The main subject matter for discussion in creating relevant goods is consumer's belief of the merchandise itself. Folks are different as their views for certain things differentiate from one another. Managing and planning proper communication to bring the most important characteristics of products to consumer has become effective due to the study of potential costumer's attitude and beliefs. For example, as it pertains to the appearance of the product plus some will think of it as critical attribute, initiatives should be made to be reassured that customers start to see the product view suitable. However, it is not possible to concentrate only using one aspect. Same product can carry different worth for differing people. Thus, it becomes considerable to identify which aspect is the most significant one for consumers to be able to manage the product successfully.
In order to comprehend and disclose real motives behind purchasing symbolic products the marketing research was carried out. The objective of research was to recognize motives leading visitors to buy perfume.
1. Theoretical aspects for purchasing symbolic products
1. 1. Product classification recognized by needs
A person is powered by lots of needs or needs which motivates her or him to buy a specific product. Determination itself thought as a driving pressure within personalities that impels these to action (Shiffman, Kanuk, 2010). The procedure of motivation is made around human needs, which in the most standard form is sensing of insufficient certain things. The target to fulfil the needs creates motivation. Based on type of need people do want to meet different kinds of inspiration can be described. According to the various theoretical techniques there are several ways to categorize needs. One of these divides them into functional, hedonic and symbolic needs.
Functional needs formerly motivate visitors to seek out products that solve usage related issues, which can be current or future issues. For example, investing in a garden scissors solves a current need whereas buying security alarm, which prevents a potential problem.
On the other palm hedonic (experiential) needs are the ones that desire to have product that delivers sensory pleasure and cognitive arousal. For example, people can decided flying first class to enjoy premium meals and plusher seats.
Finally, symbolic needs are defined as wishes for products that fulfil internally generated needs for self-enhancement for role position, group regular membership, or ego-identification (article). These needs relate with how people perceive themselves, the way they are recognized by others, and the esteem that others give them.
1. 2. Intrinsic and extrinsic motives on symbolic product preference
As Hirschman (1982) argues, symbolism constitutes an important source of innovation, and by conversing new and different social meanings, a product can operate as a symbolic development.
According to Truong, McColl and Kitchen(2010) buying a symbolic product such as perfumes or new and stylish clothes may rely upon two basic kind of motives-
Intrinsic - individuality, relationship, confidence
Extrinsic - welfare, popularity, self-image.
The Intrinsic motives are those motives which can be internally driven and fulfilled by way of a person for self-satisfaction. The excitement of bringing a fresh acquisition again from the shop, showing it to friends and family members are essential measurements of experiencing these symbolic products. The thoughts related to new products in the metaphoric portraits include enthusiasm, happiness, enjoyment, and curiosity. When a consumer acquisitions such products, a period of exploration starts. A person entails himself in purchase of these products for a few special occasion or celebration as well regardless of their gender, years and social capital level.
The Extrinsic motives are those motives which a person fulfils because of one or the other exterior factor. A consumer acquisitions these symbolic products in order showing their status and electric power in a population. These products have always been associated with electricity and status. According to Marx (1954), such expensive products reflect the class relations within the modern culture. Marx respect this as the utmost significant means by which social distinctions and inequalities among people are designed, experienced and legitimized. Symbolic products can also be purchased to show-off and make an impression the group a person will appear in.
1. 3. Low and high levels of product involvement
Another aspect of determining consumer's motives to buy symbolic products is people's involvement in to the purchasing process. Matching to Schiffman and Kanuk (2010) the amount of involvement with a product alters depending on individual's interest. Some individuals may be keen to buy a new suit associating it with their lifestyle and cultural acceptance while some prefer to get the same product as common clothes for the job. This is exactly what they call the idea of long lasting and situational participation according to Schiffman. The ingrained kind of long lasting involvement points out that the connection between the consumer and product lays on the utilization of symbols and images.
By concentrating in specific symbolic product category - perfume, consumer involvement can diversify start from high involvement to low. In past studies Kapferer and Laurent identified five main areas of consumer's motives in buying symbolic products:
Product relevance. People buy their most liked product when there is a connection between them, if product signifies consumer's self-image, prices, or demonstrates important features. However, predicated on the study, it is just a penultimate purpose for investing in a perfume.
Emotional attraction. For a few consumer being psychologically attached to the merchandise performs an important role. For example, many buyers of Nokia mobile phones remain loyal to that brand discussed by affinity for the product even if its efficient appearance is much less good as Apple's Iphone.
Constant curiosity about product. Consumers who have certain interests in one group of products will constantly purchase it, for example trendy people.
Level of risk. Several types of dangers can be gained varying from financial, physical, interpersonal or scientific. Nevertheless, risk is considered as the least important one of all components to purchase a perfume.
Identified as a norm by population. All people are in the modern culture and every population has its rules and norms, so the majority of consumers buy certain products to meet these requirements, for example if gal wants to visit the graduation party or ball, she must buy a dress even if she will not wear it usually. Therefore, by the research "badge value" was discovered as the most significant motive in buying perfumes.
In order to comprehend and to disclose the real determination towards symbolic products purchase behaviour the marketing research was completed. The target human population focused on teenagers era between 20-30 years. The research was conducted through organising two concentrate groups, which consisted of eight respondents each. The concentrate groups were divided by gender for men and women to comprehend variant factors relevant to consumer motivations behind buying perfumes. Perfume, which is the shiny exemplory case of symbolic products, was chosen to be a topic for discussion in focus organizations meetings.
