Posted at 10.11.2018
In the recent times, a hot debate has emanated on colonialism and post colonialism and what they stand for. It is a location that has captivated so many writers with a lot of criticism predicated on different views. Before colonialism, most countries were occupied by the original natives of the land. With the coming of colonialism and imperialism, everything instantly modified and the imperialists soon required fee of what once was the house of the natives. In Australia for occasion, the natives were the aborigines who have been displaced by the European settlers especially the British. This happened during the primary phases of colonization. This period of colonialism was associated with exceptional racial segregation. Essentially the most damaged was the dark-colored race where most blacks worldwide were treated with cold shoulder blades and in almost all the situations; the whites weren't permitted to mingle with the blacks in any way. This humiliated the blacks and made them feel betrayed and alienated independently land. It was then accompanied by the have difficulty for independence all over the world, something that led to decolonization of most once colonized countries. It is from here that almost all of the 'commonwealth literature' surfaced (McLeod, 2000). Famous freelance writers arrived on the limelight using their own ideologies and some have captivated a great deal of criticism from modern authors. After decolonization, the colonialists still imposed their procedures on what were once their colonies but this time round in different ways. Through literature, most critics had taken centre stage through their works to be able to battle what they thought was not right. Through the commonwealth books, colonial authors imparted a perception in their viewers most of that have been the colonized that it was right for some individuals to rule over others and the ones being ruled should humbly submit to the authority above them. This was another form 'colonization of the brain' that colonialists were applying to ensure their sovereignty. Colonialism is deemed to have caused ethnic hybridity, ethnicity and location. (McLeod, 2000)
From her work, it's very true that Judith Wright was both an environmentalist and a communal activist. The article writer uses her years as a child and lifetime encounters to vividly point out on various contemporary but fundamental issues affecting the society. For instance in her poem, 'Two Dreamtimes' Judith Wright points out on post colonialism and racial segregation which in her view were 'eating up' the modern culture and was a hindrance to development. Also, she actually is keen to focus on cultural alienation versus modernity as another key problem of major concern. On the other hand, Sujata Bhatt uses her multicultural experience to evidently air her criticisms on matters she feels are of concern. In her poem, 'A different history, ' Sujata Bhatt succeeds in having to understanding essential concerns like culture, oppression and post-colonialism. With all the traces of your bard and postcolonial uniqueness, she demonstrates her enthusiasm for the local traditions and linguistic communication. In such a poem, Sujata Bhatt shows the significance of culture and terminology to any particular individual and how they help identify someone. In her dual multicultural milieu, she freely uses vocabulary as an instrument to further her ideologies through writing that is attracted from her great experience after having lived in three continents. (McLeod, 2000)
Looking at the poem, 'Two dreamtimes, ' there is an aspect racial segregation that is very evident in the first two stanzas, "You were one of the dark children I wasn't permitted to play with-riverbank campers, the incorrect color, (I couldn't convert you white). " (Two Dreamtimes, stanza 2) White children weren't permitted to mingle with the dark-colored children. This was a kind of oppression that the copy writer brings to light in her work. The stanza also claims that dark was a wrong color. This virtually means that blacks were cared for with a lot of contempt by the whites who searched upon them as an inferior race. This is extended even to their children who have been warned never to connect with the black children. The writer's criticism of this vice is depicted when she refers the dark-colored as, 'riverbank campers, the wrong color' and lastly says, '(I couldn't convert you white). ' Here, the writer has been sarcastic of the descriptions directed at the blacks by her parents.
Scramble for property that belonged to the natives was a common trend as obvious in the poem, "late I started to know they hadn't explained the land I enjoyed was taken out of the hands. " (Two Dreamtimes, stanza 3). If the colonialists found its way to 'their colonies, ' the white settlers grabbed all the belonged to the natives including land and proceeded to go ahead to market almost all of it for their own lavish hobbies (Ashok Bery and Patricia Murray, 2000). This still left the natives with only a state of hopelessness as the white settlers prolonged extravagantly enjoying what was not theirs. That is shown when the persona in the poem says, "The sullen looks of the men who sold them for rum to forget the reselling the hard rational white faces with eyes that forget the former. " (Two Dreamtimes, stanza 4). The writer uses irony when she says that the white settlers exchanged the land that they had grabbed from the natives for rum. This brings out the contemptuous attitude of the copy writer towards the imperialists. Her criticism is furthered when she negatively explains the whites and assigns innocence to the blacks in her description.
