Personalised Tumor Treatment: Known Markers in Treatment

Personalised cancer tumor treatment - known markers and what they imply for treatment

Contents (Bounce to)

Known markers and what they suggest for treatment

Overview

Drug goal markers

Diagnostic and prognostic markers

Meta description

Keywords

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Known markers and what they mean for treatment

Overview

Personalised, targeted and hormonal treatments all be based upon genetic mutations that can be identified in cancer tumor cells to be effective. These mutations are sometimes known as "markers". The markers can manifest through over-expression, lack of manifestation or mutated appearance of specific proteins.

Some markers can be targeted using specific treatments whereas some can act as measurements for disease examination, prognosis and treatment response.

Drug concentrate on markers

The genes the following have all been associated in malignancy, nearly all which can even be treated.

Known marker

Cancers they're associated with / may reap the benefits of targeted therapy

Related treatment/response to treatment

ALK[EB1] - anaplastic lymphoma kinase (*)

  • Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma
  • Familial neuroblastoma (nerve cell)
  • Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC)
  • Crizotinib (Xalkori)
  • Pemetrexed (Alimta)

AR - androgen receptor

  • Bladder
  • Breast
  • NSCLC
  • Ovarian
  • Prostate
  • Abarelix (Plenaxis)
  • Bicalutamide (Casodex)
  • Flutamide (Eulexin)
  • Gonadorelin (Factrel)
  • Goserelin (Zoladex)
  • Leuprolide (Lupron)

BRAF - v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1

  • Colon
  • Lung
  • Melanoma (skin)
  • Nervous system
  • Thyroid
  • Cetuximab (Erbitux)
  • Panitumumab (Vectibix)
  • Vemurafenib (Zelboraf)

BRCA1 - breast cancers susceptibility gene 1

  • Breast
  • Lung
  • Ovarian
  • Cisplatin (Platinol)
  • Prophylactic surgery (avoidance)

BRCA2 - breasts tumor susceptibility gene 2

  • Breast
  • Ovarian
  • Tamoxifen (Nolvadex)
  • Prophylactic surgery (reduction)

c-Kit/CD117/SCFR - mast stem cell factor receptor (*)

  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST)
  • Melanoma
  • Imatinib (Gleevec)
  • Sorafenib (Nexavar)
  • Sunitinib (Sutent)

c-MET/HGFR - mesenchymal epithelial changeover factor/hepatocyte development factor receptor

  • NSCLC
  • Ovarian
  • Erlotinib (Tarceva)
  • Gefitinib (Iressa)

COX-2/PTGS2 - cyclooxygenase-2/ prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2

  • NSCLC
  • Celecoxib (Celebrex)

EGFR/ErbB-1/HER1 - epidermal growth factor receptor (*)

  • NSCLC
  • Cetuximab (Erbitux)
  • Erlotinib (Tarceva)
  • Gefitinib (Iressa)
  • Panitumumab (Vectibix)

ER - oestrogen receptor (*)

  • Breast
  • Female reproductive tract (cervical, fallopian, ovarian, uterine)
  • Anastrazole (Arimidex)
  • Exemestane (Aromasin)
  • Fulvestrant (Faslodex)
  • Goserelin (Zoladex)
  • Letrozole (Femara)
  • Leuprolide (Eligard, Lupron, Viadur)
  • Medroxyprogesterone, (Provera, Amen, Curretab, Cycrin)
  • Megestrol acetate (Megace, Megace ES)
  • Tamoxifen (Nolvadex)
  • Toremifene (Fareston)

ERCC1 - excision repair cross-complementation group 1

  • Bladder
  • Colorectal
  • Gastric
  • Lung (NSCLC and SCLC)
  • Ovarian
  • Carboplatin (Paraplatin)
  • Oxaliplatin (Eloxatin)

HER2/HER2neu/ErbB-2 - individuals epidermal development factor receptor 2 (*)

  • Breast
  • Colorectal
  • Gastric
  • Gastroesophageal
  • Ovarian
  • Doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Rubex)
  • Epirubicin (Ellence)
  • Lapatinib (Tykerb)
  • Liposomal doxorubicin (Caelyx, Myocet),
  • Trastuzumab (Herceptin)

KRAS - Kirsten murine sarcoma virus (*)

  • Colon
  • NSCLC
  • Pancreatic
  • Cetuximab (Erbitux)
  • Erlotinib (Tarceva)
  • Gefitinib (Iressa)
  • Panitumumab (Vectibix)

MGMT - O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase

  • Breast
  • Glioblastoma multiforme (brain)
  • Melanoma
  • NSCLC
  • Oesophageal
  • Oligodendrogliomas
  • Pituitary gland carcinoma
  • Resistant to temozolomide (Temodar)

MRP1 - multidrug resistance-associated protein 1

  • Breast
  • Head and neck
  • Lymphoma
  • Resistant to doxorubicin (Adrimycin), vinca alkaloids, methotrexate (Trexall)

PGP - p-glycoprotein

  • Breast
  • Head and neck
  • Lymphoma
  • Ovarian
  • Resistant to doxorubicin (Adriamycin), epirubicin (Ellence), liposomal-doxorubicin (Doxil), paclitaxel (Taxol), docetaxel (Taxotere), vinblastine (Velban), vincristine (Oncovin), vinorelbine (Navelbine)

