Psychological Basis of Instruction and Counseling

Block Advantages: This is the fifth block of the Course GC-I 'Psychological Basis of Direction and Guidance'. A couple of three units in this stop. The unit headings revolve around the theme of the stop. The items that are part of the block are:

Unit-1 Character and Determinants of Personality

Unit-2 Ideas of Personality: Types and Characteristic Theories

Unit-3 Recent Developments in Understanding Personality: Way of measuring of Personality

The first unit entitled 'Character and Determinants of Personality' handles the nature of personality, its interpretation and definition. The various definitions given by psychologists are discussed at length. Also the many determinants of personality like genetic, social and cultural factors are reviewed. Furthermore the role of the school, parents, etc in the shaping of personality is reviewed.

The second product handles the theories of personality. It identifies the role of theory in understanding personality. Ideas adopting the characteristic and type way are explained at length. Beneath the type ideas, the typology provided by Hippocrates, Kretschmer, Sheldon and Jung are talked about. Under the trait theory the primary ideas propounded by Allport and Catell are described at length.

The third product deals with the recent styles in understanding personality. It discusses the Sea or the Big Five Theory as also the recent Myers Briggs Type Indication. It also discusses various measurements of personality like the projective lab tests and self article tests. Beneath the projective techniques the Rorschach Ink Blot Test is discussed at length, while under the Self Report, the Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI) is described.

Unit-1 Aspect and Determinants of Personality




Meaning of personality

Definition of personality

Levels of Personality Analysis

Determinant of personality

Genetic Determinants

Social Determinants

Role of the Home

Role of the School

Role of the Teacher

Other determinants

Cultural Determinants

Let us total up


Students of Psychology are quite desperate to learn about personality, either their own or with their friends. There is a general curiosity to understand and explain real human habit and it may become one of the very most enjoyable and challenging queries. We are thinking about knowing why we work, think and feel the way we do? You want to understand ourselves. The greater we understand about personality, the better able we live to guage what motivates people - and ourselves. A lot more we understand about our very own personality and that of other people, the better able we have been to realise how others understand us, and how they respond to our own personality and style.

When we say that our friend is reliable, we could describing his personality. When we characterise others as clever, thoughtful, ambitious etc, we are again describing top features of their personality. These top features of personality that people explained are what make these people different from one another. We usually use adjectives to spell it out personality. There are around more than 20, 000 such adjectives in the British language alone.

When we review personality psychology, we ask the following questions:

What does it mean to be always a person?

How are we unique as individuals?

What is the nature of the home?

Personality psychologists attempt to answer these interesting questions through systematic observations about how exactly and why individuals work as they do. They tend to avoid abstract philosophical or religious musings and focus instead on thoughts, thoughts and behaviours of real people.


After going right through this unit, you ought to be in a position to:

Define Personality

Explain dynamics of personality

Explain various determinants of personality

We frequently use the word 'personality' whenever we are explaining ourselves and others and most of us believe we know very well what this means. For the layperson, personality is identified in terms of social appeal. The individual with a 'good personality' is one who impresses us with his or her capacity to get along well with people. Beauty pageant contestants are usually judged on their physical attractiveness, skill and 'personality'. Here personality is described and judged in conditions of popularity, talent, poise and elegance etc.

1. 3 Interpretation of personality:

Personality can be an abstract principle that takes into account many aspects that characterize or donate to the making of someone's whole personality or what a person would be like. There are numerous aspects that donate to creating a personality. For example emotions, motivations, thoughts, experiences, perceptions, activities and other interior mental procedures that influence the person's habit and which determine how the person will behave or respond in a given situation.

The expression personality comes from the Latin phrase 'persona', which identifies a mask. Stars in dramas in early Greece used this cover up. This persona was visually associated with a superficial public image. In other words, it was related to the outward appearance that actors used to adapt in dramas. Based on this initial understanding of personality, it would mean the visible and exterior characteristics of the individual, which are visible to others.

Now a fascinating question arises-Is that we mean by the term personality? Are we only worried about the superficial personality? Surely, we would say no, personality is much more beyond this impression.

1. 4 Classification of personality:

Different psychologists explain personality from other own perspective. The thing is how to determine a explanation that encompasses all the aspects like internal features, communal aspects, characteristics of mind and body, inner goals etc.

Carl Rogers described personality in conditions of personal, an organized permanent, subjectively perceived entity, which is at the very center of most our experiences.

For Erik Erikson, life proceeds in terms of a series of psychosocial crises, with personality a function with their outcome.

George Kelly regarded personality as the individual's unique way of making sense out of life activities.

