Problems With USAGE OF Pesticides An Environmental Sciences Essay

Since more than 4 million years and pests found on the surface of the earth episode humans and harm it to occur to him immediately and indirectly, plus they began trying to get rid of these insects, consider how to exterminate them and eliminate harm brought on was trying to reduce manual methods by merging, killing and The first use of pesticides is the utilization of chemical poisons of arsenic, especially arsenate of business lead and other heavy elements, and was the 3rd arsenic oxide substances very toxic to bugs and humans and continues to be used in some third world countries and emerged article cyanide and mercury chemical substances it was all in the seventeenth century until the nineteenth.

Plant smoking and the nicotine extracted out of this and employed by man in the fight insects, even in the very beginning of the twentieth century and, sadly, despite our understanding of the toxicity of this article but many people smoke cigars, consisting of nicotine.

Rotenone get the human material and its own derivatives from the roots of plants which material was found in the fight against lots of the pests e. g. this root base of this plant was brought in to USA 10 million lots in 1951 fell to 6 million plenty in 1955.

In the first forties and the beginning of World War II, we joined the first symptoms of organic and natural pesticides and are Chlorinated hydrocarbon materials and was considered a jump in the wonderful world of pesticides when it was learned chemical substance DDT it was magician in the time in the recovery German armies and the European diseases of plague, which toppled a number of military than of died because of conflict have spread one of the troops as fleas and lice, no way to eliminate these insects only pesticide DDT and has been for Found out Honor superpower,

Was accompanied by Aldrin and chlorine substances are highly toxic and impact all of those other long as you can to remain in the surroundings for many years. Even our anatomies and our bloodstream polluted with these materials, despite ceased to be utilized since the early on eighties;

these materials remain transmitted from moms through milk and umbilical wire and inherit these waste from technology to generation because of build up in all living microorganisms.

However Discovery was made in the world of pesticides are organ phosphorus ingredients, and during the Second World Conflict, like chlorinated carbon substances, which remain used in tones this moment in every our lives in areas and homes and farms, even in our store of e. g. whole wheat and beans.

Pesticide pollution

pesticides is a chemical or substances blended use to avoid or minimize damage caused by insects and fungal microbe infections and jungle plant life (natural herbs) and rodents, birds, pigs, rabbits yet others.

And may have added to these substances in increasing and enhancing production through preventing agricultural pests in different fields, warehouses and stores, also played out an important role in lowering diseases transmitted to humans and pets by bugs and rodents such as malaria and typhoid, and plague and other diseases and external parasites and other interior spite of the numerous benefits associated with pesticides they focus on the pollution of the environment, and stability substance high for a few pesticides, chlorinated and mercury can stay for years in nature, the disassembly after use, which increases the risks and also build up in the cells of crops.

Causing fungi and bacterias and different bugs lots of the hazards of agricultural plants and then move this to the injured and pest creature and human, your there have been many insects, bacteria and fungi with great advantage to the objects, and the ecosystem.

It is also absolutely helped the elimination of pesticides, large levels of the problems that occur by bugs, but after the accumulation of these pesticides in the tissue of these organisms have become pesticide problem facing the entire world as a whole appeared significantly impacts of varied negative.

Hydrocarbon pesticides Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, The researchers have done the installation of numerous pesticides and including carbon, hydrogen and chlorine so named these substances with Chlorinated Hydrocarbons and DDT and that Adrian and chlordane and other Chlordane but as it happens over time of problems.

These include:

highly poisonous: These chemical substances are not poisonous optional thus impacting the beneficial organisms from seafood and birds and other and from samples in the condition of Illinois in america used these compounds to eliminate the beetle Japanese were advancing towards the western, causing death many migratory birds and migration and the death of the rest of the 90% of felines poisoned as many farms of cattle and rabbits, also found they kill the predatory bugs which control the numbers of harmful insects, as well concerning build up in the tissue of the organism, leading to destruction of structure anatomically and functionally.