PIK3CAО± - phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha

  • Breast
  • Colorectal
  • Gastric
  • Glioblastoma
  • Lung
  • Ovarian
  • Lapatinib (Tykerb)
  • Resistant to cetuximab (Erbitux), panitumumab (Vectibix)
  • Decreased response to trastuzumab (Herceptin)

PR - progesterone receptor (*)

  • Breast
  • Female genital tract cancer
  • Ovarian
  • Anastrozole (Arimidex)
  • Exemestane (Aromasin)
  • Foremifene (Fareston)
  • Fulvestrant (Faslodex)
  • Gonadorelin (Factrel)
  • Goserelin (Zoladex)
  • Letrozole (Femara)
  • Leuprolide (Eligard, Lupron, Viadur)
  • Medroxyprogesterone (Provera, Amen, Curretab, Cycrin)
  • Megestrol acetate (Megace, Megace ES)
  • Tamoxifen (Nolvadex)

PTEN - phosphatase and tensin homolog

  • Breast
  • Colon
  • Glioblastoma
  • Head and neck
  • NSCLC
  • Resistant to cetuximab (Erbitux), erlotinib (Tarceva), gefitinib (Iressa), panitumumab (Vectibix), trastuzumab (Herceptin)

RRM1- ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1

  • NSCLC
  • Pancreatic
  • Decreased reaction to gemcitabine (Gemzar), hydroxyurea (Hydrea, Droxia)

SPARC - secreted health proteins acidic abundant with cysteine

  • Breast
  • Gastric
  • Head and neck
  • Melanoma
  • Pancreatic
  • Albumin-bound paclitaxel/nab-paclitaxel (Abraxane)

TLE3 - transducin-like enhancer of split

  • Breast
  • Ovarian
  • Docetaxel (Taxotere )
  • Paclitaxel (Taxol),

TOPO2О± - topoisomerase IIО±

  • Breast
  • Colon
  • SCLC
  • Ovarian
  • Doxorubicin (Adriamycin)
  • Epirubicin (Ellence, Pharmorubucin)
  • Liposomal doxorubicin (Caelyx, Myocet)

TS - thymidylate synthetase

  • Breast
  • Colon
  • Gastric
  • Head and neck
  • Liver
  • NSCLC
  • Pancreatic
  • Resistant to 5-fluorouracil (Adrucil), cytarabine (Cytosar-U), pemetrexed (Alimta)

TUBB3 - Course III -tubulin

  • NSCLC
  • Ovarian
  • Docetaxel (Taxotere )
  • Paclitaxel (Taxol)
  • Vinorelbine (Navelbine)

(*) - Targetable genes and protein that can even be measured to determine treatment response, tumors medical diagnosis and prognosis.

Diagnostic and prognostic markers

The following markers are all related to medical diagnosis, prognosis and treatment progress.

Known marker

Associated cancer

Role

О± (alpha)-fetoprotein

  • Germ cell
  • Liver

Germ cell tumour staging, prognosis, reaction to treatment

Liver cancer identification, reaction to treatment

О (beta)-2-microglobulin

  • Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)
  • Lymphoma
  • Multiple myeloma

Prognosis, response to treatment

О (beta)-individual chorionic gonadotropin (О-hCG)

  • Choriocarcinoma (uterine)
  • Testicular

Staging, prognosis, reaction to treatment

BCR-ABL fusion gene

  • Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML)

Diagnosis, disease position monitoring

BRAF (mutation V600E)

  • Colorectal
  • Melanoma

Response to targeted treatment

CA15-3/CA27. 29

  • Breast

Treatment success, disease recurrence

CA19-9

  • Bile duct
  • Gallbladder
  • Gastric
  • Pancreatic

Treatment success

CA-125

  • Ovarian

Diagnosis, treatment response, disease recurrence

Calcitonin

  • Medullary thyroid

Diagnosis, treatment success, disease recurrence

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

  • Breast
  • Colorectal

Breast cancers recurrence, treatment response

Colorectal disease advance

CD20

  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)

Response to targeted treatment

Chromogranin A (CgA)

  • Neuroendocrine tumours

Diagnosis, treatment response, disease recurrence

Chromosomes 3, 7, 17, 9p21

  • Bladder

Disease recurrence

Cytokeratin fragments 21-1

  • Lung

Disease recurrence

Fibrin/fibrinogen

  • Bladder

Treatment response

Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4)

  • Ovarian

Disease progression, disease recurrence

Immunoglobulins (antibodies)

  • Multiple myeloma (MM)
  • Waldenstr¶m macroglobulinemia (bloodstream)

Diagnosis, treatment response, disease recurrence

Lactate dehydrogenase

  • Germ cell tumours

Staging, prognosis, treatment response

Nuclear matrix necessary protein 22

  • Bladder

Treatment response

Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1)

  • Breast

Grading, treatment planning

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

  • Prostate

Diagnosis, treatment response, disease recurrence

Thyroglobulin

  • Thyroid

Treatment response, disease recurrence

Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)

  • Breast

Grading, treatment planning

Meta description

Cancer markers can help with the analysis and treatment of cancer and can give usage of targeted solutions.

Keywords

Cancer markers, genetic markers, diagnostic markers, drug target markers

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Checked Sep 2014

CIGNPOST: KNOWN MARKERS AND WHAT THEY MEAN FOR TREATMENT Cignpost Ltd 2014PTime | 1

[EB1]If these are genes not protein they should maintain italics

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