The obtained results of the research shows, that, primarily, women`s attitude towards perfumes overall, is mainly cognitive, they understand the perfume as something personal and inseparable from themselves. For the question "why do you like your preferred perfume(s), " the group was converging in two intellects. The first one is that each perfume affiliates with the certain spirits, for instance, if the feelings is cheerful and playful, women opt more floral and nice aromas, whereas the sense of sadness and melancholy makes them to choose serious and fresh aromas. As a result, it can be noted that the perfume for some reason emphasizes the current internal condition of the average person. The second view is based on the fact that a particular smell plays a significant role in creating the home image by which person is discovered by other members of the contemporary society. Among the respondents elucidated that when she's an important day for her as a presentations or interviews, she picks a more robust perfume, which helps her to feel self-collected and represents her as a serious person. Two other respondents also agreed in that the utilization fragrance to develop special character; they prefer bold and recognizable odors to be able to attract attention and position themselves as self-confident personalities.
Different answers were received when asking the main question about the motivation that stands behind the purchase. Generally, females stated out that they buy perfume to be liked by opposite sex, to produce recognizable image, to feel belonging to the fashion and arts world (one of the members pointed out she considers its design of the container as a work of art), as well as to be unique and independent from all of those other crowd. As it can be seen, all of these motives are mental rather than rational. According to the group discussion, rational motives will not influent purchasing process much, it was determined that perfume perceives as one of the way of home expression, social role identification and only at last vacation resort it is just a mean of coverage from upsetting smell. Through the dialog it was identified that for majority of respondents extrinsic motives are usually more valuable than intrinsic, while for the rest of respondents intrinsic factor has a high-priority so this means. Those who impacted by extrinsic factors mentioned they are reflecting themselves as a respectful and high status personalities through using branded and expensive perfumes, and the other people indicated that the smell and the ambiance that is provided by perfume are significant for the kids.
Another finding is usually that the advertising has also has a considerable impact when choosing a perfume. Any advert is initially constructed to point and stand for particular personal image. People immediately begin to match created image on themselves or want to be like a superstar, who advertises the perfume while you're watching advertisement. If the person does not like the type and the image of the advertising, the likelihood of that he / she will buy this perfume is very small, as well as though he or she does not like the super star for the reason that commercial. Conversely, if a person is influenced by advertising and by celebrity, then your probability of purchasing that perfume is more, even if the perfume`s efficient characteristics aren't totally fulfill the costumer, because the emotional component is much more powerful here than logical.
Both analogous and somewhat in contrast facts were denoted while assessing the female group responds and male group responds. The men emphasis group could make a number of replies which reflected the notion of the group people. Some of the informants who have been financially well off somewhat blas attitude towards purchasing of expensive perfumes. They assume that by working hard they earn the right to ruin themselves with expensive perfumes. For informants with less financial means, an other circumstance emerges. Thus, few of the informants always purchased expensive perfumes like Channel or Calvin Klein, falling for its brand image while on the other side few informants acquired a perception these expensive perfumes are unique, mainly for teenagers and give them a feeling of freshness. On the contrary few informants just proceeded to go for the "feel good" factor and overlooked the brand image of a particular perfume. Five of the informants who have been financially well off got almost same requirements for selecting a perfume for themselves, they might keep the make of a perfume as their first choice, perfume as their second and Price as their third inclination. While on the other palm, three informants who weren't very well off, would think about price or the fragrance, and give no importance to brand.
It is important to notice that in comparison to female group, which was positive towards advert effect, all the male group people acquired a common view that the advertisement has no impact on buying of any type of perfume for the kids, as one of the informants quoted "advertising are misleading and most of the time won't reveal the reality". Another amazing finding pertains to the functional area of the product, participants described that wearing different and new perfume to every meeting they attend is almost a requirement, to be able to eliminate sociable embarrassment of having a bad smell, which can be interpreted as need for the useful motives for male respondents more than for females. On the other hand several informants believe that a perfume shouldn't only satisfy the essential need, but must be sufficient to win over the group they may be in. People also had a interesting understanding that purchasing a perfume of a specific fragrance is determined by the climate as well, as you of them said "perfumes that have base records of musk or woody aromas are more suitable to the wintertime time when it is cooler. Floral records in the perfume have a tendency to be from the summer or hotter countries. When asked about the amount of money they would like to spend on a bottle of perfume, all of them acquired different views, one informant who was financially well off observed that brand is what they value not price, another informant who was also prosperous sensed that expense too much on a small bottle of perfume is not worthwhile, even though he had ability to buy it. Several respondents who were not economically secure marked that the price is the most crucial conditions for buying a perfume.
Correspondingly to female group, men also believe that one of the key reasons for these to buy these expensive perfumes with strong and resilient scent is to get members of the opposite sex and some of them seems that it provides a person a feeling of self-confidence and helps setting himself better in his public group. It had been agreed that a simple program of favourite fragrance is enough to feel hot and in control
Thus, in a nutshell we can say women are inseparable from perfume, but of course now men are also not considerably behind in wearing it. However motives behind buying these expensive perfumes are motivated by a number of factors, such as Gender, sociable and economic course, climatic conditions and sometimes to show-off and to create a good repo in their interpersonal surroundings.