Natural Product and Metabolomics

Mass Spectrometry is often become very helpful comes into the final confirmation level of a chemical structure. It is because by noting the fragmentation pattern and the full total molecular mass of chemical substance, researchers can verify the compound's chemical formula, accompanied by confirming the chemical substance structure proposed based on past instrumental analyses. Nowadays, Gas Chromatography and Water Chromatography are in conjunction with mass spectrometry for researchers to obtain the molecular mass immediately after the ingredients are segregated chromatographically. However, GC-MS are more regularly being used to review natural product in comparison to LC-MS because LC-MS doesn't have its database made like GC-MS due to the extensive selection of secondary metabolites which is hardly reproducible. (Lee & Yoon et al. , 2013) Analysts can confirm the mixture by coordinating the molecular mass obtained from GC-MS with the founded repository, while LC-MS users must refer to the info provided by past researchers on that one field of review. There are a great number of journals regarding the studies of main and secondary metabolites being publicized and a lot of researches will add their sample for GC-MS test and then compared their compound's fragmentation pattern and also molecular weight to the National Institute of Benchmarks and Technology libraries, that will tells experts the structure with their materials, even if there are no exact matching, studies will at least have a hard idea on the structure.

In the early 1990s, Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was introduced to extract compounds from examples without the use of solvent; this method is later applied on examples before undergoing GC-MS process. This technique enables analysts to extract chemical substances from sample in a easier and cheaper way since it generally does not are the use of solvent. SPME works by adsorbing chemical substances into its fibre coated absorbing phase from the test, and then placed into GC for desorption of compound involved with it and then segregated. (D'agostino & Sanz et al. , 2014) This technique is so convenient that experts can even carry it along when going into a jungle to adsorb materials from plant of interest and providing it back to the lab to endure GC-MS experiment, much more convenient than plucking a big bunch of crops test to the lab for solvent soaking.

Samples can be injected into GC-MS through either divide of splitless injection; split injection system will lead most of the samples out to the atmosphere and only allow about 1% from it to enter into the column while splitless injections system allows almost all of the examples to enter into the column. Split/splitless system are made to give reproducible chromatographic retention times and to keep the chromatographic requirements of column set up, to use split of splitless, it is with respect to the sensitivity required. Though splitless system allows more test to be injected in however, metabolomics studies are better be carried out with divide system because metabolites can be found in extensive range concentrations and it allows research workers to analyze volatile substances eluting nearby the solvent optimum. (Cyril Jousse, 2009)

Besides plant's metabolites, GC-MS is also very useful for bio-metabolics, some of the bio-metabolics researches are for example Chrysoula Christou et al. did a study on research of organic and natural acids in human being urine in specialized medical settings in order to develop a method for organic acid profiling in human being urine, this can be useful to discover metabolics or other health disorders. Their sample was being segregated by gas column and undertake quadrupole mass spectrometer in the electron ionization (EI) function and therefore chromatogram and mass spectra shown 11 organic and natural acids segregated and identified by doing similarity search on NIST collection (3). A study was carried out by Ioannis Papoutsis and the team of research. where GC-MS method was used to find out amisulpride in blood vessels. Amisulpride is an antipsychotic drugs which is recommended to psychiatric patients, overdosing can cause arrhythmia, bradycardia and hypotension. (4) SPME was first used by them to extract substances from the blood vessels samples and then separated by using gas chromatography and finally diagnosed by mass spectrometer, results show that GC-MS can be used to monitor amisulpride in the blood which is used in pharmacokinetic studies and also forensic investigation.


GC-MS is also found in assisting archaeology studies; it is particularly useful when comes to determining the chemical substance constituents of the sample. In one of the recent archaeology research, M. Mnager, C. Azmard and C. Vieillescazes researched the mummification balms from the mummy skulls with FTIR and GC-MS. Twelve mummified mind were gathered, the balms on the minds were extracted with organic solvent and water before launched to GC-MS. Molecular components were eluted by using helium, and injected with divide system. Samples were eluted by using helium as carrier gas with the stream of 1mL. min-1 and oven temperature was established to: 50 C for 2 min, 50-250 C at 8 Cmin1, 250-350 C at 3 Cmin1, and 350 C during 20 min. 1 ОјL of each sample was injected with a splitting system and the injections temperature was set at 250 C. Mass spectra were generated by electron ionization method with electron ionization energy of 70 eV, an ionization time of 25, 000 Ојs and a mass selection of 40-650 m/z. (5) Because of this, those mummification balms were found to contain mixtures such as natural oils, excess fat, beeswax, resins, protein, polysaccharides and mineral deposits, these substances are verified again by coordinating mass spectra with NIST library. By using only FTIR without confirmation by GC-MS, analysts will only be able to know the functional group in it without confirming the ingredients.


In cosmetic business, chemical compounds atlanta divorce attorneys beauty must be carefully analyzed as it's applied onto human's pores and skin and body, therefore any mistake made may cause allergy or soreness to get rid of users. Synthetic husk has been extensively applied in plastic industry anticipated ti its long-lasting odor, however, it was found that two sets of man-made musk can cause many health disorders. Many countries also have set up polices on the amount of synthetic musk in order to protect customers, it has become another parameter in quality control of plastic products. In Beijing, China, Haifeng Dong and his team of research workers conducted a study on 7 man-made musk in cream by using SPME and then GC-MS, cream is chosen as it is the most common form of cosmetic product. (6) Beauty creams contains moisturizing, healthy agent and also many lipophilic chemical substances. Synthethic musks have low polarity and it is also one of lipophilic compounds, which cause synthethic musks can be rarely be segregated out from other liphophilic materials. Cream examples must go through extra cleanup steps such as by matrix stable phase dispersion method (MSPD) to be able minimizes the matrix effect. Since drinking water and isopropanol was used to split up fabricated musks from lipophilic chemical substances, supported liquid extraction will need to be used to be able absorb drinking water and remove interferences to provide better purification. Tandem MS was used in this research to be able to improve the selectivity and decrease the detection limit. This research which deals with dream shows marginally different in the preparation method in comparison to other GC-MS research, however, overall idea is still similar.

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