Critically discuss how the social identity point of view can help negotiation in organisations'
There are extensive ways in which the social individuality point of view can help the process of negotiation in organisations. When realtors - people who help an organisation - consider themselves to be insiders in the organisation group they have a tendency to work harder. Creating a host in which employees feel they are simply a central part of the company is thus desirable and possible; there are potential methods organisations may use to do this.
Social identity perspective concerns how individuals identify themselves as part of various groupings and means that an individual tends to have a bias towards other users of the same group as them compared a member of your different groups. In this essay I shall start by analysing the key theories concerning public identity point of view before providing a broader critical examination.
Social id theory. Social individuality theory concerns how individuals identification themselves as being part of a certain group, and why they do this. Social personal information theory states that folks have a tendency to classify themselves concerning certain categories(Hau Siu Chow, 2004). For example these categories can concern competition or gender - or probably occasionally they could concern a work organsiation. Rubin (2002) suggests a "successful inter-group bias creates or helps to protect relatively high in-group position, in that way providing a positive communal personal information for in-group people and fulfilling their need for positive self-esteem. "
Dual concern model of negotiation. This style of negotiation emphasises concern for others.
Individual difference approach. This process concerns people's individual behavior, and exactly how one individual's tendencies varies from that of another. People can potentially differ form each other in many areas of their personality, for example in degrees of self-esteem.
Motivational Approach. Concerns the various techniques individuals can be encouraged to do something in a certain way regarding social identity point of view. One way of motivating your personnel is to provide hem with challenging work. The more challenging a task is then the more motivated staff will be to go and achieve a successful outcome for the reason that given process (Chalofsky, 2003).
Goal-setting theory. Goal-setting theory assesses the impact which goals may have on individual performance. This theory expresses that if an organsiation sets easily attainable goals then this will have a tendency to correlate with lower performance by the individual. That is also the case if these goals are obscure or not easily recognisable. More specific goals tend to result in a higher level of performance and better effectiveness from the individual. A narrowing of the interest of the average person is effective in attaining this end. Goal-setting theory works on the belief that specific goals have a tendency to encourage workers to utilize persistence when confronted with setbacks. Goal-setting is a classic motivational tool.
Expectancy theory. Expectancy theory concerns the techniques an individual goes through when making options. Individuals tend to believe that investing in more work will cause better job performance. This theory states that systems should link awards tightly to performance. Neff (2002) state governments that "Inspiration depends on how much a person would like something (the effectiveness of the valence) in accordance with other activities, and the recognized effort-reward probability (expectancy) that they will get it. "
Control theory. This theory concerns the endeavors by humans to control what they understand being the otherness of their surroundings, and is also also known as choice theory. The potency of social makes and systems sometimes appears to be very important. Deviant action occurs when exterior forces on patterns are week. In order for an individual to be influenced positively they want strong public bonds. Strong bonds with contemporary society make deviance by the individual a more costly choice and therefore a choice which they will be less likely to make.
Feedback theory. This theory concerns reviews and how responses can help motivate individuals in an organsiation. When the organsiation works effectively as one then feedback can be quite important in assisting to forge a good collective individuality. If an individual is encouraged to provide feedback then it could be beneficial to both them and the individual.
Self-categorisation theory. This theory, which is also called the social identification theory, states that people often put others and ourselves into categories. We compare our very own 'in-group' as being more beneficial than an 'out-group' (Rubin, 2002). What then occurs is an inter-personal inter-group continuum. An individual's self-conception is developed and works on numerous degrees of inclusiveness. When comparing yourself to other teams you start to se yourself as part of a group rather than an individual.
Empirical studies. Empirical studies are used in mindset for when ends derive from evidence and not simply one theory.
In the present day workplace knowing of social identity perspective can be incredibly useful. Various different in-groups may exist within one organisation. An extremely important focus for organisations is the demography of the workforce. For example if there are associates of several different social identity teams, then it is sensible for an organisation to, for example, have a demographically diverse committee membership. Diverse membership of the committee can help achieve good negotiation. If one racial or gender group in a organisation feels that they are being marginalised in the decision-making process then this may potentially have a very negative effect on the company and how it works as a whole. A predicament where groupings feel marginalised has the effect of reinforcing hierarchies within the organisation (Hau Siu Chow, 2002).
