Reggio Emilia and Montessor Pedagogy Approaches

Keywords: montessori method, reggio emilia approach

The purpose of this article is to critically analyse two curriculum pedagogical methods. The two methods which will be discussed in this article are Reggio Emilia and Montessori. You will see an in-depth analysis of the two philosophies and how they will vary or similar to one another. It will also are the differing views on the image of a kid, role of the tutor and the inclusion of parents and family. There may also be some dialogue on the critics of both solutions and the relevance to Te Whariki.

Reggio Emilia (RE) is a small city in the Emilia Romagna region of North Italy. After the Second World Warfare the folks of RE urgently had a need to build their lives, not only materially, but also socially and morally. In this time around there was a powerful force behind the development of early youth services (Thornton and Brunton, 2005). The ladies wanted to build a preschool to give a new form of education that another generation would not tolerate inequality and injustice. "There is a strong sense of expect the future arising from the adversity of the past" (Thornton, 2005, p4). The Reggio beliefs originated and formed by the communal and cultural influences in the region. Loris Malaguzzi was the inspiration behind the educational experience in Reggio Emilia.

Maria Montessori was born in the entire year 1870 in Central Italy. According to Standing (1957, p45) Montessori was a "strong minded, vivacious and driven child, displaying the kind of independence so highly valued in Montessori colleges to this day". Montessori graduated as a health care provider in 1896 and was the first girl in Italy to do so. In her early on scientific experience she became a supporter of communal reform, mainly as it related to the wellbeing of women and children. She argued that enhancing the quality of the environment where children resided was a way of getting rid of poverty, inequality, disorder, and criminality. This debate became the foundations of Montessori's life's work. In 1907 she opened up a university for slum children. The institution was called 'Children's House'. It had been an environment in which in children from the slums were improving speedily in learning. She than made a decision to empty her medical/academic careers and devoted her life to promoting her educational method (Feez, 2010).

Malaguzzi was a communal constructivist and was inspired by some of the most renown progressive educators and psychologist such as Piaget, Vygotsky, Bruner, Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Montessori, Dewey (Edwards, 2003). Malaguzzi includes Vygotsky's concept of 'Zone of Proximal' as imperative to the foundations of children educator relationships. There is also a value for the operation of thought and dialect alongside one another in building symbolic representation of thoughts, ideas and feelings (Berk, 2007) Malaguzzi thought that children were 'social' from birth, full of intellect and effective explorers (Gandini, 1997).

Montessori was inspired by the task of Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Itard and Seguin. Montessori's interest was more useful than theoretical, but her theoretical view was predicated on Rousseau's work. Like Rousseau she argues that children think and learn differently then adults. Montessori education offers children flexibility to explore the surroundings through their senses nevertheless they receive little external help with what to pay attention to and how to take into account discoveries" (Feez, 2010). To get a strategy that provided opportunities for liberty and at the same time helping children adjust to society, Montessori looked at the work of French doctor Itard and Seguin. It was Seguin method which Montessori used successfully to teach 'lacking' children in the 1980s, and when she used the same strategy in 1907 to educate street children she was astonished at what unfolded.

The RE idea was inspired by Malaguzzi. Malaguzzi emphasises that the theory which provides the underpinnings for the Reggio strategy requires ongoing communication and dialogue, instructors as co-researchers alongside children, and revisiting ideas, manuals and practice. Children are seen as a 'community of learners'. It recognises the importance of ways that children learn and consider each young one as gifted. Children with disabilities have the full participation into the framework and are spoken to as 'children with special privileges' (Gandini, 1997). Inside the Reggio approach there is no predetermined curriculum. Short-term and long term jobs are developed from children's interest, first side activities and their working theories about the world (Rinaldi, 2006).

Children are encouraged to expand in competence to symbolize and symbolise ideas, feelings through any of the hundred languages. The teacher uses the child's interest and do not provide instructions for reading and writing, nonetheless they promote emergent literacy as children manipulate and talk ideas and feelings. As children improvement through the infant-toddler centre, or preschool, they stay with the same educators. This gives opportunities for a solid relationship between your personnel, children and their own families to be nurtured over the long period.

The RE procedure identifies the environment as a 3rd professor between children, mother or father and educators. Malaguzzi describes the physical environment and the option of resources "as the product of complex connections, many of which can be realised only once the environment is a fully participating component (Thornton, 2005, p43). Instructors in a Reggio centre provide 'amiable' surroundings which motivates exploration, exchanges, and communication.