Cattell detailed the core framework of personality as comprising of 16 source attributes. These definitions signify that personality is just not a superficial social image; rather it is very good beyond this. It refers to the more significant, essential and enduring qualities of a person.

One of a lot more comprehensive explanations of personality has been propounded by Allport, who defines personality as ' the total of all natural innate dispositions, impulses, tendencies, appetites and intuition of the individual and the obtained dispositions and tendencies obtained by experience'.

Check your progress 1:

What will be the various aspects that donate to creating a personality?

How has Allport described personality?

State whether the following assertions are true or false

Persona identifies a cover up worn during dramas. True / False

Cattell represents the core framework of personality as 16 source characteristics True / False

Levels of Personality Evaluation: Personality can be analysed at three levels. As Kluckhohn and Murray described, every individual is in certain respects:

Like all others (the human nature level)

Like some others (the level of individual and group distinctions)

Like no others (the average person uniqueness level)

The first level of personality research is descriptive of individuals nature generally speaking this is the qualities etc of personality that are typical of the types and are possessed by almost everyone. This may include terminology, or other common dreams like the desire to live with others etc. The next level pertains to the individual and group distinctions. This includes the person differences that people have in terms of loves, motivations, goals etc. Furthermore, this also includes differences between groupings, wherein people belonging to one group may have personality features in common within the group and different from those belonging to other organizations. These differences could maintain the form of age, sex, ethnicities, socio-economic backgrounds etc. The 3rd level of evaluation of individual uniqueness, highlights that every individual has personal qualities and personality not distributed by anybody. Thus these three levels of analyses help in a comprehensive understanding of personality.

1. 6 Determinant of personality:

How will the personality develop? What are the factors that donate to the introduction of personality? What are the factors that shape a person's personality are a few of the questions that need to be solved. Before answering these questions, it's important to take into consideration the debates bordering the determinants. Some psychologists have emphasized the value of heredity in the introduction of personality while some have emphasized on the impact of environment on personality. As a matter of fact, there is absolutely no clear evidence on either of both being more important than the other. Man personality is a product of both heredity and environment. Heredity supplies the raw materials while environment provides actual form to the personality.

It is important to realize that no-one fully knows the amount to which personality depends upon genetics and hereditary factors, compared to the ramifications of up-bringing, culture, environment and experience. Most studies seem to be to indicate that it is a bit of every, roughly half and one half, although definitely it differs from person-to-person. It could safely and securely be said that perhaps 1 / 2 of our personality depends upon influences acting after us after we are conceived and blessed. An infant is born with certain potentialities. The development of these potentialities will depend on various factors that give condition to personality. Although all activities are individual and subjective, yet there are two collections of experiences that one may distinguish. The common experiences make reference to those encounters that are distributed by most people growing up in a family group, culture or cultural sub-groups. Unique experiences are those that are unique or personal to the individual. They are not shared by many people. Fundamentally, these are personal experience, for example, criticism or appreciation that an specific has got in his life and which has affected his life.

Besides these there are other factors that are quite important in giving shape to personality.

Genetic Determinants: every cell of the body contains a set of biological plans that permit it to perform its essential functions. This information is within chromosomes, which are composed of DNA. Genes are segments of DNA that serve as the essential unit of the heredity. Our genes built in complex mixtures and along with environmental factors determine significant aspects of our biological make up. Genes do not control behaviour or other aspects of life directly; somewhat, they do so indirectly by impacting on chemical reactions in the brain and other areas of your body.

Heredity is of two types, biological and sociable. Biological heredity is the the one which the kid inherits from his parents and forefathers by means of chromosomes. Community heredity includes everything that one generation inherits from preceding years in the form of social traditions, traditions and skills etc. Heredity and environment both play an important role in the development of personality. Individual personality comes into condition by the connections of heredity and environment. Heredity influences the individual physique, electric motor sensory equipment and level of intelligence. It also affects temperamental characteristics and proneness to diseases.

1. 6. 2 Social Determinants: Environmental influences begin since the time of conception of the child in the womb of the mom. The overall condition of the mom, i. e. , her mental, physical and emotional condition influences the introduction of fetus in her womb. This becomes the inner environment for the child. The effect of the exterior environment starts off when the kid comes into the physical world. Within the communal environment there are several factors that affect the introduction of the personality. Visible among them are the home, college and the educator.

All of us are born similarly regarding our natural needs. The dissimilarities that we have are manufactured from the social environment in which our needs fulfilled. People surviving in hilly locations have a body not the same as those surviving in the plains and coastal regions. Likewise, their method of living, their habits, their diets are also different. These distinctions create distinctive personality characteristics in the folks.

