Posted at 03.10.2018
In this article, a proposed job, the human-electric cross bicycle, also known as "Pedelec" influenced mainly by real human pedalling drive with additional assistance force from the battery powered electric motor which has a regenerative ability feature during declining slopes.
Automobiles will always be essential for folks living in metropolitan areas as a kind of transportation to carry out their daily routine. Based on the International Corporation of AUTOMOBILE Manufacturers, an astounding number of 77, 609, 901 cars and commercial vehicles were produced in the year 2010. A 25. 8 percent change compare to the previous time (OICA, 2011). Predicated on a research statement of the Fifth U. S. Environment Action Report, travelling activities contribute thirty-three percent of the world's emission of carbon dioxide in 2007 and practically up to sixty percent of emission came from the combustion of petroleum from personal vehicles (U. S. Weather Action Statement, 2010). Consequently, it is unquestionably, vehicles are one of the significant reasons of global warming because of the emission of green house gasses. Currently, cross types and electric vehicles seems to be the preeminent way to counter the problem that arises from petrol powered cars without eradicating its advantages. However, electric driven vehicles have its own disadvantages as it needs a degree of charging time. Alternatively, electric bike are making huge waves among town areas because it is less challenging compare to the standard bicycle, thus, permit users to visit longer distance without needing much energy. Amount of time necessary for charging still occurs in electric bicycles. The Regenerative Electric battery for Pedelecs on declining terrains is able to solve the situation by enabling the user to automatically impose the bicycle battery during downhill slopes.
Electric bicycle, Cross Bicycle and Human-Electric Bicycles or Pedelecs have only lately turn into a worldwide phenomenon because of the climb in petroleum prices. The technology of these kinds of bicycles is still comparative new and research attractiveness has merely starting to rise before modern times. Therefore, there exists insufficient research documents and books available in the area of cross types or electric bike in scholarly publications or professional organization such as the IEEE. The next books review evaluates on eleven scholarly journals to elucidate the technology involved in developing electric, Hybrid or Pedelecs bicycles and its own performance characteristics.
Among the eleven journals included, a report by Muetze and Tan (2007) offered a detailed and organized article based on the characterization of electric bi-cycle, both theoretically and experimentally. The statement includes as well certain requirements of different shows perfect for electric bicycles and road blocks experienced to endorse it. Restrictions and protection factors for electrics bicycles in countries such as Japan, Europe, China and United States are layed out. Research was done to discover advantages and negatives of technical shows for different part type of the bicycles including the assist type, engine, motor assembly, motor unit positioning, throttle and power type. The statement also contains a electric power over velocity graph collected from results gathered with different guidelines such as the impact of weight, affect of the slope and impact of wind flow. Results collected from the statement is able to provide a guide for developing an electric bicycle suited to the market pattern and increase the shows of electric bicycles for future improvements.
While the evaluation on the performance of electric bicycle is essential, energy management too must be given awareness. Morchin (1998) recognizes the energy used by electric bicycle and emission of inexperienced residences gasses can be reduced by two methods. Such aspects may be accomplished by optimizing the rankings of the power supply and engine motor while delivering electric power end result by each source under expected traveling conditions (Morchin, 1998). In the article, an on-board "energy supervisor" was attached to an electric bike to keep tabs on the vitality in the electric battery and effectively separate loads between your electric battery and the engine. The Langrange's theorem was used to analyze the energy used under affecting variables of air move, hill slopes and friction. However, the study done only applies to electric bicycles rather than for cross bicycles or Pedelecs. Research can be done to extend for various types of bicycles and different type of terrains. The word "hybrid" found in the paper is rather deceptive because the paper focuses on completely electric bicycle while the term "hybrid bi-cycle" often refers a bi-cycle that works on both petroleum gas and electricity or human pedal drive with a electric battery powered engine.