Slow disintegration: Many materials have the ability to bio-disintegration while pesticides that have been created with an extremely slow dissolution rate of 10-15 years old, it remains toxic all that point, the problem is the fact spraying nearly every year.

dissolve in unwanted fat: Any form materials with fat which makes things that are deposited in cells Gallery of loss of life when feeding upon this excessive fat, such as migratory birds when they burn off stored unwanted fat for energy

Problems caused by pesticides

despite the refrain from the utilization of certain pesticides for more than 10 years in plant cultivated in the land that still contains the remains of these pesticides, and the largest problems facing the export crops to contain pesticide residues, the earth which exists by the pesticide will steps them to the roots and fruits then to pets and humans. Therefore difficult to obtain on a sample of place products do not contain the remains of pesticides. As are pesticides for food during the phase of storage space and preservation as a result of pesticide spraying stores or gaseous or vaporized pesticide mixing up seed products in high concentrations of pesticides which are very dangerous by using food.

Impact on the place: discovered that the utilization of pesticides could also result in a poor impact on vegetation in terms of changing the colour of newspaper or the power of transpiration and affect on the process of photosynthesis, e. g. pesticides used to exterminate the weeds on the factors of railway lines and public streets and follow this pesticide impact in two ways.

Contaminated surface drinking water and groundwater with pesticides in a number of ways

( Agricultural drainage drinking water plays a part in the pollution of river water and pesticides seep in to the groundwater, Factories dumping misuse pesticides in water, Spray planes add right to the pollution of waterways, Buried waste plants in the sea ).

It is intended to water pollution damage or problem to the grade of water resulting in an imbalance in the system in one way or the other, thereby reducing their capacity to perform its natural role, and helps it be lose a whole lot of economical value and cause health and environmental damage. Polluted water through a number of human waste materials (animals, vegetables, or industrial chemicals).

the most important sources of clean water from pollution is wells, therefore of the particular soil of any nomination for its waters, but this opinion has begun to improve now in many cases, the wells used near to the top of Earth, which escalates the chance of contamination biological or substance.

The profound wells, which increases the depth of 40-50 ft, they have less likelihood of contamination, because water going through in this situation on the porous tiers, working in the water purification and clearance of most of the impurities.

However, before few years, reveal that some pesticides and chemicals started out to find their way into water-bearing levels in the bottom.

the exposure of large companies of the land of fresh normal water to pollution from many options, such as agricultural activities, where in fact the use of drinking water to the old ways, such as immersion or unnecessary use of drinking water, with the misuse of pesticides and fertilizers, to boost the attention of salts and metals, nitrates in groundwater, especially if there is absolutely no modern agricultural drainage systems.

Contamination of red meat, eggs and fish Pesticide residues have become involved in the food string any move from the soil to the herb and in to the animal, and up to the blood vessels and ultimately into the milk and give attention to meat and extra fat as a result of the shortcoming of the devices demolition body to break down the remains of pesticides productivity.

The results show that a high proportion of meats to contain pesticide residues Chlorinated chemical not be used for quite some time.

As for fishes the pesticides complete the exchange of agricultural pollution of freshwater resources and pollution. Most fish are capable of attention of pesticides in their meats.

Impact on earth: the pesticide into the dirt after spraying, which affects the soil framework and the items of the bacteria attached to the nitrogen and potential access to groundwater with rainfall and garden soil erosion.

Fig:

Ref: http://eng. me. go. kr/content. do?method=moveContent&menuCode=res_kid_wat_sic_why

Impact on Beneficial pests: the pesticides do not discriminate between things of unsafe and beneficial and lead to the death of bugs which are advantageous, cause an imbalance in the ecological balance of natural environments and then lead to the pass on of harmful pests and are growing also build up through feeding on plants polluted with pesticide.

Impact on the individuals: it's possible that pesticides cause many symptoms, including their impact on the anxious system, as well as malignancy, especially liver and comes through build up in vegetation and family pets and then individuals.

Insect level of resistance to pesticides

Insects become tolerant to pesticides significantly and became resisted through low acceleration entry into pressure of the pesticide in to the body of the insect, where in fact the bugs to deliberate adaptations that limit the entry of the pesticide to the insect's body through the mouth and the respiratory system.

Store the pesticide in the tissues of none hypersensitive, it was discovered that a few of the insecticides DDT are stored in fat instead of delicate tissue.

Practical alternatives for pesticide pollution

A group of methods require the utilization of living microorganisms in order to reduce the damage caused by other organisms harmful to humans or family pets or vegetation.