1. 6. 2. 1 Role of the house: Because the first exterior environment that a child experiences is that of the house, the home performs an important role in shaping the personality of a kid during his early infancy. The child will come in close connection with his parents, siblings, and other immediate family members in the house. The child's likes, dislikes, identification of individuals, respond to stimuli, emotional replies etc are conditioned by the contact with the family environment. Early training and early on childhood experiences are essential factors in deciding the personality of any person. It is also seen that deprivation in early on youth imposes serious handicaps on the introduction of the personality. Patterns of mothering, family morale including discords, economic factors like poverty, lack of money to satisfy needs etc also affect the development of personality.

1. 6. 2. 2. Role of the School: After the home, a kid spends a significant percentage of his amount of time in the school. A big percentage of the child's time beginning with era 3+ to around 18 years is put in in the school. A lot of the child's personality has already been shaped in the house before the child would go to the school. Whenever a child enters college, the instructors replace his parents, and the classmates and other friends replace his family environment of siblings and other significant others. The behaviour of the schoolteachers and the other classmates etc performs an important part in the introduction of his personality.

The child proceeds the procedure of acquiring likes and dislikes that was started in the home. He starts to build up and enhance the conception of himself and the outside world. The school poses a fresh challenging environment different from that of the home. The child must accept new types of behaviour, accept new disciplining techniques and conform or rebel, and acquire new patterns of behaviour. Thus the institution exerts considerable effect over the development of a child's personality.

1. 6. 2. 3. Role of the Tutor: As explained earlier, the kid spends a significant proportion of his time in the business of his professors. The teacher can be an important constituent in shaping the personality of the kid. The way a teacher holders and shows the students impacts the future personality of the children. The teacher influences the environment of an classroom. In case the professor is democratic and nurturing he will set up a conducive climate. Alternatively if he is authoritarian and over disciplining, he would create a world of hostility, hostility and annoyance for the kids, thereby restricting the development of a healthy personality of the kids. A democratic create can lead to constructive and creative behaviour patterns among children and permits maximum personality development.

Other determinants: Aside from the above determinants there are a sponsor of other factors that determine the personality of the person. A few of them are explained below:

Language: Language can be an important means through which the users of the modern culture interact and add meaning to objects and behaviours etc. Thus the culture and characteristics of any particular society are sent through language. A child learns the language of his immediate environment, including his family as also its vocabulary and use within specific circumstances. His personality is shaped through his discussion with others in world through the medium of terms. Thus terms becomes a crucial element of personality development.

Social Role: A kid as he grows up comes to acquire several functions, as a kid (child), as a student, as a sibling / sister, as a man / partner, as a worker etc. These functions determine the behavioural anticipations from the individual. It is the successful undertaking of these tasks that determine the easy functioning of a family or society at large. However, the multiple assignments that an specific must play sometimes causes frustration in the person. The personality of a person acquires indicating through the successful undertaking of the assignments that he is likely to perform.

Self Idea: Self-concept is the idea that an specific has of oneself. It is the image or identity that an specific holds for himself. The original self idea of a child is from his knowing of his physicality. The other determinant of the do it yourself theory is the cultural status. Social position determines our way of living, dressing, dietary practices, our interactions, our terms etc. Self notion is an important determinant of personality as a high self strategy could imply that others maintain a positive attitude towards us, which in turn enhances our very own self principle and self-confidence. On the other hand, if others check out us in a negative light, it could create a feeling of worthlessness and may lead to self-defence or withdrawal from society.

Identification: The kid normally imitates the habits of behavior of his parents, siblings and significant others. He tries to work as his parents and significant others behave, the way they talk, just how they walk, the way they interact with others etc. In a nutshell a child desires to end up like his role models whom he blindly imitates. This identification becomes an important determinant in the introduction of his personality.

Inter-personal Relationships: Interpersonal relations make reference to the relationships that participants of modern culture may have towards one another. There may be attraction between customers or there may be hostility or indifference towards each other. The child discovers the habits of inter personal relationships from his immediate environment. He may be drawn towards others and combination freely and display feelings of love, compassion and sympathy. Alternatively, he may project panic, isolation or reduced connection with others. This may lead to the introduction of negative areas of his personality.

Cultural Determinants: The cultural determinants refer to the effect of the total life activities of a society on the person. What folks think or do and feel constitutes culture. Culture is the sum total of the knowledge, beliefs, morals, laws, traditions, capapbilities and behaviors bought by man as an associate of population. Thus it refers to the total life activities of a contemporary society. Individuals around the world have the same natural inheritance, but it is the difference in their ethnical conditions that grows distinctive personality characteristics in the individuals owned by that ethnical group. The traditions, values, rituals, mores, spiritual training, etc of the culture mould the personality of people. The influence of culture is so pervasive that people can identify individuals by the cultural characteristics that they display. Culture is the carrier of the interpersonal traditions and creates a long lasting impression on the personality of the kid. A good example quoted very often is that of similar twins reared in different cultures. It's been seen that the twins display the culture of these rearing as opposed to the culture of the delivery. Thus the impact of culture produces two different types of personalities.

