Posted at 10.14.2018
Currently, bus is the main public transport in the location of Kota Kinabalu. Despite being regarded as less comfortable, less literally attractive, non-punctual and unsafe, it still functioning to bring people to their vacation spots. This research paper aims to give a critical summary of the public bus importance at the past, present and future time. It is crucial to identify the key reason why bus is important in providing commuting service to the citizen since these details is a good insight to the insurance policy maker. The reasons for its importance are mentioned as well as several issues such as open public bus current level of performance, increasing range of private vehicle on street and the absence of specific intend to improve public bus vehicles. This analysis is qualitative in nature where data were mostly produced from observation and extra sources. The initial study's findings showed public bus can be an important setting of public travelling in Kota Kinabalu in the past and the present and will probably continue being so later on due to the demand from the reduced income earners, wide destination coverage and concern for the increasing price of car gasoline as well as to traffic congestion problem. Therefore, the federal government should seriously consider the bus in the public transportation planning by providing specific plan for its future development.
Keywords: public travelling system, open public bus, public carry planning
Tran and Kleiner (2005) cited in Belwal and Belwal (2010), general population transportation is defined as transportation by a conveyance that provides continuing general or special transportation to the general public; excluding college buses, charter and sightseeing service. A competent vehicles system is one of the basic components of the social, economic, and physical structure in the urbanized culture and it has to be competitive and appealing to the transit seekers (Ibid). It is essential for every government across the world to build up better transportation system for its individuals. Better system is something that is able to provide affordable, attractive, comfortable, punctual and safe commuting services to the citizens. According to Nandi (2008), a perfect transfer system is a system that had been fully integrated, able to provide safe transfer network, supports interpersonal and monetary regeneration and ensures good gain access to for everyone which, is handled to the best standards to protect the surroundings and ensure standard of living. It really is a dream for each and every government and citizen to have useful transportation system. To realize the dream, continuous effort should be made. Long run strategy should be to manage for the expansion of transportation demand to give the efficient movement of people and goods. Bus service is indeed important since it offers mobility for many because so many people don't have access to autos it is also increase person capacity in seriously traveled corridors and it preserves urban land to get more productive use and is also more energy efficient than generating (Levinson, 2000). In his study, bus isn't only providing line-haul and feeder services, offer special transit service for the elderly and handicapped and in the large cities nevertheless they also supplement and nourish rail transit lines. In United Talk about of America, general public transportation is often from the nation's major urban-area subway (heavy-rail) or commuter-rail systems, about 59 percent of all public transportation trips are continued buses (Cambridge Systematics Inc, 2008). Therefore, maintaining and enhancing bus service will be essential in keeping urban areas vital and exciting in the years in advance. The basic goal to develop the public vehicles is to help the residents to make a trip easily and ensure the standard operation of basics sociable organizations and their activities as well as brings improvements to metropolis environment in a quite thorough range. ()
At as soon as in Malaysia, significant improvement on open public transportation acquired only been observed in several main towns such as Kuala Lumpur and Pulau Pinang. The difference of these cities from the others is that, apart from having various option of modern vehicles such as LRT and Monorail System, they also have an integrated bus system namely RapidKL and RapidPenang that are seen as a attractive appearance, tight monitoring system, standardization and reliable schedule. In metropolis of Kota Kinabalu, the capital city of Sabah, bus is the key public travelling. However, open public bus performance is below par in terms of comfort, physical appearance, punctuality and protection. It is assumed that the effective and powerful public bus vehicles service provision is essential and necessary in noticing the aim of the 6th National Key Result Area (NKRA) which is aimed to increase the utilization rate and to maintain the Malaysia travel system (Jayaraman et. al. , 2011). Community bus vehicles is important not and then provide commuting services to the people but also help the expansion of market in a city. It creates option of business to market their goods and services. Since the last three generations, government at national, status and local levels has created and put in place various plans to boost public vehicles but there is still no significant improvement have been seen on the bus service. Furthermore, the increasing quantity of private autos on streets shows the shift in preference of people from utilizing a public bus into generating their own private car.
