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Relationship Between Gender And Crime

It's often thought that when females commit a criminal offense they are generally given a smaller sentence than if they were a male and this more men commit crimes than in comparison to females. It is also often thought by females that feminists if tried by a guy may get longer than they have to because of what they stand for. This may also apply when the problem is turned around where the male is taking a stand for what they believe in. Most people believe that really the only reason females commit a offense is to give her family and make sure her children are raised in a stable environment. Alternatively females are portrayed are the people who are more likely to shoplift and other criminal offenses that are improbable to be noticed. The work carried out on the region of females and crime is very limited as there are fewer reports.

1. Gender and Patterns of crime.

Carol Smart has given lots of reasons as to why she thinks crime rates for females are neglected.

  • Carol Smart suggests that because females commit so few offences they as not viewed as a lot of a hazard as men are because they commit much more serious crimes therefore females are believed to be less of any threat to society.
  • She also says that in both sociology and criminology professions there are more males employed than women therefore more studies have been on the males mind-set for crime instead of women's mind-set.
  • Also criminology is activated by the desire to control, behaviour that is undoubtedly challenging. Females have been viewed as less problematic then men so they receive less attention for the crimes they have determined.

Carol Smart has quoted judges who are being biased against females:

It is well known that ladies in particular and small kids will tend to be untruthful and invent reports (Judge Sutcliffe 1976) how would the feminine fell in this case? She would dropped like it was her mistake like he previously committed a crime.

She also asks three very interesting questions about females and what crimes the commit and just why they do:

  1. 'Do females really commit fewer crimes then guys, or will be the statistics misleading? Some Sociologists have advised that females offences are constantly under-recorded by the authorities'
  2. 'Although females continue steadily to commit comparatively few crimes, some people have suggested that the percentage of crimes determined by females has been increasing. Matching to lots of commentators this alleged increase has resulted from ''Women's Liberation''. Is this so?'
  3. 'Why do females who break regulations commit offences?'.

2. Official Figures, Criminality and Gender.

Otto Pollak helps clarify the answers to the above mentioned questions. He has viewed the information of crimes devoted by females over different countries so that it is not as accurate as it might be if the U. K information were used. Pollak insists that the state figures are very vague level of female criminality.

He further indicates that he feels that a huge amount of petty theft crimes are committed by females, and the asserted that such offences which were improbable of coming to the awareness of the machine. Many unreported offences were determined by female home servants.

Otto Pollak also insinuated a females household roles gave them a significant chance to commit such crimes like Poisoning Family members and sexually abusing their children.

The police, Magistrates and other law enforcement officials have a tendency to be male. Elevated to be courteous, and are usually compassionate towards girl offenders so that smaller level of females becomes obvious in the information.

3. Criticism of Otto Pollak

Frances Heidensohn used the figures for the U. K to point out the major defects in Otto Pollak's argument.

  • Frances Heidensohn point out flaws in the claims above with his research.
  • Most shoplift is in fact done by dark ages males somewhat than females.
  • That enough time Pollak was writing there is a slash in the amount of female household Servants.
  • Heidensohn draws recognition to the quantity of offences performed against prostitutes by male clients, and the incident of male crimes in home life, all the data point towards males being significantly more likely than a woman to commit extreme and intimate offence in the solitude of these own home.
  • Otto Pollak's statistical research is dependant on insignificant data and unconfirmed assertions. Heidensohn notes that the 'disguise of menstruation is in no way collective and changed sexual population have long since made gibberish of his view of passive, friendly females threatening revenge.

4. Evidence resistant to the 'Chivalry' Thesis

Steven container has re-examined the reports from self-report studies in Britain and the united states. Many of these studies show some compassion regarding females, the greater part do not.

The Mass of verification on females committing serious offences does not give obvious basis to view that they get given a degree of difference plus more positive do from participants of the city, law enforcement and judges.

Abigail Buckle and David P. Farrington preformed a small-scaled security study of shoplifting in a British office store in southwest Britain in 1981. Shoplifting is one crime where the female offenders nearly match the male offenders in the state statistics. This research found that two point eight percent of the one hundred and forty-two males detected shoplifted but only one point four percent of the 3 hundred and sixty-one females shoplifted. Evidently this study uses much too small an example to get a precise assumption, but as one of the very few attempts to measure crime precisely it does prove some information resistant to the Chivalry Thesis.

In 1983 David P. Farrington and Allison Morris conducted a report off sentencing in magistrate courts. They began by noting the some recognized figures do imply more compassion towards females. E. g. In 1979 six point six percent of males were found guilty of indictable while only two percent of females were convicted. Farrington and Morris evaluated data in sentencing for 500 and eight offences of robbery in Cambridge in the same time. Somebody hundred and ten of the offences were dedicated by females. Although guys receive more severe sentences than females, the study found that the differences disappeared when the harshness of offences was taken into account. Farrington and Morris deducted that there was no self-sufficient effect of making love on sentencing seriousness.

Roger Hood on the West midlands in 1989 carried out a more recent study the used a sample of two thousand eight hundred and eighty-four male and four hundred and thirty-three female defendants in crown courts. Hood likened the sentencing of men and women, controlling for factors which he previously found affected the sentencing of men. He discovered that white women were give custodial phrases thirty-four percent less often than men in similar circumstances and dark women thirty-seven percent less often.

5. Female Offense and Women's Liberation.

Freda Adler claimed that women's liberation acquired shown the way to today's form of feminine legal and has amplified female's engagement in crime.

Freda also considers that the biological theories aren't precise and she thinks that is has nothing to do with a females hormones, aggression and criminality.

In the united states between 1960 and 1972 robberies by females proceeded to go up by two hundred and seventy-seven percent men by only one hundred and sixty-nine percent. Embezzlement by females increased by 2 hundred and eighty percent in the same time frame, whereas for males it increased by as little as fifty percent.

Overall arrests rates for females increased three times as fast as those for men and specifically among feminine delinquents.

Why then were women becoming so much more involved in offense?

Adler believed the main reason was that females were dealing with male social roles in both respectable and illegitimate regions of performance. She pressured the speed and amount of change declaring: 'there is a tide in the affairs of females as well as males, and in the last decade it had been sweeping over barriers which have shielded male prerogatives and eroding the conventional differences which once properly described the gender jobs. '

Adler's views became very contentious, generally as they could be used to imply that the woman's liberation was a bad thing. They replicated

Substantial research in to the question on whether female offense is increasing or not. Adler is counting on statistics that happen to be clearly unreliable because they are not recorded properly as stated before by Carol Smart and Frances Heidensohn. They believe that that system is too delicate on females and that they will escape with petty crimes than men are.


Smart, C. Women, Offense and Criminology 1976

Pollak, O. The Criminality of women 1950

Heidensohn, F. Women and Crime 1985

Box, S. Tough economy, Crime and consequence 1987

Adler, F. Sisters in criminal offenses 1975

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