Montessori thought that her pedagogy was predicated on logical, scienctific inquiry. Regarding to Montessori, from labor and birth to three is the time of the 'unconscious absorbent brain' whereas get older three to six is considered as time for the 'mindful absorbent brain'. In both these times, the child looks for sensory input, rules for movement, order and flexibility to choose and explore deeply with interpretation in a carefully prepared environment which promotes the kid to choose well. In a Montessori class room children are in blended organizations spanning from delivery to 3 years and educators move with the child through the three time cycle (Feez, 2010).

The exercises of useful life skills are an important area of the curriculum. It is predicated on ways people in the culture relate with each other socially, as well as ways in which they complete each day tasks. Dialect also relates to the exercises of practical life, as children utilize it in several ways to work together and talk to others. In a very Montessori view any source that is unrelated to the educational purpose of materials has a potential to distract and mistake the kid (Feez, 2010). Children have limited independence to what they can and can not do in a Montessori class, for example to be disruptive, hostile and disorderly.

The Montessori environment is organized in advance to ensure that children have as much freedom and independence as is possible. The approach emphasises on real things in the surroundings which requires hands on connections. A Montessori class room allows opportunities for significant learning in home chosen activities, and purposeful activities which requires focus (Feez, 2010).

The Reggio view of the kid is central to its viewpoint. The child is referred to as a 'abundant in potential, strong, powerful and experienced'. "With the centre of the pedagogy is the child who is self-assured in building associations; who holds his or her own values; who would like to be reputed and valued for himself as well as holding a admiration for others; who embodies a interest and open mindedness to all that is possible" (Thornton, 2005).

Children are encouraged to develop their own working theories of the world and to explore this in greater depth. Children ideas are respected so that children feel unafraid to make errors or reconstructing their ideas. Self-confidence and self applied image is fostered through dialogue which promotes ingenuity. The notion of 'the hundred dialects' was Malaguzzi's interpretation of recognising the worthiness of all forms of expression and communication in which children interpret the globe and symbolize their ideas and theories.

Montessori school of thought view children as brilliant, active, reality founded self applied regulating and home righting. Montessori presumed that to allow them to live an excellent life, they have to prepare yourself as competent, responsible and adaptive residents who are prolonged learners and problem solvers. Children's free chosen activity is regarded as 'work'. By using a Montessori lens children's works sometimes appears as orientation towards future achievements and play that involves purposeful effort and concentration. Montessori's view on punishments and rewards to make children give consideration were regarded as 'forced' and 'unnatural'. She saw it as a kind of slavery that children needed to be released (Feez, 2010).

The educators in both solutions share the goal in childrearing. They both regard themselves as nurtures, associates and tutorials to children. They be based upon the environment as a pedagogical tool which is carefully well prepared and aesthetically pleasing. Collaboration with parents is highly valued in both strategies. However their contrasting take on a child's learning has business lead them act different functions in a classroom.

Reggio teachers are seen a learner, enthusiastically seeking new knowledge alongside children. Children and educators have emerged as co-researches in everyday process rather than a specialised activity. They provide tools, materials, resources and provide help when needed. Each class has two instructors who work collaboratively as a team. The professors plan in collaboration with the pedagogista and the aterlierista. The pedagogista helps maintain high quality criteria whereas the aterlierista promotes expression through different kinds of media and image systems (Vecchi, 2010). Malaguzzi claim that once children are helped to understand themselves as writers and interventions, also to find the pleasure of inquiry, there desire and interest will increase (Edwards, Gandini, Forman, 1998)

In a Montessori class room teachers are believed as 'directors' which identifies someone who courses and pulls others along. The role of the director is to provide a prepared environment and connect children with it. Montessori also emphasised the role associated with an educator as an observer alternatively than teacher. The method of observation still remains an important component of Montessori tutor training till this day (Torrence and Chattin-Mc Nicholas, 2009). The aim of the professor is to help and encourage children to be impartial, gain self-assurance and disciple so that there are minimal reasons for instructors to intervene (Feez, 2010). Educators give children lessons (also known as presentations) showing children how to use materials or how to do something in the environment. Children are absolve to choose activities once they have had a lesson on how to do the experience. They intervene as little as possible to permit children to make good choices.

In both solutions father or mother/families play an important part in their child's learning and development and are seen as partners alongside teachers. They are simply contained in all decisions concerning the youngster and their source is highly respected. Parents receive comprehensive explanation about their children daily life and progress. Portfolios and other varieties of children work maybe shown and dispatched home as key intervals and transitions (Edwards, 1998).