In a related research on ability management in electric assisted bi-cycle, Brand and Ertugrul (2007) examines and discover that an in-hub direct drive located on the front wheel of the bike could give better performance by electric braking and secure manoeuvring. Furthermore, the record conducted tests on 17 riders from different categories. All riders are evenly divided based on gender, weight, get older, regular and abnormal cyclist. The report is thorough and in a position to substantiate the potency of the in-hub immediate drive. Also, the report focus on evaluating riding conditions of various type of rider group to look for the optimum power need and will no targets designing an alternative for electric bicycles. It is known in the record that aerodynamic streamlining and development of a high efficiency inverter can be considered a further developed from the statement.
Most of the study done about electric bicycles revolves around the electric battery storage system. Alternatives may compromise of electric regeneration (Liu et al. , 2008); (Somchaiwong & Ponglangka, 2006), or petroleum-electric bi-cycle (Nagendran & Senthil, 2010);(Xiong, et al. , 2010). Liu, et al. , (2008) designed four regenerative braking strategies by turning mechanical energy into electricity to extend the electric battery life-span. Matlab and Simulink were used to make a model of the electric bicycle and the four suggested regenerative braking strategies. The four braking control strategies are Most Feedback Electricity (MFP), Most System Efficiency (MSE), Fixed Torque Control Strategy (FTC) and Fixed Feedback Current Control (FFC) (Liu, et al. , 2008). Clear description and illustration were given on all the four purposed strategies. The survey illustrates theoretically using computer simulations and there have been no prototype build or functional experiment conducted with bicycle users.
Alternatively, Somchaiwong and Ponglangka (2006) suggested a regenerative ability control system to solve the increment of routine speed of engine that are redundant for example, throughout a downhill path. The study experiments on the partnership between your voltages offered and motor swiftness. The result shows that if the cycle motor runs on the specific speed need, the motor unit would in turn generate a particular result voltage.
Another widespread solution battery problems experienced in electric bicycles are petroleum-electric cross types bicycles. Nagendran and Senthil (2010) suggested a Hybrid Bike with Three Speed Transmission System to resolve problems encounters in current electric bicycles. The purposed notion of the hybrid bike works on both electric and petroleum to recharge the bicycle's battery storage system. An added feature to the purposed idea is a three speed items for effective control the speed of the electric motor and IC (Interior Combustion) engine. The bicycle works like an typical electric bike on Period One. Once the battery storage system is depleted, the motor would then runs on the internal combustion engine. A BIG CHANGE Over is installed to connect and disconnects the engine from the IC engine motor or vice-versa. A shaft coupler can be used to connect the chain drive while a string drive can be used to obtain balance of the bi-cycle. The research does not illustrate the functional structure of the three acceleration transmitting system.
In a related subject, Liu, et al. , designed a LPG (Liqufied Petroleum Gas) - electric hybrid bicycle that can run on totally engine driven, totally electric motor influenced or hybrid setting. Because of space restriction in the bicycle a four-stroke spark ignition LPG engine motor ability system is presented in the study. The gasoline engine unit was altered into a LPG engine motor by increasing the compression ratio, enlarging the spark advance angle and increasing the ignition energy. The study also includes the look of the transmission system and control system of the cross types bi-cycle. A prototype of the design was developed and many lab tests were conducted on city traffic conditions.
While most studies focuses on a single bike type such as electric bicycle or Pedelecs, Indulal & Nair (2007) contains both types of bicycle and the execution of Fuzzy Logic as a control system. The bike runs on three different modes, Manual Mode, Power Mode and Automatic Mode. Manual Setting works as an ordinary where pedalling is required without extra assistance. Electricity Mode fully runs on electricity and will not require any paddling while Auto Mode provides electric assistance on top of manual pedalling. Fuzzy Reasoning is applied to provide comfortable using and sufficient drive assistance under any conditions. After the completion of the look, arrays of inputs were given to the Fuzzy Reasoning Controller using Matlab Simulation to review the outputs. Results from the simulation found that the performance of the machine over various conditions were suitable. The research expresses that the look can be further lengthened into much larger vehicles.