Let us sum up: Within this unit we've studied about this is and dynamics or personality. We've also studied the various determinants of personality like genetic determinants, communal determinants, the role of home, college and teacher, social and other determinants. We've also seen that early childhood encounters have an absolute impact on the introduction of the personality.

Check your improvement 2

What are the different determinants of personality?

Describe the role of the home in the shaping of personality.

State if the following assertions are true or false

Cultural determinants refer to the affect of total life activities of a culture on a person. True / False

Self idea is not an important determinant of personality. True / False

Unit-2 Ideas of Personality: Types and Characteristic Theories

Objectives: After going through this unit, you ought to be in a position to:

Define different theories of personality

Explain types and characteristic theories of personality

Distinguish between types and characteristic ideas of personality


Theories of Personality

The Type Approach

Jungian Type Theory

The Characteristic Approach

Gorden Allport's Characteristic Theory

Cardinal Traits

Central Traits

Secondary Traits

Raymond Cattell Trait Theory

Hans Eysenck Trait Theory

2. 0 Theories of Personality: The analysis of personality is quite amazing. No two folks are same. Even twins created in the same family are not exact look-alike of each other or their parents, differences may appear even among twins and siblings. Different psychologists owned by various schools of thought have defined personality according to their own standpoints.

The basic function of the theory is to describe what is already known and anticipate things not yet known to be true. While describing existing phenomena or predicting, different views may come up. A theory is a set of package of ideas, constructs and ideas proposed to make clear certain observations of truth. It will always be speculative in dynamics and therefore, totally speaking cannot be right or incorrect. Any theory becomes valid and factual only once data supports the theory.

The analysis of personality is important in psychology. The various systems improved to explain human mental and behavioural procedures could be looked at as theories of personality. Theories of personality actually elaborate the notion about what people are like, how they become what they are and why they work as they certainly.

2. 1 The Type Procedure: Ideas propounded by Hippocrates, Kretschmer, Sheldon and Jung belong to this approach. This process states that human being personality can be labeled into different types. For Hippocrates, the body consisted of four types of humours or fluids, the blood, yellow bile, phlegm (mucous) and black bile. The proportion of these liquids in the body can determine the temperamental characteristics of any person. The following table presents the dominant smooth, the matching personality type and its own associated temperamental characteristics.

Dominance of substance enter the body

Personality Type

Temperamental Characteristics



Light hearted, optimistic, happy, jovial, effective, adjusting

Yellow Bile


Angry, irritable, impulsive



Slow, sluggish, cool, lazy

Black Bile


Sad, pessimistic, depressed, dejected

Ernest Kretschmer, a German psychiatrist categorised human beings based on physical structure. The next table presents the physical physique and its various characteristics.



Pyknic (having excessive fat bodies)

Social, jolly, good natured, easy going, popular

Asthenic (

Weak, thin, hypersensitive, pessimistic, unsociable, shy

Athletic (balanced body)

Strong, energetic, optimistic


Mixed type

Sheldon also categorized the personalities based on the body types as Ernest Kretschmer. His classification similar to the Kretschmer is given below:


Body Type



Soft, rounded, fatty

Viscerotonic( sociable, extrovert, affectionate, love to enjoy)


Muscular and strong

Somatotonic (dynamic, bashful, assertive, boastful, adventurous)


Thin and tall

Cerebrotonic (fearful, introvert, timid, unsocial, reserved)

2. 1. 1 Jung in addition has offered a sort classification of personality. Matching to him, all human beings can be labeled into two distinctive types, introvert and extrovert. Introverts tend to be timid, aloof, dislike social gatherings, do it yourself centred people who go after their own passions. Alternatively, extroverts are those who tend to be interpersonal, jolly, outgoing and friendly. There exists another type, that is utilized with regards to Jung's type, the ambivert, folks who are neither introvert nor extrovert.

Jung approached personality and 'mental health types' from a point of view of medical psychoanalysis. Jung asserted a person's psychological make-up is always focusing on two levels: the conscious and the unconscious. According to Jung, someone's 'psyche' (a person's 'full being') is symbolized by their mindful and unconscious parts. Moreover, a person's mindful and unconscious states are in ways 'self-balancing', in other words, if a person's conscious side (or 'attitude') becomes dominating or extreme, then your unconscious will surface or manifest in some way to rectify the balance. This might maintain dreams or interior images, or via more physical externally noticeable illness or psychological disturbance.