The goal of this newspaper is to provide critical summary of the importance of public bus. This finding is very important to planning purpose. Since there are very few studies deeply reviewed about its importance, the results will donate to your body knowledge in the general public bus literature. The general public travelling available in Kota Kinabalu city is merely general population bus and taxi cab. The actual fact that, the public bus is more utilized by the public due to its lower cost implies its importance.
Since the last three decades, federal government at federal, point out and local levels has designed and integrated various intend to improve public transportation in Kota Kinabalu City but there is still no significant improvement can be been seen especially relating to the bus service. Furthermore, the increasing range of private vehicles on highways shows the move in preference of people from by using a general public bus into travelling their own private car. The question is why this happen? Is bus not as important to the neighborhood residents as it use to be? The purpose of this newspaper is to provide critical summary of the value of open public bus to the people. The finding of the research is very important to policy planning goal. Besides, it provides your body knowledge in bus travelling literature since there is merely few research deeply mentioned about its importance. It is presumed that the effective and strong public bus travel service provision is vital and necessary in realizing the aim of the 6th NKRA which is directed to raise the utilization rate and preserve the Malaysia carry system (Jayaraman et. al. , 2011).
For data collection, the strategy used in this study was limited by observation and secondary data only. The observation method was conducted on daily basis from 1st August 2012 to 15st September 2012. Massive amount information was gathered from local newspapers record especially from Sabah Times, Daily Express and Borneo Post. Recognized documents such as insurance policy statements were part of the data gathered. Through these procedures, thorough analyses about the importance of general public bus in Kota Kinabalu currently and future time were made.
Low-income groups tend to use their car relatively less often (Steg, 2003). In the location of Kota Kinabalu, the bus service is highly demanded by the reduced income earner (regular income below RM2300) although the public bus service is poor in terms of comfort, punctuality and safety. Inside the 1990s, bus was considered important because few people could find the money for to buy car. Currently, bus continues to be needed by the low income earners. Buying car has been greatly facilitated lately through simpler car finance method. However, although this facilitated the low and medium income earners to own car, some of them may still do not need to buy car because of other important commitments such as home expenditure and utility expenditure. As a result, they still need to take bus to go to their workplace and even for outing purposes. Thus, bus is important to their daily life. In Kota Kinabalu, certain domestic areas that are populated typically by low income earners such as Kuala Menggatal, Taman Indah Permai, Taman Sri Maju, Universiti Apartment Period 1 and Phase 2 are counting on the bus service for transportation. Daily observation that had been made on 1st August 2012 until 1st September 2012 at these domestic areas, it was found that almost all of residents are laborers, chefs, nurses, salespersons, promoters and waiters used bus to go to the work area.
Public bus has wider spots coverage encompassing both the urban and sub-urban areas compared to LRT and Monorail, that have fixed routes. Therefore their destination coverage is limited. The bus has important role not only to accommodate the travel needs of the increasing commuters but also as nourish as with routes not included in these modern transport systems. Eventhough in Kuala Lumpur modern transportation networks namely Kereta Api Tanah Melayu (KTM), Monorail System and LRT, pub bus continues to be being used to have travellers to the KTM, LRT and Monorail stations and terminals. Due to the need of feeder service and increase the existing public vehicles system, RapidKL was then determined in 2004, required over the main part of travelling in the city. In Kota Kinabalu, bus is important in the lack of modern travelling and the role it takes on will become challenging once the modern rail system introduced. The stand show below shows the zones included in the public bus vehicles at Kota Kinabalu in 2006.
