Power of Advertising Essay

Keywords: the power of advertising article, superstar endorsement essay

Advertising is a kind of communication designed to effect an audience to buy or take some action upon products, services or ideals. It includes the name of a product or service and exactly how that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade a target market to purchase or to consume that particular brand.

1. 1 Qualifications of Study

1. 1. 1 The Importance / Vitality of Advertising

Nowadays, many companies are employing advertisement to get customers and it takes on an important role during product or services life levels. It's very difficult for an organization to promote their new product or services if they do the promotion with out a proper. For instance, during introduction stage, the company needs to make certain the advertisement is of interest and in a position to deliver the new ideas to the customers as well as able to move to the second level, which is the progress stage. The development of the products or services highly depends on the advertisement. The final level is the decline stage. In addition, it must do more advertising or advertising to keep the customers interest on the products or services. If the company fails to achieve this, then your sales of the products will decrease and the business will suffer loss. From this, we can conclude that how important advertisements is which is the most influencing tool among other marketing tools.

Companies can make different press of ad, such as through advertising in paper, magazine, online and so forth. It really is all depend on the price that the business is ready and happy to pay. In the modern advertising strategies, various charm such as intimate, shock, emotional, fear, and humors are included. These appeals have a tendency to raise high brand recognition and brand acceptance among a huge audience. However, when using any of these appeals there is always a person included either someone mysterious or generally a favorite person. According to (McCracken, 1989), a well-known person tends to have a greater effect on the consumer buying patterns.

1. 1. 2 The Celebrity Involve in Advertising

The reason behind using superstars as endorsers is due to their huge potential influence. Compared to other endorser types, celebrities achieve an increased degree of attention and recall. They increase knowing of a company's advertising, create positive feelings towards brands and are recognized by consumers as more amusing. Besides, by using a star in advertising is much more likely to positively impact consumers' brand behaviour and purchase goal.

The movie star endorser is a ubiquitous feature of modern marketing. In fact, to use an endorsement by stars is not a new trend (Mehulkumar, 2005). For present purpose, the star endorser is defined as any individual who enjoys general population reputation and who uses this identification with respect to a consumer good by appearing with it within an advertisement.

Besides, celebrities own an ability to copy their image to a particular product that being advertised. Many companies have came to the realization the value of movie star endorsement as a marketing communication tool. Through the use of these advertising tools, a corporation generates a higher awareness among a larger audience as well as an increased market share in a nutshell run. Besides, the superstar endorsement may materially improve financial profits for companies that employ them in their advertising campaigns.

The need for super star endorsers, however, does not lie in the actual fact that they are being used by firms who wish to increase revenue, but in how these superstars add value to a firm, brand or product. Superstars add value through the process of meaning copy. The meaning transfer model shows that celebrities create a persona through the types of assignments they play in world as well as the way they are portrayed in the mass media. Collectively, the culturally constituted modern culture then assigns signifying to superstars (Amos, 2008). When superstars endorse a product, the meaning developed around a particular celebrity will - or at least it is hoped for by marketers - copy to a firm, brand, or product. Thus, whenever a consumer recognizes with a movie star (id occurs whenever a person is willing to accept effect from another person) (Kelman, 2006), he/she expenses the merchandise in the desire of claiming a few of these transferred meanings for their own lives.

1. 2 Research Problem

International brands nowadays need advertising campaign because it really helps to improve sales, and this content of advertisements typically focused on endorser. However the culture of ad is differing, an endorsed advertisement should not only consider the types and nationality of endorser, but also the superstar endorser/product fit.

The success of your advertisement depends upon the selection of an endorser. The endorser must be effectively chosen to be able to deliver the right subject matter to the general public. For example Anlene in India, whose target audience is parents over 35 (and chiefly women) is being endorsed by dancer Mallika Sarabhai in another ad that uses Bharatanatyam to focus attention on the product. It really is impossible to work with the young celebrity to endorse the product because the target market is above 35 years old. Deciding on the best endorser increase customers self-assured towards the products, and at the same time, the sales will be increased as well.

Finding a right endorser is a significant difficult task; they could or might not bring benefit to the company. First, super star source trustworthiness is one of the factors; it had been divided into many types of reliability such as attractiveness, trustworthiness, expertise and so on. Some discussion has arisen that it is useless if company established of these movie star source credibility but some support it. In this type of situation, which kind of endorser appeared to be better? So far there is absolutely no certain answer for this question.

Second problem that will affect the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement advertisement is endorser's nationality. Actually, some international companies believe it is more suitable to employ well-known international superstars such as musicians and artists and model as endorsers for advertising purpose, for case: LV and DKNY. However, some brands think that different country or place has different culture; therefore different endorser should be used. For instance Nike will choose their local sport celebrities such as JORDAN as endorsers in the us but in Asia countries, they'll use Asian sport celebrities like Nakata Hidetoshi.

Next is movie star endorser/product fit. For guide, NBA legend Yao Ming first came out on the China telecommunication company, China Unicom's CDMA cellular phone advertisements as endorser, some doubted that Yao Ming who residing in USA really used the talked about mobile before? Can his sporty and fresh image help shape a good brand image for CDMA? Of course, China Unicom only can take Yao Ming's fame under consideration and did not examine the fit of Yao Ming's endorsement for CDMA mobile phone.

In facts, even JORDAN, a famous international superstar is not ideal for each brand. The internal link between brand and brand endorser depends upon brand factor. The components of a brand decide which kind of endorser should be invited, if indeed they do not match, there will be greater damage on the brand.

Research Declaration:

  • How the movie star endorsement advertisement is effective approach to advertising?
  • What is the impact or effect of star endorsement advert towards the clients?
  • What are the most crucial source effects of super star endorsement?
  • What is the influence of endorser's nationality super star endorsement effectiveness?
  • What effect does the movie star endorser/product fit have on star endorsement efficiency?