Jung divided psychic energy into two basic 'basic frame of mind types': Introverted and Extraverted. Jung referred to the introverted and extraverted basic attitude types to be: ". . . . distinguished by the path of standard interest or sex drive movement. . . . . differentiated by their particular attitude to the thing. . " and ". . . . The introvert's frame of mind to the object is an abstracting one. . . . he's always facing the challenge of how sex drive can be withdrawn from the thing. . . . . . The extravert, on the other hand, preserves a positive regards to the object. To this extent does indeed he affirm its importance that his subjective attitude is constantly being orientated by, and related to the thing. . . . "

Both attitudes - extraversion and introversion - are present in every person, in various certifications. No-one is pure extravert or real introvert, and newer studies suggest that a large majority of folks are in fact a reasonably well-balanced mixture of both types, albeit with a desire for one or the other. Not dark and white - instead shades of grey.


It is not any question then that strongly orientated extraverts and introverts see things in quite different ways, which can cause issue and misunderstanding. Two people may look at the same situation yet see various things. They see things - as we all tend to - in conditions of themselves and their own own mind-sets.

In addition to the two behaviour of extraversion and introversion, Jung also developed a framework of 'four useful types'. Jung defined these four 'Functional Types' to be those that the ". . . most differentiated function takes on the main role within an individual's version or orientation alive. . . " By 'most differentiated' Jung supposed 'superior' or dominant.

Thinking: Jung's 'Thinking' function is a 'rational' process of understanding certainty, implications, causes and results in a reasonable and analytical way. It really is systematic, evaluates fact, which is objective to the level that evaluation is dependant on personal brains and comprehension. 'Thinking' is the contrary of 'Being'.

Feeling: Jung's 'Feeling' function makes judgements on a personal subjective basis. It really is a 'logical' procedure for building personal subjective thoughts and opinions about whether something is good or bad, right or wrong, acceptable or undesirable, etc. , and entails sentimentality and mankind. 'Feeling' is the opposite of 'Thinking'.

Sensation: Jung's 'Experience' function translates signals from the senses into factual data. There is no judgement of right or incorrect, good or bad, implications, triggers, directions, context, choices, themes or templates, or related concepts. Sensation sees what's, as what it is. 'Feeling' is the opposite to 'Intuition'.

Intuition: Jung's 'Intuition' function translates things, facts and details into much larger conceptual pictures, opportunities, opportunities, imaginings, mysticism and new ideas. Intuition mainly ignores essential facts and details, reasoning and real truth. 'Intuition' is the contrary of 'Sensation'.

Jung said that every person has a main natural mindful orientation towards one of the four functions (their 'superior' or most 'differentiated' function), in which particular case the contrary function (the 'second-rate' or unconscious function) would be represented and paid out within the individuals unconscious.

Of the other two functions, either one could be next dominating; with respect to the person, and generally would 'serve' as an auxiliary function in support of the person's 'superior' function.

Quite a few psychologists have criticized this 'type' classification. They have emphasized that the idea of categorizing people into two extreme categories ignores other aspects of human dynamics. However, this does not imply that the 'type' procedure is baseless. Typology has its own value that has generated significant amounts of research in the region of personality.

2. 2 The Trait Approach: Trait theorists are mainly thinking about the dimension of traits, which can be thought as habitual patterns of tendencies, thought, and emotion. Ideas propounded by Allport and Catell belong to this process. The trait method of personality runs on the basic limited group of adjectives or adjective sizing to describe and level individuals. Whenever we identify a person, we often achieve this in terms of specific personality features - stable sizing of personality along which people change, from suprisingly low to very high. This strong trend to take into account others in terms of specific characteristics is reflected in trait ideas of personality. Such ideas focus on identifying key aspect of personality - the main ways in which people are different.

Gorden Allport he was the first one to identify key real human traits. He thought that each specific has a unique set of personality qualities. He argued that, if we can determine someone's characteristic, we can anticipate the individual's habit in various circumstances. Allport concluded that personality characteristic could be divided into several categories that mixed in their importance. Allport grouped characteristics into three main categories.

2. 2. 1. 1 Cardinal Traits are the most powerful and pervasive one trait that dominate an individual's entire personality. Corresponding to Allport very few people actually own cardinal traits. For example if we characterize some famous personalities relating with their cardinal trait, we will find that Hitler had a craving for vitality, Mother Teresa possessed the characteristic of altruism, Mahatma Gandhi the characteristic of Ahimsa and non violence and Lord Buddha, the search for truth.