To enhance the potential of battery storage space system, Sousa, et al. , (2007) developed an electronic converter run by two type electric power supplies, the power supply and super capacitors. Batteries will be the primary safe-keeping while capacitors are used to avoid deep discharging of the electric battery as a backup storage. In such a research, supercapacitors are being used instead and can in a position to serve as an initial storage space source. The developed system was built on the electric bi-cycle and results were accumulated. A conclusion circuit is necessary because the look is able in increasing the autonomy of electric vehicles to avoid high current top and fast discharges of the batteries. The study open gates for future work such as bettering electric power circuit to increase efficiency and analyse the autonomy by modifying the role of the battery and supercapacitor. Coates and Charkey (2002) states that batteries tests on Closed Nickel-Zinc Batteries are conducted for electric bicycle applications because it supplies the same amount of energy with half the weight compare to the typical lead-acid batteries.
Hsu, et al. , (2011) poses a solution to provide comfort and safe practices measure in various types of Pedelecs operating environment while optimizing the performance of the power supply. The grade of driving conditions can be upgraded by overcoming three causes of nature, air drag, friction and hill move. The main element to the answer is the pedalling electricity and total electric power of the required power should be regular and sufficient additional ability is provided to conquer any of the three forces. The design is also in a position to solve instability problem in Pedelecs when the motor unit abruptly occurs by keeping the instantaneous acceleration of the aided power be placed within the Basic safety Zone and Comfort Zone. Real environment simulation situations were conducted on different street types and pedal push in cities. Results confirms the design has better energy utilization compare to existing normal and delta learning guideline based assisted ability methods. The statement provides room for even more research on dealing with the technique to automatically change the motor unit to the several kind of physical conditions of the riders.
After the analysis of all the eleven journals, it could be concluded that almost all of the journals focuses on solving the issues currently experienced by electric bicycle that provide insufficient energy in the electric battery storage and insufficient power assistance. You will discover ample room for even more development on electric bicycles and Pedelecs because it technology is relatively new. Further research done upon this area would advantage societies surviving in metropolitan area to be used as a kind of environmental friendly travelling instead of conventional vehicles and motorcycles.
Based on previous research done on electric bicycles, most studies agree that the depletion of petroleum and the go up in the emission of greenhouse gasses will be the factor that donate to the advancement of electric bicycles (Brand & Ertugrul, 2007; Hsu, et al. , 2011; Indulal & Nair, 2007; Morchin, 1998; Nagendran & Senthil, 2010; Sousa, et al. , 2007; Xiong, et al. , 2010). In spite of this, you may still find plenty enough of room for even more development and advancement in the area of electric powered bicycles. The battery storage system incorporated in electric bicycles provides insufficient energy for long distance journeys and does not carry self-charging capacities (Coates & Charkey, 2002; Nagendran & Senthil, 2010). Electric aided bicycles or Pedelecs confront problems such as an abrupt driving a car power when the engine is brought about (Hsu, et al. , 2011).
