At the end of the twelfth century, the Mongols were lots of small tribes that resided in the center of Central Asia. They moved from pasture to pasture with the times of year and for that reason often fought with the other person or sometimes formed alliances. The surge of the Mongols commenced when Genghis Khan united the tribes in 1206 and became the first ruler of Mongolia. His ambitions did not stop at uniting the tribes; he started to conquer other countries in 1209 and started out building his empire. "In 25 years, the Mongol army conquered more lands and folks than the Romans got conquered in four hundred years" (Weatherford xviii). Minus the management of Genghis Khan, the tribal Mongols wouldn't normally have grown into a vast empire. But the Mongols were delivered naturally as fierce warriors, Genghis Khan's company skills and armed service methods helped the Mongols expand for an empire.
The Mongols' geographic and economical conditions equipped them for warfare. The Mongols resided under harsh geographical conditions. Their winters were extremely frigid, and everything the lakes and rivers were frozen by November. They also experienced hot summers with very little rainfall (Marshall 16). It had been impossible for the Mongols to keep an agricultural market under this kind of weather. They were forced to rely upon hunting and herding to produce a living. The Mongols were trained to ride horses, and blast bows and arrows when they were several years old (Carpini 54). Their horseback riding skills and their hunting skills equipped them to be great warriors. Furthermore, the Mongols needed to migrate many times each year to find pastures and water for their pets (Marshall 16). These migrations showed the Mongols' business skills because each migration involved hundreds of individuals and thousands of animals. The Mongols could not bring along a great deal of food during their movements. These seasonal migrations made the Mongols tougher than other agricultural societies. The Mongols therefore provided the best natural material for Genghis Khan to mildew into a great military.
Genghis Khan reorganized the Mongol military after his climb of power to ensure loyalty. The system he used was based on the number ten. In such a new system, ten family members were prepared into a group called an arban. Ten arbans became a jagun, and ten jaguns composed a minghan. Then, ten minghans made-up a tumen which comprised of 10, 000 men (Marshall 37). In many cases, a minghan was made up of family members with tribal ties. However, Genghis Khan sometimes chose to put people from different tribes and clans in the same device. In this way, Genghis Khan broke the power of the old tribes and avoided the tribal chiefs to arrange revolt. Genghis Khan purchased each arban to be dedicated to each other like brothers. "No-one of them could ever before leave the other behind in fight as a captive" (Weatherford 52). He also demanded complete willpower among his army. As Carpini described, "when the collection goes into challenge, if a couple of or three or more flee from the squad of ten, all ten are wiped out; in case all ten flee, unless the rest of the hundred flee, all are killed" (Carpini 71). All men older than fourteen had to join the army. If they were working, their wives and children journeyed along (Marshall 37). This resulted in an edge for the Mongol military. In traditional societies, armies had to be brought up from the farming people. These were not used to discipline, and they desired to returning home with their family members more than they wished to fight their foes. On the contrary, the Mongol military were fully devoted to their army.
Equipment was very important to an army, and the Mongols decided to go with great weapons. The Mongols' main weapon was the composite bow. Each soldier carried two to three bows and a sizable quiver comprising at least sixty arrows for different purposes. The Mongol bowman was trained to photograph as they rode on the horses at full speed. They were in a position to hit their targets in front of him as well as behind him. Further, their bow allowed them to photograph an arrow more than 2 hundred yards (Carpini 26). Friar Carpini noticed that the Mongol arrows were "tempered when they are hot in drinking water mixed with salt. . . so that they should be quite strong for penetrating armor" (Carpini 89). Genghis Khan also had his military worn silk undershirts. If the soldier got hit by an foe arrow, the silk would cover across the arrow. The arrow could then be carefully removed without ripping more flesh and structure (Marshall 39-40). Genghis Khan was able to utilize the Mongols' expertise in archery for his armed forces expansion.
The horses were even more important to the Mongol warriors than their bows. Every soldier in the Mongol army was equipped riders; none of them was feet soldier. This allowed them to travel fifty to sixty miles per day. Each Mongol had taken several horses with him on advertising campaign to avoid exhausting the horses (Carpini 26). The Mongols trained their horses so well that "they wheeled this way or that as quickly as dog would do" (Marco Polo 70). The combination of horses and the bows allowed the Mongols to defeat their enemies without having to be near them. Besides giving the Mongols ability to move and speed that they needed for their campaigns, horses also became the Mongols food supply in case there is need. Relating to Marco Polo, the Mongols "will drive a good ten days' trip without procedures and without making a flame, living only on the blood of their horses; for each rider pierces a vein of his horses and drinks the blood. There is also their dried dairy. . . . . "(Marco Polo 70). With no horses, the Mongols might not be that successful in their expansion.