Central attributes - Matching to Allport, there are five to ten traits that best explain an individual's personality for example, talking about an individual's personality as calm, sober, sophisticated, kind, friendly etc.

Secondary characteristics - These are the features that exert relatively specific and weakened effects on patterns. These features are limited in rate of recurrence and least important in understanding individual's personality. In essence these qualities are associated with attitudes and preferences of a person such as preference and disliking particular food, dress or music.

Raymond Cattell: Another characteristic theory has been distributed by Cattell. He conducted comprehensive research on a large number of persons who responded on different actions and situations. Their replies were then examined by statistical approach known as factor examination. Cattell defined traits as relatively permanent response tendencies that will be the basic structural devices of the personality.

Cattell classified attributes in several ways-

Common traits will be the ones that are possessed by everyone to some extent e. g. credibility, cooperation, hostility gregariousness, intellect etc. Everyone has these traits but the degree of these traits varies from individual to individual.

Unique features - They are the traits distributed by few people, unique characteristics may appear in our interactions and attitudes.

Traits can be further subdivided into potential, temperament and vibrant traits. Ability characteristics determine how effectively a personal will be able to work toward an objective. Intelligence can be an ability trait. Nature trait describes the overall style and psychological tone in our behaviour e. g. assertiveness, laid back or irritable character of person means just how we react or react in a situation. Dynamic traits will be the dynamic forces of one's behavior and define motivations, pursuits and ambitions.

A third way of classifying characteristics is to recognize them as surface and source characteristics. Surface traits are composed of several elements; they can be less secure and everlasting. They are not determined by a single source, such as anxiousness, indecision and mental fear from the surface trait of neuroticism. Source characteristics are stable, permanent traits that give rise for some aspect of tendencies. These are root set ups or source that determine one's tendencies such as dominance, distribution emotionality etc.

2. 2. 3 Hans Eysenck's personality inventory and the four temperaments: Eysenck's approach to personality diagnosis was the first popular scalable numerical strategy. Eysenck's 1950s theory options personality using two scales: introversion-extraversion and stability-instability (unemotional-emotional). Eysenck's theory identifies instability as unstable, emotionally unpredictable, or neurotic. By surveying a large number of people, using many and different adjectives (traits) representing behaviours and types, Eysenck built a scalable model that also produced the basis of what became the Eysenck personality test.

Eysenck's theory regards the choleric and melancholic temperaments as being emotionally unstable ('emotional'), and the sanguine and phlegmatic temperaments as being emotionally stable (unemotional). The idea sees the phlegmatic and melancholic temperaments as being introverted, and the choleric and sangine temperaments to be extraverted.

The Eysenck theory produces four main types of personality:

Unstable-introverted (emotional-introverted): moody restless rigid sober pessimistic reserved unsociable quiet (melancholic)

Unstable-extraverted (emotional-extraverted): touchy restless competitive excitable changeable impulsive positive active( choleric)

Stable-introverted (unemotional-introverted): calm even-tempered reliable managed peaceful thoughtful careful unaggressive (phlegmatic)

Stable-extraverted (unemotional-extraverted): sociable outgoing talkative responsive easy-going lively carefree leadership (sanguine)

Let us summarize: In this particular section we have studied that there are two main streams of personality theories. One is the type theory and the other is the trait theory. Under type theory, we've seen that individuals personality can be categorized into different kinds. We have also examined that several psychologists have given different attributes as habitual patterns of behavior, thought, and thoughts and that it's possible to find types of personality predicated on the attributes.

Check your progress 3.

Describe Jung's type classification of personality.

Describe Cardinal, Central and Supplementary traits.

Distinguish between common and unique traits.

State if the following statements are true or false

Eysenck's theory will not refer to melancholic, choleric and sanguine types. True / False

Secondary attributes have weak effects on behaviour. True / False

Unit-3 Recent Tendencies in Understanding Personality: Dimension of Personality

Objectives: After going right through this unit, you should be in a position to:

Describe the recent movements in detailing personality

Describe different ways to measure personality


Recent Trends

Big Five or OCEAN

Myers Briggs Type Indicator

Measurement of Personality

Projective Tests

Rorschach Ink Blot Test

Self Survey Tests


Recent movements in detailing personality:

'The Big Five' is the popular term for the style of personality that identifies the five fundamental factors of our personality. The big five include:

Openness to see: the propensity to be imaginative, impartial, and enthusiastic about variety vs. practical, conforming, and interested in routine.

Conscientiousness: the tendency to be prepared, careful, and disciplined vs. disorganized, careless, and impulsive.

Extraversion: the tendency to be sociable, fun-loving, and affectionate vs. retiring, somber, and reserved.