As conclusion, I'd like to solve these problems by giving questionnaires to the clients in hypermarket (Malacca) and compile all the answers to produce a clear report. Besides, I also would like to find some publications or articles from internet to confirm my declaration and eliminate my wrong perception.

1. 3 Objective of study

  • To identify the most crucial source effects of celebrity endorsement ad.
  • To identify the impact of endorser's nationality on star endorsement advertisement efficiency.
  • To investigate the result super star endorser/product fit have on superstar endorsement advertisement effectiveness.
  • To identify the factors that influencing the potency of celebrity endorsement advertisement.

This review brings a lot of advantages because nowadays companies like to use celebrities to advertise their products. Through this review, companies can understand how to choose the right superstar as an endorser to gain higher degree of attention. They can do some research by reading this study to get the idea on what exactly are the factors that may influence the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement advert. The product success is mostly depending on endorser because customers will get fascinated by the endorser first. So, choosing the right celebrity as endorser is the key part to marketing their product.

Besides, this analysis also brings some benefits to customer. This study allows us to know that celebrity had the ability to transfer their image to a particular product that has been advertised. Superstars add value through the process of meaning transfer which is stars create a persona through the types of tasks they play in contemporary society. Customers will purchases the merchandise in trust of claiming some of these transferred meanings for their own lives. But, some companies possessed done some mistakes such as using the wrong endorser because of their product. It may affect the understanding of the customers. Through this research, customer may get smart by knowing which products are employing the not appropriate movie star. They will not promise the transferred interpretation blindly.

From this review, we know that it's very important because by using the right super star as endorser is vital. It may reveal the product development. We also can learn the factors such as source credibility, endorser's nationality, super star endorser/product fit may have an effect on the effectiveness of advertisement by using star. This study will give us a basic idea and knowledge if we are thinking about marketing products.

1. 4 Justification

This study was created to discover the affects of source effects, nationality of endorsers and star/product fit on the celebrity endorsement performance. The purpose for this study is to acquire better understanding towards endorser's nationality and easily fit into advertising culture. Source ramifications of endorser are measured corresponding to three main sizes of source credibility of endorsers proposed by Ohanian(1991). The potency of the advertisement is highly based on the customers emphasis. We have to have better understanding towards the merchandise target market in order to find the right endorser.

There is some difficulty by doing this study since there is no current research. The latest author found for this issue is just about year 2000. The reason behind me to choose this issue is basically because there are many companies like to use celebrities as an endorser for their product. The existing issue is that don't assume all endorser would work to be an endorser of a product. We are to determine the factors that may affect the potency of advertisement, not only using any superstars although some might not be effective. That is an important issue where it directly affects the merchandise being marketed.

1. 5 Methodology

This research will be sorted out into 3 chapters and the format of each chapter is really as follows:

Chapter 1

(Introduction)Chapter you are the introduction because of this study which explains to us about the importance of advertising and the star involve in advertising. A well-known person tends to have a greater influence on the buyer buying behavior but the situation is that don't assume all endorser would work to be an endorser of a product. We are to discover the factors that could affect the effectiveness of advertisement, not merely using any stars although some might not be effective. That is an important concern where it directly affects the merchandise being publicized.

Chapter 2

(Books Review)Chapter two is the literature review which reviews days gone by studies which have been done by the analysts related to it. This chapter will make clear clearly about the centered and independent variables. The based mostly variable is star endorsement effectiveness as the independent variables are celebrity source credibility, celebrity endorser's nationality and super star endorser/product fit.

Chapter 3

(Research Mythology)Chapter three is the research methodology which shows the steps used conducting the survey such as research, offering questionnaires, data collection etc. To ensure the research finding to become more precise and correct, this review relied on both key and secondary data. On this study, the descriptive research which is a type of conclusive research that has its major target or information of something will be used.



Celebrities are people who enjoy general population recognition by a large talk about of a certain group of men and women (Christina, 2003). Whereas attributes like attractiveness, astonishing lifestyle or special skills are just illustrations and specific common characteristics can't be observed, it can be said that in just a corresponding cultural group superstars generally differ from the cultural norm and enjoy a high amount of public awareness (Wikipedia, 2010).

Celebrity Endorsers:

McCracken (1989) has defined super star endorser as "anybody who enjoys public cognition and who uses this cognition on behalf of a consumer by appearing with in an advertisement".

Meaning Copy Model:

McCracken (1989) suggested a meaning transfer model that is composed of three subsequent stages. First, this is associated with the famous person moves from the endorser to the product or brand. Thus, meanings attributed to the super star become from the brand in the consumer's mind. Finally, in the consumption process, the brand's interpretation is bought by the client. The third level of the model explicitly shows the importance of the consumer's role in the process of endorsing brands with famous people.

Ohanian(1990) established the foundation credibility model and defined skills as "the degree to which a communicator is recognized to be always a source of valid assertions" and Trustworthiness as "the degree of self-confidence in the communicator's objective to speak the assertions he considers most valid". Source attractiveness does not send only to physical attractiveness but also related to three more basic concepts: similarity, familiarity, and preference.

Negative Movie star Information

Repeated pairings of any brand and celebrity strengthen the associative hyperlink consumers build between brand and movie star, negative information about the super star may negatively impact the endorsed brand (Erdogan, Baker, & Tagg, 2001)

1. 6 Delimitation of Scope

  • This study consists of few current journals or study. The current author had found is just about yr 2000. So, it is quite difficult to find the publications later than season 2005.
  • This research's opportunity will focus on purchasers in Malacca who got exposed to adverts and become decision machine during shopping. These shoppers were mostly approached at hypermarkets or malls in Malacca.
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