The matter of car users about increasing energy price also plays a part in the continued need for general population bus service. Malaysia's public travelling especially open public bus is perceived of struggling to meet citizen's needs satisfactorily. Many claim that if the public transport is improved, they are willing to use it instead of paying for outrageous petrol prices and tolls and finding yourself stuck in traffic jams (Kambala, 2007). The question is, when bus services improved upon in Kota Kinabalu, will the local citizens willing to move from using private vehicle in to the public one? From books, it was discovered that public bus will be a critical visiting option one of the private car end user when the price of the fuel raises. When fuel price increase, the regular monthly spending increase and the likelihood of people moving from the utilizing their own car to adopt the general public bus increase. General public bus still become the option for the residents irrespective the income history especially when the price of petrol has increased and their monthly salary cannot cover all the bills.
Based on the data provided by the statistic team in a review of Sabah household in 2009 2009, more than 50% of the residents in Kota Kinabalu go to work by personal auto while the break use the general public bus or other modes. The increasing range of private vehicles on roads has induced congestion and air pollution. The growing community concerns about traffic congestion, sprawl, air pollution, and sustainability, the intensifying revitalization of places and towns, and continued improvements in carry technology demand for better bus transit in the new century (Levinson, 2000). In another observation done in Likas, Sepanggar and Sulaman from 15th August 2012 to 15th Sept 2012, it was found that there traffic congestions during peak time. The peak time in Kota Kinabalu during weekdays is range between 7. 00 to 8. 30 each day, and noon12. 00 to 2. 00pm and 4. 30 to 7. 00 at the night time. It was also discovered that, the highways in Sepanggar, Inanam and Likas area are most congested during peak hour. Presently, almost all of people still insist to utilize their car. People is only going to shift to public bus if the public bus system is reliable. Reliable here means available everywhere, arrive on time, cheap as well as safe and comfortable to be utilized. Relating to Lo Su Yin, the head of Persatuan Arkitek Malaysia (PAM) Sabah, the medium and permanent solution for the situation of traffic congestion is a well planned public travel system
Young people are regular individual of general public bus travelling especially at tertiary level students. The Chief Executive of Traveler Emphasis, Anthony Smith, quoted a study that exhibited almost 50 percent of bus passengers are under 29, making the bus very much a person's product and more than 50 percent of students frequently use the bus and be based upon it to go to their education or training premise (The Telegraph, 2012). As being a centre of education in the state of Sabah, the amount of pupil in Kota Kinabalu is high. Many of them neither have car nor driving license to operate a vehicle car. Thus, they may be totally reliance on the public bus service. Furthermore, it was discovered that many students stayed at Sepanggar, Likas, Sembulan and city centre such as students from Universiti Teknologi Mara as well as from Advanced Management and Technology Centre (PTPL), Cosmopoint University, Masterskill University, Mahsa College or university, Sabah Foundation University, and Polytechnics. Because of large people of students in Kota Kinabalu, public bus is important to fulfill their transfer needs. For example, College or university students from Universiti Teknologi Mara Sabah branch, always use the general public bus travel (run by Tuaran United Transfer Company Sdn Bhd) to go to the centre of the location during weekends for outing goal.
The findings of the paper are good findings of earlier research. For instance, relating to Madzlan and Nookfakhriah (2010), general public bus transportation is important in reducing traffic congestion, cut costs and time, as well as to reduce pollution. You can find no commuters or train services that provide full coverage of transportation in Kota Bharu unlike Kuala Lumpur and Klang Valley (Ibid). Therefore, demand for open public bus service is high in this city. In Kota Bharu and Penang, where the commuter teach service is not available, the public bus is the major means for its inhabitants.
The Kota Kinabalu City Hall (KKCH) Strategic Plan 2011-2015, target more on upgrading and improving the infrastructure of the general public bus travel system. For example plans to generate uniform bus stop, 45 Lay-by for bus (to be completed in 2012), updating the Terminal Wawasan at the centre of town (to be completed in 2012), Terminal at the North, Inanam (to be completed in 2015), Inter Terminal Link at Stadium Likas, Masjid Bandaraya and Masjid Negeri (to be achieved in 2015), Terminal Kepayan at the South, (to be accomplished in 2015) and Area & Ride facilities. In 2011, a few of the job has been put in place under the general public Transport Financial Group account, where RM8 million put in to update the Wawasan Bus Terminal and RM5 million to determine a lay-by bus and taxi in the town (Sabah Times, 2011).