Respecting relationships are believed one of the very most essential components of the RE way. The relationships founded between parents, children and professors are key elements in holds children's learning and development. Interactions are designed on reciprocal, demanding mutual trust and respect. The Reggio term 'the pedagogy of being attentive' emphasises hearing as openness and wiliness to value the idea of others.

The first preschools were founded by the parents as a symbolic of expectation and desire of better futures for his or her children. Therefore parental involvement has always been important part of the Reggio approach. At that time a child enters an infant-toddler centre/preschool, the parents are believed as active participants in the ongoing educational process. The programme was created to make family members feel at home and an important part of the structure. Thus giving educators the possibility to become familiar with individuals and understand their unique perspective of their own child.

The Montessori procedure includes parent or guardian/families in learning that concerns the youngster. Strong interactions are established between educators and parents to follow the child's progress in home and school room. Regular dialogue and written reviews offers parents information about their child's experiences and learning. Educators provide suggestion on how parents can continue steadily to use the Montessori approach at home. Parents are pleasant to borrow resources and catalogs and also have many opportunities to learn about the Montessori beliefs and practice.

One criticism to the RE strategy is regarding the role of educators as co-researchers along with children. Malaguzzi called this available review method 'a group of idea'. The idea that children learn through interactions and exploration of ideas with teachers is regarded as 'considering critically about difficult questions' somewhat than 'problem dealing with'.

Another criticism is located on the importance of the environment in the Reggio way. The environment is known as 'the third tutor'. It is argued that if the Reggio target is on children and connections and the utilization of space further encourages and holds this connections and that the curriculum is adaptable to the changing interest to the child, so too will the look and environment change. Which means environment is a 'dispatch of action' rather than an 'unchangeable landmark' (Rinaldi, 2006).

It is argued that Montessori education does not allow children the chance for 'learning to learn'. Inside a Montessori view a child had 'learned' when they correctly finished the activity. It is an end state reached when the duty is mastered. Regarding to Crain (2011) in the 'real' world children should try to learn how to learn, to quickly adjust to changing environments and create new conditions. The Montessori approach does not enable critical thinking or exploration it is extremely a method of excellence.

Freedom for initiative and creativity is bound. Teachers have strong rules about how duties are done, and a child finds ways to manipulate the material which they are happy with, the teacher wouldn't normally think about this satisfactory. The educator will encourage the kid to keep working on the same activity until is completed the way it should be. This hinders children thoughts and creativity (Gardner, 1966).

Finally, both approaches make significant links Te Whariki. The rules of 'Family and Community' and 'Romantic relationships' shows relevance to both techniques as parent/family are believed 'partners' in the training with their children. The strand of well being and owed is noticeable in both solutions, as instructors support every individual child learning and development. Wellbeing (Goal 1) helps the Montessori practice of 'useful skills' where the children learn self applied help and home good care skills (Ministry of Education, 1996).

The strand of Contribution facilitates RE practice to explore as groups or individuals. Each child has the possibility to point out their idea. Group assignments encourage children to learn with and along side others. The strand of Communication relates more to Reggio Emilia, than it does to Montessori practice. Communication and dialogue is an important tool which teachers use to extend children's learning. Teachers support and allow children to be creative and expressive. This goal of non verbal and verbal communication shows relevance to the 'Hundred Dialects' (Edwards, 1998).

The strand of exploration is also more relevant to the Reggio Emilia way than Montessori, as Montessori is more set up and responsibilities are demonstrated on how it 'should be done', so that it does not really enable exploration. Exploration is seen a vital principle in the Reggio way as tutor recognise the top of spontaneous play and allow children to check out their curiosity about more depth. Teachers become co-researchers with children to develop working ideas and make sense of the world (MOE, 1996)

In finish, RE and Montessori are both 'child-centred' approaches and also have many similarities as well as variations. Both solutions were established to carefully turn away from violence/war and give children the chance to realize their full probable as creative, clever individuals. In both approaches children are seen as active associates in their own development and learning. The surroundings assists as a pedagogical tool for instructors to offer an aesthetically desirable environment which provides children with flexibility and opportunities for exploration. The professor takes on an important part in both strategies; however their contrasting views on the type of children and their learning cause them to act different assignments. A Reggio Instructor regards themselves as 'co-researchers' alongside children, whereas a Montessori teacher considers themselves as a 'director' or 'observer'. In both approaches parents are seen as equal lovers in the youngster learning and development. Overall, the Reggio Emilia strategy provides children with opportunities for wide open ended exploration, whereas the Montessori methodology is more organized and aspires to provide opportunities for children to chose freely and gain independence.

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