The project targets improving the overall performance of electric aided bicycle or Pedelecs. Since there's a demand on electric bicycles, it might be beneficial for world and business group to enrol the introduction of Pedelecs. In a written report by Time Information, most electric bicycles run on lead-acid batteries and are unsuitable for the rising requirements of daily transportation (Ramsy, 2009). Numerous alternatives were set up by various technical engineers and organizations to counter these problems. Some experts focus on the regeneration of electricity from external sources (Somchaiwong & Ponglangka, 2006; Xiong, et al. , 2010). Although some focus on using distinctive varieties of ability management (Brand & Ertugrul, 2007; Hsu, et al. , 2011; Morchin, 1998; Nagendran & Senthil, 2010). For the suggested Regenerative Power for Pedelecs project, it confronts both of these solutions to solve the battery pack problems that occur from conventional electric powered bicycle. Furthermore to replacing cars to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses, the regenerative electric power during a declining gradient reduces the dependency on electricity. The generation of electricity from Indie Power Manufacturers (IPP) indirectly impact the environment. For example, the engineering of Hydroelectric Flower requires large areas especially in remote control areas and considerable quantities of fossil fuels are used to switch on machineries (McKinney, et al. , 2007). The natural habitat, home to both flora and fauna would be ruined along the way. The suggested regenerative power is designed to reduce the vitality utilization in the battery pack storage while providing rechargeable power supply at exactly the same time. The regenerative power incorporated in the design would be able to solve issues associated with the insufficient power in the electric battery storage system. It might be able to extend the life circuit of the battery pack for longer distance travels. Most electric bicycles owners today complain that electric bicycles do not provide sufficient electric power assistance. The most recent Pedelecs today has power-assistance during hill climbing or on unusual surface streets to provide the additional boost with no the rider to exert much power. However, Hsu, et al. , (2011) states that we now have insufficient power assist to overcome three makes, air pull, friction and hill drag. Air move and friction will not require much ability compare to hill pull. The engine of the power assist provides enough power to conquer hill move, friction or air drag while the pedalling ability by the rider remains constant. This might be allow riders to save energy for longer driving.
Most seniors realize that normal bicycles are arduous and dangerous. Therefore, some seniors would rather stay static in the comfort of their homes without getting much exercise and oxygen. Pedalecs would be able to encourage elderly people to get over their dread towards standard bicycles.
In metropolitan town areas, getting out buying some groceries would sometimes be a hassle especially if the grocery shop is not within walking distance. Most people today would prefer to drive their car out to buy some fruits & vegetables or to fetch the daily magazine. It is an extremely unhealthy habit that started out to express among the city citizens. Little do they know that getting oxygen by cycling or going for a daily stroll would increase the well-being of the person and reduces health risk such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Corresponding to a Congressional Article, less than one trip in a single hundred percent is by bicycle (Congress, 2002). The record also mentioned that frequent motorcycle outings would also treat the addiction of smokers and alcoholics.
Regenerative braking in electric bicycles is gaining popularity too. The Panasonic Vivi RX 10-S features a braking system that recharges a 10AH Li-ion secondary batter located next to rear end wheel of the bike (Toto, 2008). Liu, et al. , (2008) pointed out that braking control may be used to convert mechanical energy to electric energy by increasing battery life-span. Making use of the same theory, the proposed design is able to use hilly areas to create electricity. Since no energy is needed for bicycle going downhill, the bicycle still moves downwards because of the causes of gravity. For certain conditions, with the regenerative electricity, braking is not required because the regenerator can reduce the rate of the entire bicycle while heading downhill.
The scope of this research is split into five stages. Enough time scope of the task is likely to be completed in 9 weeks.
At the beginning of the Final 12 months Project, extensive research on the region of electric bicycles must be achieved before building of the task occurs. Research would be an explanatory research in the beginning to obtain a synopsis on the research area and also to discover alternatives to the study objective. Analysis on other research paperwork done to identify the new advancements in technology and rooms for even more studies is noted. Alternatives can be produced by acknowledging the condition encountered by the contemporary society today. Qualitative Research such as research and Questionnaires can be conducted to recognize the current problem faced for even more development. That is important because the success of a product depends upon reaching the demand of contemporary society today. Brainstorming consultations are required after the collected data is examined to determine the feasibility of the job and to acquire various alternatives to the problem. This stage is likely to complete within a month.
The developing process takes place after the analysis of the accumulated data is finalised. A simple concept should be achieved at this stage. All the knowledge on mechanics, electronics and programming is required to design the suggested idea. Computer simulations should be use to design and test the feasibility of the theory. Autodesk Inventor may be used to construct the framework and offer a visual summary of the bike. Matlab and Labview can be utilized in the coding development of the regenerative electricity system. Computer simulations are being used before the structure of the bi-cycle to virtually simulating the look while reducing pointless expenditure. This level is expected to complete in 2 months.
