Major Functions OF THIS Skin

The pores and skin is the most significant organ of your body. Measuring between 1. 5 and 2. 0 rectangular metres within an adult, it sorts an intensive contact area with the surroundings. This contact reveals a number of important challenges, that your pores and skin must meet in order to protect your body. In addition, it provides important opportunities, that your skin uses to maintain homeostasis.

Consider the issues and opportunities posed by connection with the surroundings and relate them to the major functions of your skin.

The integumentary system, comprising skin, locks and nails, act as a barrier to protect the body from the surroundings. Some troubles and opportunities posed to the skin by the conditions are; contact with sunlight/UV Rays, bacterias, mechanical damage, substance destruction and thermal damage.

The integumentary system functions as a barrier in 3 ways: a chemical barrier, a physical hurdle and a biological barrier. The integumentary system works with the disease fighting capability to make a biological hurdle. Specialized cells in your skin find and demolish foreign bacterias.

A physical hurdle includes hard, keratinized skin cells in the fingernails or toenails, skin and scalp. These skin cells especially in pores and skin and fingernails help protect the inner organs and bloodstream system from external environmental factors. Head of hair really helps to minimalise bugs from crawling on your skin, protect the head from physical stress and regulate warmth.

A chemical barrier is also scheduled to skin. Your skin has sweating glands which secrete substances onto your skin that stop the reproduction of bacteria. The skin also produces melanin which operates to safeguard ultraviolet rays from sunlight however despite melanin's defensive factors excessive sunshine exposure will eventually harm your skin.


Explain how the structures of the skin contribute to its functions.

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The epidermis is the largest body organ in the integumentary system and has 2 major components: the cutaneous membrane or skin and the accessories structures.

The cutaneous membrane has 2 components: the skin and the dermis. The skin is the external layer of your skin and the dermis is a covering of skin between your epidermis and subcutaneous cells.

The accessory buildings consists of locks, claws and multicellular exocrine glands.

The epidermis contains 5 layers; the stratum basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum and corneum. The Stratum basale is the outside layer of epidermis, the stratum spinosum is a coating of the skin found between the stratum granulosum and stratum basale. [1] This level really helps to prevent dehydration, the stratum granulosum is the part between the stratum lucidum and stratum spinosum, the stratum lucidum is a slim, clear layer of dead epidermis cells. It really is found only in areas of thick skin, most noticeably on the palms of the hands and the soles of your toes and lastly the stratum corneum is the outermost level and is filled up with keratin, which is made up of dead skin cells.

The dermis is responsible for the strength of pores and skin. Its main functions are to modify temperature and also to provide you with the epidermis with nutrient-saturated blood vessels. Much of your body's water resource is stored within the dermis. The dermis has most of the skin's particular cells and set ups, including: Arteries, lymph vessels, hair roots, sweat glands, sebaceous, or oil, glands, nerve endings, collagen and elastin.

The dermis coating comprises of two sublayers, the papillary level, which includes a thin design of collagen fibers. The papillary layer supplies nutrients to choose layers of the epidermis and regulates temp. The second reason is the reticular layer which is thicker and manufactured from thick collagen fibres that are set up in parallel to the surface of the skin area. The reticular coating strengthens your skin, providing composition and elasticity.

A coating of tissues that lays immediately below the dermis is the hypodermis or subcutaneous cells. The hypodermis comprises mainly of loose connective muscle and lobules of fat and works as a power reserve. It contains larger arteries and nerves than those found in the dermis. The hypodermis consists of: elastic fibers, fibrous bands, fats, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, mane follicle root base, nerves and muscle.

The pores and skin includes the following functions; protection, sensation, heat rules, control of evaporation, safe-keeping and synthesis, absorption, water resistance.

The structures of your skin all interact to maintain quite functions.


You are performing exercises on a hot day. Explain two ways that the integumentary system functions to maintain homeostasis

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Two ways that the integumentary system works to preserve homeostasis are sweating and vasodilation.

Homeostasis is a term for your own body's ability to regulate your internal point out, and sweating is an exemplory case of this. If your body temperature gets too much, one of the homeostatic mechanisms used to bring your temp back again to normal is sweating.

Eccrine sweat glands will be the major sweating glands of our body, found in virtually all skin. Sweating is clear secretion that is primarily water and sodium (sodium chloride).

Sweat reaches your skin with a duct that opens externally as a funnel molded pore. Eccrine sweating glands are a highly efficient part of the heating regulating system, they are really supplied with nerve endings that lead them to secrete perspiration when your body's temperature gets too high. When sweat evaporates from the skins surface it requires body warmth with it. On the hot day you could lose up to 7 litres of body normal water.

Another way the integumentary system works to protect homeostasis is vasodilation. Blood vessels supplying bloodstream to the skin can swell or dilate - called vasodilation. This triggers more heating to be transported by the blood to your skin, where it could be lost to the air however if the exterior environment is really as hot as or hotter than the body the only way to release heat is through evaporation of perspiration.

This is an effective source of heating loss so long as air is dry, if it's humid evaporation occurs at a much slower rate giving the individual hot and irritated.

When your body cools down the hypothalamus through the autonomic anxious system tells the 'warmth loss' centre to switch off.


Indicate how ageing influences your skin and make clear how these changes have an impact on its normal function.



As people grow older their epidermal cell substitution slows which means skin starts to thin resulting in a rise of bruising and other types of accident. The lubricating substances provided by your skin glands that delivers young looking and soft skin commence to become less successful, resulting in dry itchy pores and skin. Elastic materials and collagen materials become fewer and stiffer so the skin has much less elasticity resulting in wrinkles.

The reduction in numbers of melanocytes and langerhans cells produced can enhance the chance of skin malignancy in older get older, especially if a lot of ultraviolet rays are consumed.

UV rays are a major contribution to the rapidity of skins aging. Over time, the sun's rays damage certain materials in the skin called elastin. The break down of elastin fibers causes the skin to sag and take longer to mend.

Ageing also influences things below the skin; loss of extra fat below your skin may bring about loosening skin area, bone loss following the time of 60 can cause puckering of the skin around the oral cavity, cartilage damage in the nostril causes drooping of the sinus tip.

Smokers also generally have more wrinkles than non-smokers of the same time.

Skin changes associated with ageing cause particular problems for nurses caring for seniors.


Outline the nursing principles involved in skincare in older people.



Elderly patients are prone to epidermis tears, ulcers, abrasions, discomfort and infection especially if these are diabetic. If proper skincare is not honored, it can cause sores, dried up/painful skin and even gangrene.

When an elderly patient is bathing the temperature of the drinking water should be warm alternatively than hot as older people's skin does not contain all the petrol as it once did, if all the olive oil is cleaned away, their skin is more vunerable to breaking, which can result in infection.

A mild soap should always be utilized as it is not harsh on the skin and helps prevent it from becoming dried.

Due to the increased loss of natural oils in the skin, it's important to apply a moisturizing cream after a shower and multiple times through the day. Utilizing a moisturizer helps decrease the itchiness, and the likelihood of infection.

It is not uncommon for some elderly patients to be restricted to their bed 24 hours a day. That is when skin care is vital, particularly if they are simply incontinent of colon and bladder, washing and drying the region regularly can reduce the risk of a fungal contamination forming.

Elderly skin must be viewed regularly to check on for changes such as moles.


Workbook 3 Integumentary system


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