The public transport central plan also include the plan to build up water taxi cab, monorail system, rail system (Kota Kinabalu Composition Plan 2030). The plan to develop the Park and Ride facilities, the upgrading terminals, adding more bus channels, establishment of LRT and Monorail system as well as plan to develop water taxi cab service suggested the motive of the government to provide better community transportation in the town. The government has done several improvements on bus but these work are not commensurate with the value of general public bus to everyone in Kota Kinabalu. In other term, the government has not done enough to improve the bus system service. Travel system in this city will not work effectively and successfully if the public bus system is not significantly increased. That is, the public buses need to be continuously retained, clean, safe and comfortable to be used as well as punctual and always available. For the time being, public bus plays important role as the key public travelling in Kota Kinabalu. However, poor performance and too little proper management of bus are existing issues that yet to be resolved. It is more preferable if the government finds answers to the existing problems. The bus system should be improved upon first before developing new alternative modes of transportation. In the NKRA, addititionally there is no clear and specific affirmation regarding the budget assigned to improve general public bus transportation in the urban areas such as Kota Kinabalu apart from Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley. For the reason that no subject how modern method of transportation that is designed to be proven, general public bus still have a place in urban and sub-urban areas. Because of its importance, general public bus deserves to obtain additional attention from all levels of government. It deserves to have specific budget allocation not only from the neighborhood government but from the national and express governmenst as well.
Based on the studies, several issues regarding bus transportation have to be resolved. Bus is important at the present and apt to be so in the foreseeable future. However, the conclusions of this study support previous analysis findings that one issues have to be attended to for better bus service performance. For instance, performance of general public bus under private companies operation. It was discovered that, public vehicles is poor when it was
operated by the private company (Nicosia, 2001). Corresponding to Imran (2009), one of the failures of general public transport plans is overstating the role of the private sector in public areas travel. In Kota Kinabalu, general public buses are handled by private companies and there are grievances about the lack of comfort, maintenance, punctuality and safeness. On the other hand, the bus system in Kuala Lumpur is mainly run by RapidKL which is owned by the federal government. In Malacca, the state government takes over the procedure of public bus vehicles from the private regulators. Public travelling service will still be inefficient under the hands of private companies and the problems associated with it will be unresolved if there no competitive intervention from the government sides. For instance, in 1992, the top scale bus privatization without satisfactory rules and coordination possessed created many problems in Delhi such as long, zig-zag routes, long waiting around times, completely unreliable service, extreme overcrowding, unlawful motorists, and speeding and reckless travelling, tournaments among buses, poor bus maintenance, lack of safety, noisy, and highly polluting which, enhance the already severe congestion, basic safety, and air pollution problems (Putcher et al. , 2004).
Another issue that needs to be dealt with is the increasing amount of private vehicles on the highways. General population bus can be part of the alternatives. However, it'll never replace the prominent use of private car if no intense effort to enhance the open public bus system is manufactured. For example, relating to O'Toole (2011), buses will most likely never replace the carmobile as the dominant form of transportation in the United States of America unless with the use of the new-model buses which is significantly less expensive than driving. Only once the bus system in Kota Kinabalu City is restructured, people start constantly to alter from the use of private automobiles. Thus, the reason why of open public bus transportations' importance should be discovered together with these issues so that real situation for general public bus travelling in this city can be discovered.
Public bus travelling is important before as well as the present time and can continue to be so later on because of the demand from the reduced income earners, tertiary level students, the public bus system huge destination coverage, matter for the increasing price of car petrol as well as traffic congestion problem. This research is only part of much larger research where only the value of the general public bus system is mentioned. Based on data collected so far, there will do research to suggest the importance and the ongoing importance of general population bus travelling system.