Agreeableness: the trend to be softhearted, trusting, and helpful vs. ruthless, suspicious, and uncooperative.

Neuroticism: the propensity to be peaceful, secure, and self-satisfied vs. stressed, insecure, and self-pitying

The Big Five (also referred to by the acronym, Sea corresponding to the first letters of the Openness, Conscientiousness, etc) contain important sizes of personality. However, some personality analysts argue that this list of major qualities is not exhaustive. Some support has been found for just two additional factors: excellent/normal and evil/decent. However, no definitive conclusions have been proven. THE TOP Five has generated itself as a substantial and fundamental personality testing model.

Psychologists and psychometrics experts use the term 'Factor' to describe each of these five 'large qualities' or scales. In turn, each of the Big Five Factors has several behaviours, that are clustered under the five main Factor headings. Obviously each main Factor can be further broken down into 'sub features' or 'facets', for example, Extraversion can have sub-traits such as Sociable, Competitive, Energetic and Seeking Acknowledgement. Each factor is known as based on the 'high rating' end of every scale. Low ratings logically suggest behaviours at the contrary side of the level.

High scores are not good or bad.

Low scores are not good or bad.

The most us actually tend to score close to the middle (the 'norm'). The bigger a person results for the behavioural elements shown within each of the five factors, the more (logically) they'll show these behaviours, and become less able to preserve the tendencies of the reduced scorer and vice versa.

Again, there is no good or bad. It's just a measure of that which you are. Each of the Big Five factors consists of 'sub-traits', for example, 'Agreeable' involves sub-traits (behavioural elements) such as 'Tactful', 'Diplomatic', 'Team-centred', 'Submissive', 'Warm', 'Friendly', 'Tolerant' and 'Democratic'. In typical use of the best Five model and checks, a person's report on the 'Agreeable' level will be typically that they match the sub-traits. The advantages of the Big Five Factor model lay in its speed and simplicity and this makes it an extremely useful tool for gaining a rapid review of someone's key motorists.

3. 1. 2 Myers Briggs [MBTI]: The Myers Briggs Type Indication (MBTI) is a trusted and respectable system for understanding and interpreting personality, and derives almost all of its underpinning theory from Carl Jung's Psychological Types ideas and to a lesser degree the Four Temperaments (or Four Humours). The goal of the MBTI 'personal inventory' system is to "make the idea of mental types explained by Carl G Jung understandable and useful in people's lives. . . ".

Myers Briggs theory and the MBTI model is a way for understanding personality and preferred methods of behaving. It isn't a way of measuring of intellect or competence, psychological condition or mental stableness, 'grown-upness' or maturity, and must be used meticulously in examining aptitude for careers or employment opportunities: people can do most jobs in a variety of ways, and the MBTI offers little if any indication of dedication, determination, love, experience, ambition etc. , nor 'falsification of type', all of which can have a lot better influence on personal success when compared to a single personality test.

The Myers Briggs MBTI system runs on the four-scale structure for figuring out and categorising a person's behavioural preferences, based mostly almost entirely on Carl Jung's theories and his descriptive words. Each of the four MBTI scales symbolizes two opposing 'choices' (in other words, preferred styles or capabilities). All abbreviations are apparent first letters, apart from N for Intuition, which causes the term to be shown sometimes as iNtuition - just in case you were pondering. The Myers Briggs Judging-Perceiving sizing basically equates to Jung's Rational/Irrational categories of the two pairs of Jungian Efficient types.

Myers Briggs added a fourth dimensions to the three Jung measurements (Introvert-Extravert, Thinking-Feeling, Sensation-Intuition), specifically Judging-Perceiving, which is related to a personality's approach to decision-making, and especially how the personality deals with the exterior world (Extraverted) as specific from the internal world (Introverted). The Myers Briggs Judging-Perceiving aspect can also be used to determine practical dominance among both preferred functional types (away from Introvert-Extravert, which are not functions but 'Attitudes', or orientations). Apart from determining functional dominance, irrespective of just how decisions are created (by Considering or Sensing) the Judging type makes decisions earlier than the Perceiving type.

3. 2 Personality Examination - Before talking about some specific personality evaluation assessments, two important things have to be mention about the type of personality examination.

First, personality lab tests are made to assess stable, long lasting characteristics free from situational effect.

Second, the kinds of exams chosen by psychologists frequently depend on the psychologists theoretical bent.

Personality assessment has three main streams: Projective Tests, Self Report Tests and Behavioural and Cognitive Examination. There are many types of personality measurements. A few of them are projective and some others are self statement tests.