Genghis Khan altered the Mongols twelve-monthly hunt into a military operation. The Mongols used the hunt to practice military strategies. A number of techniques were used. After their search of victim, the Mongols fanned out and made a circle. They gradually shut in until all the animals were stuck in a band of men and horses. At the control of the Khan, the hunters would unleash their arrows and started out their slaughter. Another strategy was to string the military along a starting lines, sometimes even 80 mls long. On a signal, the Mongols would march frontward, getting rid of all the pets they encountered on the way (Marshall 40-42). Under Genghis Khan's control, the hunting of pets or animals became the pursuit of enemies. The pretended withdrawal was a favorite tactic used again and again successfully. When Genghis Khan experienced an opponent that he cannot easily dominate, he often bought his troops to retreat and then make an ambush to capture the enemies. These retreats could go on a day to even ten days and nights. Once the opposing army began to split up, the Mongols would secretly come out to strike (Carpini 75). This often resulted in total triumph.
Genghis Khan always had complete planning before he launched an assault. He sent out scouts ahead of the main invasion force to look at the water resources, weather, street conditions, people, and every other information that could be great for his army. These scouts also searched for a path to retreat if it became necessary during their invasion (Weatherford 86). Genghis Khan also planned out an in depth communication system. A lot of the Mongols officials were illiterate. All of the orders had to be in oral communication. Oral communication could lead to inaccuracy of the message. The Mongol warriors therefore used a set of melodies to communicate. Hearing the meaning was like learning a fresh verse to a songs (Weatherford 88). Genghis Khan also used "torches, whistling arrows, smoke cigars, flares and flags, and arm signs" to transmit information over brief distance during warfare. For longer distance, Genghis Khan used "arrow messengers" who rode from station to train station to distribute information (Weatherford 72). Again, Genghis Khan proven his capacity in planning out his promotions.
Genghis Khan was good at using scare methods. He understood that it was better to get a city to surrender without have difficulty instead of resorting to warfare. In 1215, Genghis Khan invaded Chung-tu, one of the most significant city in northern China. Besides capturing arrows burning onto the Chinese's wooden houses, Genghis Khan also acquired the soldiers started a massacre with swords. Following the fire and the slaughter, "the streets were greasy with human body fat and full of carcasses" (Marshall 48). The destruction sent an obvious message to China's friends and neighbors. In 1218, the Koreans surrendered to the Mongols with huge obligations in order to avoid damage (Marshall 48). Genghis Khan also used scare practices to deceive the size of his army. When his army had fewer troops than his adversary, he used guys, women, and even straw dummies on horses to cover up their numbers far away (Carpini 75). At other times, he directed soldiers out to put fine sand in the wind or linked tree branches to the equine tails to stir up dirt so that his opponent would think the Mongols had a bigger military (Marshall 96). Genghis Khan's scare practices often been successful in confusing and intimidating his enemies.
Genghis Khan was cunning, and he was a genius in using trickery. During the invasion of Hsi-Hsia, the Tangut Point out in the south, Genghis Khan's army experienced their first fortified city, Volohai. The Mongols were not able to defeat the town. Genghis Khan then negotiated with the fortress's commander. He agreed to withdraw his invasion if the commander offered him one thousand felines and ten thousand swallows. The commander agreed to this deal and provided the pets to the Mongols, making sure that the city gate stay sealed through the delivery. Genghis Khan required the pets or animals and bought his men to link tufts of cotton to the tails of the birds and felines. Then they place the cottons on fire and let the family pets loose. The animals fled back to their house city. The town was used up down, and the Mongols been successful in taking down a fortified city (Prawdin 107-108). To be able to overtake other fortified locations, Genghis Khan used other tricks. During the Jurched campaign, in order to get the enemy out with their fortified gates, Genghis Khan commanded his military to pretend to retreat. Because they fled, the troops left behind their tools. The adversary then directed their military out to accumulate the equipments, convinced that the Mongols kept in fear. The Mongols then blogged the exposed city gates with carts and animals, and they rushed in and attacked the town (Weatherford 95). Without Genghis Khan's cunning ideas, the Mongols wouldn't normally have an opportunity to take over these fortresses.
Genghis Khan discovered from his experience that he needed new development to beat fortified cities. He previously pointed out that the Chinese designers knew developing siege machines which could demolish fortified city wall surfaces. These machines threw "catapult hurled rocks, flaming fluids, and other hazardous chemicals at or across city wall space" (Weatherford 94). After every battle against the Chinese, Genghis Khan recruited Chinese technicians from the captives. The Mongol army therefore added on engineering models. Besides building mechanised siege machines for the Mongols, these technical engineers also helped in diverting waterways and digging tunnels in order to strike some forts (Carpini 76). Genghis Khan was happy to adapt in order to beat his enemies more efficiently.
In finish, the Mongols were fierce warriors by nature whom Genghis Khan had a need to create his empire. Their migrations made them challenging. Herding perfected their driving skills, and hunting made them excellent archers. However, they needed a great head so that they could expand to be an empire. From his climb to vitality in 1206 to his death in 1227, Genghis Khan "conquered more than twice as much as any other man in history" (Weatherford xviii). His ability to bring about commitment of his military, his skills in planning promotions, his brilliant armed service techniques, and his determination to adapt made him one of the biggest conquerors in world history.