There can be an aspect of social degradation that was as a result of colonization. The oppression the natives were subjected to caused them to stay hopeless and their traditions and practices faded out with time. There was virtually no time since even what used to be their own had been snatched away fro the leaving them as piteous beings attempting for life leave alone success. From your poem it is said, "In the rum your tone sang the stories of an old people, their dreaming buried, the place overlooked. We too have lost our dreaming. " (Two Dreamtimes, stanza 8). The once happy and beautiful culture was lost and folks were merged in the multi-culture without any identity. This led to a feeling of withdrawal on the list of colonized.
Slave trade was also associated with colonization where in fact the colonized were sold to slave investors at a relatively cheaper price. The oppressed were sold to work on large capitalist farms and in building up a few of the infrastructure for the colonial administration that was primarily considering amassing prosperity and increasing sovereignty in terms of infrastructural development (Ashcroft, Griffiths and Tiffin, 1998). The writer uses irony in her information of how humans were costed. The persona in the poem says, "So you and I are bought and sold. " The article writer goes in advance to highlight how the Aborigines are oppressed by the colonial regulations when she openly critics these tyrannical laws and regulations as, 'Raped by rum and an alien rules, improvement and economics. ' (Two Dreamtimes, stanza 17). The use of the term 'raped' shows how these regulations were wicked and also uncovers the writer's bad attitude towards.
Economically, the colonized were exploited for the reason that exactly what belonged to them was valued at a relatively cheaper price. With the world market, prices are placed by these developed countries and the oppressed people from the once colonized countries do not get rewards they have earned from the deal of these products. This is noticeable in, "Have you been and I and a once-loved land peopled by tribes and trees and shrubs; doomed by traders and stock exchanges, bought by faceless strangers. " (Two Dreamtimes, stanza, 18). Also, publishers reject to publish articles written by the freelance writers from the colonized countries. There is no freedom of manifestation as everything was manipulated by the colonial masters (Ashok Bery and Patricia Murray, 2000). That is shown in the poem, "So you and I are bought and sold, our tunes and reports too though quoted low in a falling market (web publishers shake their minds at poets). " (Two Dreamtimes, stanza 19). After decolonization, the past colonial masters still inspired the people's head through the commonwealth books that emphasized much on submission to the authority. The article writer is kind of warning people to never trust such authors since it might lead 'colonization of the thoughts. ' She says, "Trust nothing - not poets. " (Two Dreamtimes, stanza 19). Quite simply she was questioning the trustworthiness of the commonwealth books and raising questions. This was a feature of post colonial age where books was used as another avenue of tethering the once colonized thoughts (John Kasaipwalova, 2007).
There is violation of human protection under the law especially against women who are seen as vulnerable beings that need no right. Women were twice colonized by the colonial rule and also by the whole society. This is shown in the poem, "Telling unhappy stories of women (dark-colored or white at an alternative price) meant much and little to us. " (Two Dreamtimes, stanza 20). This explicitly illustrate that all these exploits were unpleasant but nobody had the right and courage to stand and fight them. People were so oppressed that that they had abandoned in life and just needed life as circumstances dictated to them ('R. K. Narayan, 1993).
In comparison to the poem by Sujata Bhatt, 'A different record' both authors tend to discuss common views and both tend to critic the final results of colonialism and post-colonialism. They both accentuate the importance of culture but are disparagative of colonialism and post-colonialism effects (Elmer Andrews, 1995). Involving culture, Sujata Bhatt says uses the first stanza to create a culturally entrusted population where the place norms are respected by everyone. She says, "Here, the gods roam free every tree is sacred which is a sin to be rude to a publication. "(Another type of record, stanza 1). Judith Wright on the other hands talks of cultural dilapidation therefore of colonialism when she says; "In the rum your voice sang the stories of an old people, their dreaming buried, the place forgotten. We too have lost our dreaming. " (Two Dreamtimes, stanza 19).
The two poems also criticize both colonization and post-colonialism effects by using language techniques. Sujata Bhatt employs the use of rhetoric questions to forward her criticism. This helps infuse critical thinking in the reader's mind and hence make him or her think alongside the copy writer throughout the poem. For instance she says, "Whose terminology is not the oppressor's tongue?" (A new background, stanza 2). This declaration engages anyone reading it to pause and think broadly regarding the subject material. Conversely, Judith Wright capitalises on the uses of satire, sarcasm and irony to surface her criticism. She also uses imagery when she says, "We the robbers robbed subsequently. " She straight refers to the white settlers as robbers and therefore, she succeeds in providing her denigration.
In my own view, Judith's work is a picture of what's happening in the modern post-colonial period. Despite getting flexibility from colonialism, there continues to be indirect oppression in terms of command, trade and resource exploitation imposed by the once colonial experts on their past colonies (Greg Garrard, 2004). These countries still acquire unfair terms of trade on the globe market and don't really benefit from their products and services (Childs, Peter. Williams, Patrick, 1997).