3. 2. 1 Projective assessments present a person with an ambiguous stimulus and then keep these things summarize it or tell a story regarding it. In other words, the individual is required to project his/her own interpretation on to the stimulus. It is used to assess or to uncover the unconscious concealed feelings and conflicts within the individual. Projective tests are based on the assumption that the ambiguity of the stimulus allows specific to invest it with the feelings dreams, needs and attitudes. Projective tests try to get within the mind of your person to find how he really seems and think, going beyond just how an individual overly presents oneself.

3. 2. 1. 1 Rorschach Inkblot Test originated in 1921 by the Swiss psychiatrist Herman Rorschach. This test consists of 10 credit cards with inkblots. Five of the inkblots are dark-colored and grey and the rest of the others are of different colorings. Each credit card is shown to the subject individually, individually. The individual taking the Rorschach test is asked to spell it out what he or she sees in each one of the inkblot. After the individual has responded to all 10 inkblots, the examiner reveals each one of the inkblot again and enquires about the earlier response and additional investigates. Besides recording the reactions the examiner records the mannerism, gesture and attitudes of the subject. The examiner first analyses the test record by rating each response in conditions of form features as:

Location response as follows

W - Entire blot

D - Major detail

d - Small standard detail

Dd - Uncommon detail

S - White space

Determinant: Form (F), Colour (C) or combination of the two (FC, CF), texture & shading, activity happening of the credit cards.

Content: Pet (A), human being (H) and inanimate things seen by the topics in the credit cards.

Originality - original replies (O) and popular response (P)

None of these four categories should be interpreted singly, however each must be looked at in relation to others. From a scientific perspective analysts are sceptical about the Rorschach. In case the test is reliable, two different scores should agree on the personality characteristics of the individual being tested. In case the Rorschach is valid, the individual's scores should be able to predict behaviour beyond the evaluating situation, i. e. , you'll get along well with other people, or you will effectively manage stress.

Many psychologists have serious reservations about the utilization of Rorschach in prognosis and clinical practice. However, the Rorschach proceeds to enjoy widespread use in clinical circles. The interpretation of Rorschach test is a complicated task which may be accomplished by a special training.

TAT - The Thematic Apperception Test originated by Henry Murray and Christina Morgan in 1935. It is designed to elicit stories that show something about an individual's personality. TAT contains some pictures each on an individual card. It really is shown to the topic who's asked to see a tale about each of the pictures, including occurrences before the situation referred to, the character's thoughts and feeling and the way situation turns out. The tester assumes that the individual projects his or her own unconscious thoughts and applying for grants to the story. TAT is being used as a projective test in specialized medical practice. It is also found in research on people's need for achievement.

Other projective checks used in specialized medical assessment are:

Children's Apperception test (Pet cat)

Blocking pictures list

Cloudy pictures list

The Word Connection exams (free and handled)

Sentence conclusion test



Draw-a-man test

Toy and doll play test

Clay modelling

Graphology - use of palm writing analysis to find out a person personality.

3. 2. 2 Home Report Exams: unlike projective techniques, personal report studies do not try to assess an individual's hidden, unconscious personality. Rather self report test are also called objective tests, straight requesting people whether items express their personality traits or not. Self -article tests include a big number of declaration or questions like I like to go to shopping, I like to cook, I am a depressed person etc. The respondent has a limited range of answers to choose from i. e. yes or no, true or phony, agree with the fact or disagree. A number of the self-report checks are:

3. 2. 2. 1 Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI) - The most widely used self-report test which was initially designed in 1940 is employed to assess 'abnormal' personality tendencies and to improve the examination of individuals with mental disorders. MMPI has 550 items, each of which can be answered as true, false or can't say. The subject's answers are grouped matching to 10 medical categories or scales that solution unhappiness, psychopathic deviation, schizophrenia, communal introversion and so forth. MMPI uses 4 validity scales in addition to the 10 scientific scales. The validity scales are designed to indicate whether a person is lying down, careless, defensive or evasive while responding to the test items. MMPI was revised for the very first time in 1989 and was called MMPI2 with a number of new items. New content scales which were added to MMPI2 include drug abuse, eating disorders, anger, self-confidence, family problems and lack of ability to function in a job.

MMPI is a favorite ensure that you has been translated in more than 20 dialects. It is extensively used by professional medical psychologists to evaluate someone's mental health. It is also used to anticipate which individual will make the best job candidate or which profession an individual should follow.

Check your progress 4.

Define the idea of Big Five.

Describe the MMPI

State whether the following claims are true or false

Roscharch Ink Blot Test contains 10 cards with inkblots. True / False

Self-report list attempts to assess an individual's hidden unconscious personality. True / False

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