Prevention of disease

Introduction:

Prevention of any disease causing agent at livestock farm by managemental mechanisms and procedures is recognized as biosecurity. Due to increased incidence of several foreign and emerging diseases such as FMD and Avian Influenza has managed to get of major concern. Biosecurity is basic phenomena in disease avoidance at farm. there are extensive factors that contribute towards disease at livestock plantation. Their list includes

  • Farm visitors
  • Veterinarians themselves
  • Regulatory personnel
  • Dead stock collectors
  • Friends

all of these should understand the value of biosecurity. if any one of these will not aware of biosecurity he will ultimately contribute to make himself and creature susceptible to disease.

May be it's possible a person carrying disease visit multiple farms in one day and may benefit other farms. As a result of which the disease can multiply entirely country. So today there is certainly need to build up certain mechanisms and functions to minimize the probability of disease occurance. and this can be done by making use of qualified and activities staff at plantation which include plantation supervisor, farm supervisors, nutrition and extension specialists, Because various issues in practical implementation for avoidance of disease are due to the fact that majority of livestock farms are been able by illiterate and ignorant individuals who ignore the basic principles of biosecurity and sanitation. inappropriate sanitation provides the ideal environment to bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi and offer shelter to bacteria. Proper sanitation identify the causes of all preventable diseases and make those causes inadequate to distributed diseases. By this creature can are in the favorable conditions of life with provision of clean normal water, good ventilation and well sanitize sheds.

There are four basic steps in reduction of disease.

  • Proper vaccination
  • Detection of disease
  • Removal of intermediate hosts
  • Control meseaure for infectious disease

Disease results from the involvement of infectious agent in the farm in outs and farm outputs. Farm inputs includes the fitness of animal, housing cleanliness, feed and drinking water hygiene. plantation out sets includes the farm visitors, untamed life and browsing vehicles. Farm input and outputs both should be manipulated for protection of disease.

Whenever there is breakage in biosecurity process the infectious agent infects creature which sheds agent in environment (foods, normal water, cover) and ultimately make animal vunerable to disease. It is shown in pursuing diagram,

Biosecurity escalates the death rate of germs, minimizing chance of illness. Bioseurity not only prevent disease in this way but also enhances the reduction by sanitation of plantation premises, by maintaining close herd and by eliminating the natural and mechanical carrier of disease. Bioseurity helps us to avoid the disease creating providers inside the plantation and stops those to enter at farm but one thing keep in brain that close observation and biosecurity options should be implemented at continuous basis.

Biosecurity plan

For prevention of disease an effective Biosecurity plan and its accurate implementation is necessary at plantation. Biosecurity plan restricts the probability of disease occurance. It inhibits pathogens from joining through different routes of transmitting.

Biosecurity can be shattered through some of following routes shown in diagram below.

A biosecurity plan consists of isolation, traffic control and sanitation.

At first isolate animal according to time and creation. Isolate sick family pets for at least a month plus they should be separately feeded. They should be properly vaccinated relating to appropriate vaccination programme to create immunity against infectious diseases. Basic purpose of isolation is to control the visitors decrease contact between disease and healthy family pets. New pets or animals should pass through process of quarantine remember that new canine are most significant risk to biosecurity.

Secondly control the tourists and vehicles that regularly visit your farm. Only concerned site visitors should be permitted to visit farm. They should be properly dressed up wearing coveralls and gum boots. Vehicles should be properly cleaned and disinfected before access. Vehicles should be free from any unwanted material that can cause disease.

Adequate fencing should be provided for cover of pets against wild life and neighboring herds.

Lastly ensure sanitation at livestock farm. Sanitation minimizes the consequences of infectious agents by adapting hygienic methods and retaining health position of dog. Provide proper lightning and ventilation in animal sheds. Clean bedding also needs to provided. Adopt all the sanitary conditions to ensure a wholesome calf at beginning. Good hygienic conditions for young dog are essential in both safeguarding health insurance and future revenue. Sanitation should be carried out in all respects including plantation equipments, farm staff, farm visiting vehicles. Milking should be achieved in hygienic environment. both milking man and milk collecting utensils should be clean. Teats should be dipped regularly and don't handle udder with dried out hand since it will lead to chapping of udder.

Disinfection is process to kill all bacteria and parasites with the aid of specific chemical substances. Disinfection should be extensively completed. Before disinfection a thorough cleaning of building is essential to assist in disinfection. Devices (hoof knives, clippers, dehorners) are main way to obtain cross contaminants so, should be disinfected before and after use. There must be separate equipment that are to be used on disease and healthy family pets. As the infectious agencies are very small and they become indefinite in particles, breaks and crevices and areas of complexes. so, disinfection should be achieved with extreme attention and focus on kill all the life span threatening bacterial, parasitic, fungal and viral agents. At a limited area disinfectant can be employed with help of brush while for a huge area disinfectant can be applied by spraying on that area. Some disinfectants are really irritating to eyes and pores and skin so person applying disinfectant should wear gloves to safeguard pores and skin and goggles to protect eyes.

Disinfectants commonly available in market are pyodine (iodine), parachlorometoxylenol (dettole), methylated soul, and carbolic acid or phenol. They can be purchased in low cost. Some insecticides are also available that are applied externally to kill ticks, mites and fleas on dog body. Included in these are coal tar, petroleum and nicotine.

Employee clothing should be continually washed with detergents. . In addition to disinfectant the sanitizer can also increase death count of infectious agents and decrease their population. A sanitizer eliminates about 99. 9 percent of most bacterias, fungi and trojans.

Disinfectants are labeled into three types sunlight, heat(hot air, steam, fireplace) and chemical disinfectants. Chemical disinfectants are further classified into three types compounds (pot. permnganate), alkalies(pot. hydrooxide, limesoln) and acids(boric acids, carbolic acids). classification of disinfectants is shown below in diagram

Conclusion

Biosecurity can be an important step towards preventing disease before its occurance as elimination is better than treat. Biosecurity play a substantial role in development of healthy and profitable livestock.

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