The implementation stage requires building the prototype based on the finalized design. A conventional bicycle is necessary as the primary structure of the look. Electric motor, Lithium Ion Battery and Transmitting System is needed to modify the bi-cycle into an electrical-assisted bicycle. Torque Sensors, Slope Receptors or Tilt Receptors are installed to sense when the engine is necessary. The Slope or Tilt Detectors can be changed by Apple Software known as Gyroscope for a supplementary appealing feature. Additional hardware like a state-of-charge indicator, power tabs hub and throttle change can be added down the road. This level is likely to complete in three months.
The testing stage involves the sensible examination on the now fully built bike. Various lab tests would be performed to determine the performance of the complete system. Two types of assessment can be conducted, laboratory screening and field trials. Laboratory testing will involve a set of factors such as electric power, efficiency, cycle quickness, life-span of the chargeable battery and the motor unit. For field testing, a laptop with a PCMIA credit card is included to the machine to acquire the data. The evaluation would entail around twenty volunteers from different age group, gender, weight and conditioning level. All volunteers have to undergo a predetermine route with different kind of terrain within an metropolitan area. The laptop can be used to record data such as pedalling torque, bicycle velocity and applied power. The data gathered is usually to be used to judge the performance of the machine. A couple of feedback varieties could get out at the end of the trials to measure the satisfactory degree of each volunteer towards the system. This level is likely to complete in 2 weeks.
Report writing is to be conducted at the end of all four periods. The opportunity and design process in building the system are to be complied. The data accumulated are tabulated in graph and figures to illustrate the final results. This stage is expected to complete within month.
There is some limitation that would be encountered along the way of implementing the system. Budget constrain will be a factor because of the costly hardware had a need to construct the bicycle. A full-size prototype is appropriate because a smaller-scale prototype would not be portion its purpose. Within a newspaper report by Star, anticipated to protection issues, electric bicycles may be studied off the street if the Pantry accepts a advice from the Move Ministry (Kong, 2011). In the event the amendment of banning electric bi-cycle is carried out throughout the united states; it may also impact the field-testing of the machine.
This research embarks on the following objectives:
To produce an environmental friendly travelling instead of petrol intake cars
To solve instability issues relating to the abrupt acceleration when the electric motor is flipped on
To offer an alternative regenerative ability on declining slopes to extend the life-span of the battery pack storage system
To improve the efficiency to Pedelecs that exist in the market today
To design a form of transportation for suitable in dense filled urban areas
What are the current impact on the surroundings and ways to solve the problem?
What are the current issues faced by electric bicycle?
What addition or solution regenerative electric power can be installed to classic electric bicycles?
What can be done to charm to the marketplace segment to buy the product?
How to solve issues involving harmful practices of the population by relying on cars for brief distance travels?
The suggested regenerative bicycle would be able to provide as a stepping natural stone for even more development on electric assisted bicycles. Studies by other researches can be carried out by referring of the look system used and the info collected. Constraints and problems discovered can be solved by future research. The proposed design hopes to significantly reduce the emission of greenhouses gasses emitted by petrol influenced cars. If the look meets the demands of the population, producers would start producing more electro-mechanical assisted-bicycle which in return, reduces the market price of the machine to reach away to all sections of the contemporary society.
The expected outcome of this job is to successfully create a working real size electrical power assist bicycle prototype with the capacity of converting mechanised energy to electricity. From the job, novel ideas can be set up that could indirectly benefit the areas of sciences. Furthermore, the theories presented would lead to execution for future potential applications. The tabulations of data accumulated from the task is to also encourage potential analysts especially budget constrain researchers to engage in the region of electric powered vehicles. A well balanced handling electrical aided bicycle is likely to be created to provide safe and comfortable using experience. In return, toned or unphysical fit riders would be able to fill the happiness of driving a bike for travelling or recreational use. The design and technology incorporated in the project is likely to charm to the society and provide as an alternative to cars and motorcycles. This would immediately reduce carbon footprint and slower the procedure of global warming.