of a cool blooded killer at the idea when he was imprisoned. Because of many nights of playing the overall game, it has inspired Moore very much to the idea that he would so much as shoot a officer with out a flinch.
Game theory, regarding to psychologists, is the idea of interpersonal situations. Even though game theory is applicable to game titles such as poker, research on game theory mainly looks at how different sets of individuals interact and communicate with one another.
Game theory is split into two different branches: co-operative game theory, and non co-operative game theory. Co-operative game theory handles a group of several individuals banding alongside one another in an effort to achieve the same goal, whereas non co-operative game theory is the contrary, where a group of individuals communicate with each other to be able to achieve his / her own goals. The difference between co-operative and non co-operative game theory is in the portrayal of affinity between individuals.
Three elements are always within game theory.
At least two individuals/individuals can be found,
Each of them has a series of different alternatives,
Based on each end result, each participant/specific will stand to gain or earn something.
An example could be the Prisoner's Dilemma.
Fig 1. 0 Prisoner's Dilemma
Based on the Prisoner's Dilemma table shown in fig 1. 0, what goes on is that, there are two scammers, Henry and Dave, and they're both arrested. If Henry and Dave both plead not guilty, they both get a sentence of two years prison each. However, it is here on that both thieves have to produce a decision. If Henry pleads not liable while Dave chooses to plead guilty, Dave gets a jail sentence of one year while Henry gets five years. If Henry pleads guilty while Dave pleads not liable, Dave are certain to get five years in jail while Henry gets one. If somehow both opt to plead guilty, both of these will conclude with 3 years in prison each. In such a case, your best option is designed for both of these to co-operate and plead not guilty and get a jail term of 2 yrs. However, during the course of co-operation, one of them might get the theory that if he decides to plead guilty at the last minute, he might get the least jail term of one year as the other guy still pleads not liable will get five years. Its likely that that both of them would have considered this and may wrap up pleading guilty which would ultimately give them a jail word of three years each.