Methods of biological control

1 - The usage of predatory insects, wild birds and other

2 - use spam, viruses and fungus

3 - use of the materials attractive or repellent

4 - sterilization of hazardous pests (disable the reproductive system)

In the case of vegetables and fruits using washing process

its common procedures in the control of vegetables & fruits, and some research has remarked that 17% of the DDT, while it did not flourish in taking away any amount of parathion.

In the case of beef and fish need to get rid of chicken skin, liver organ and extra fat before cooking food, where pesticides are concentrated there.

In circumstance of environment many poisonous chemicals vanish under UV light and turn into compounds less harmful and a risk to the environment from the original compounds. The speed of vanishing of pesticides in water bodies is high close to the surface and less the greater depth; this is shown on the 1 / 2 life and play of light power and length of sunshine role an important role in this regard as different rates of vanishing of the DDT Include connections in different conditions.

Pesticides and their application

And is offered by today's time a great deal of methods and tools apply pesticides to control pests of various kinds. For the nice of the pest control is required the distribution of the pesticide on the homogeneous syndication in space to be provided by the pesticide, and the application process to become successful must be a good selection of the means or the machine that applied the pesticide, It needs to be suitable for this process. The choice of the right tools for the use of the pesticide on the circumstances of the application itself. by means of the pesticide formulation, and on the space or the space to be by the application form, as well as the general conditions that may be prevalent which is facing the slot for the application process. Sometimes opt to use the machines with a sizable force to perform the operation in certain circumstances, may change these conditions to be the best and befitting her to utilize machines and the use of this small manual can be acquired from many machines and devices the application of pesticides. Some are different kinds of weapons.

Fig: 2

Ref: http://www. ces. ncsu. edu/johnston/homehort2/howto. html

machine guns are usually more known tools for program of pesticides used in agriculture as a result of ease of procedure, and reliability and accuracy that characterize the use of pesticides and the primary function of the device is an adequate means of spraying droplets minutes, is spread or distributed on the top of plants or the area they are launched, and operate at the same time to control the amount of fluid sense of these to give a degree of it on the area sprayed.

Spray planes Increasing the use of aeroplanes in the application of pesticides in recent times, because of their advantages aren't available in the mass program of other, as the benefit of spraying aircraft with high-speed, precision large, and cover great areas, in a relatively short time, can't be achieved by terrestrial means, the other with the same accuracy, efficiency and acceleration.

Fig: 3

Ref: http://www. betterlivingshow. org/EarthTalk-green-jobs-pesticides-fertilizers-herbicides-pollution. htm

Spraying pesticides through irrigation

Abounded currently the number of pesticides that can be applied by means of modern irrigation, especially in plants that count on irrigation pivot Central Pivots, this technique is recognized as Herbigation because the first use of this method was with herbicides, but the widespread use of this method in the use of agricultural chemicals generally speaking has called now the name of the irrigation substance Chemigation, where they can be spraying this way, the development means the pesticide in the fertilizer reservoir to the organs pivot, and then injected with the irrigation water through the arm pivot, to reach sites that connect to irrigation water

Application of pesticides by means of modern irrigation is the renewal and development of the idea and applications of the old through overflow irrigation, where located a box of liquid pesticide, outfitted with a valve on the breach of irrigation field, handles the stream of liquid pesticide from the vessel to the current carried to differing of the field, and avoid the cons of the application of pesticides through surface irrigation (flood irrigation), which is usually combined with irregular circulation of irrigation drinking water, as well as the bad environmental effects could result from wastewater contaminated with pesticides left from the overflow irrigation.

The features of the use of pesticides and other agro-chemicals with irrigation water compared to earth through the application form means (e. g. spraying) or a means of trip (aircraft) the following:

1. Precise timing of the application of pesticides.

2. Ease of mixing pesticides with ground and encourage their efficiency.

3. Avoid garden soil compaction and destruction of the robotic plant.

4. Prevent pesticides on workers and farmers.

5. Decrease the need of chemical requirements.

6. Reduce the environmental impact of pesticide.

7. Lack of the monetary costs of pesticide also

In fig 4444 it show Threat of Groundwater pollution by pesticides Country

red: threat of pesticide pollution in GW reported by countries

green: no threat of pesticide pollution in GW reported by countries

Fig: 4444

Ref: http://www. eea. europa. eu/

In fig 1 it show the breakdown of global agrochemical consumption and market value in 1999

Fig: 1

Ref: Agricultural pollution: environmental problems and functional solutions, By Graham Merrington

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