Many, such as Theresa Neff, feel that hierarchies need to be deemphasised within an organisation. Within a hierarchical workforce those in the bottom are more likely to identify themselves as being against those at the very top (Neff, 2002). One of the ways organisations make an effort to get around this issue is by the re-labelling of job game titles so that more menial or secretarial functions receive more aspirational job-titles. Organisations also now often rely more on personnel to make decisions, which really helps to create a far more efficiently motivated labor force (Chalofsky, 2003). This is against a backdrop in which social identity theory is becoming central to the way that organisations operate (Scott, 2007), as more attention is paid by organisations to organisational psychology.
In the interpersonal identity perspective members of the 'in-group' have a tendency to look more favourably on themselves than they actually on members of out-group (Rubin & Hazel, 2002). A group's dedication is vital to its central individuality, which is important a group feel they have a central cause to help within their company (Ellemars, Spears& Doosje, 2002). It is helpful if an organisation creates an example meaning the workforce feel they will work to a central plan. These kinds of mindset have its roots in the masses psychology of Gustave Le Bon. A good example of crowd psychology in action is seen in the behavior often observed in a football masses where in fact the group personality and the collective will of the audience becomes better than mere individual will.
On an organisational level it is clearly important that the collective will of associates of the company are taken into account. You can find strong evidence that client satisfaction has a direct correlation to the task satisfaction of your organisation which is offering them. In this way it is certainly beneficial to take into account the various areas of social identity point of view. An example of a successful company with high levels of customer satisfaction is South West Airlines (SWA) which runs in the us. In the west Airlines all employees are cared for as part of the family, and SWA also bring a proactive method of Union discussions (Neff, 2002). There are several ways of assisting to motivate personnel for the probable of negotiation in organisations (Chalofsky, 2003).
When motivating an organsiation goal-setting theory obviously has its advantages which are attractive. To be able to commit to an objective as an employee you need to understand that what the importance of this goal is. Thus a strong organisational personal information can help give a worker a concept of what these goals are. It is well worth noting that the goals of any manager do not necessarily allay with the goals of any organsiation all together, therefore producing a strong organisational identification can prevent these problems. One manner in which organisational id can be inspired is through using techniques such as dress rules (Scott, 2007); this effectively helps to create an in group bias (Rubin & Hazel, 2002). Communication must also be encouraged in a organisation, to help those at the bottom share an identification with those at the top (Scott, 2007).
Social Identity theory has its problems though. Once you check out expectancy theory, control theory and self-categorisation theory a central part of the determination for the workforce is coercion. This coercion is manifested in the setting of goals, which is also encouraged by goal-setting theory. Preparing targets is very much indeed a coercive approach to motivation in an organisation, as this means that an person is failing if indeed they do not reach that aim for. There is certainly increased evidence that is not the most effective way of working. Chalofsky (2003) argues that a central matter for staff is that they should have the possibility to learn as they work. If opportunities for learning are participating this helps to create a happier work environment, and Chalofsky argues that the three intrinsic elements of work life are self, work and balance. The best way to inspire people in the permanent is to provide them with challenging work (Neff, 2002); nevertheless the carrot can be put to good use combined with the keep. Expectancy theory seems to claim that a subtler way by an organisation is desirable. As there are many different reasons why an individual may want to achieve a certain end, then a person difference way may become more valuable to discussions within an company.
Whilst control theory on the main one hand argues that folks are obviously timid of their environment, it also appears to suggest that the answer is to put forward coercive methods to prevent a person performing in a 'deviant' manner. Famous brands Chalofsky do not go along with this theory, and believe that setting targets is actually a misuse of time. Enron is a good modern day exemplory case of where coercive methods of desire have been used through the setting of specific focuses on. Whilst such goals can help focus and stimulate an individual, it can be damaging if they're competing in such a manner where inability is not at all desirable. This may grow to be catastrophic for the company, as was the case for Enron. Specific difference theory appears to be a more practical procedure; however this appears to de-emphasis the collective social identity.
In conclusion, making use of the theory of social identification perspective can be highly beneficial in assisting negotiation in organisations. If you create an atmosphere inside your organisation in which employees are happy working as a whole then the company can become a fully-functioning in-group. However an important point which must be emphasised is the fact that social id is not always naturally occurring. There are several ways in which an organisation can encourage divisiveness through public identity. If customers of different racial or gender communities feel that there is not enough co-operation by participants of other organizations then this can damage an organisation. Likewise an ostentatiously hierarchical company can create an 'in-group' / 'out-group' separate between those at the top of the tree and those in the bottom. Whilst motivational way emphasises the desirability of setting clearly defined targets, this too can create an in-group / out-group system which can adversely effect an organisation. Individuals have a tendency to be motivated in different ways, and for that reason it is effective in an organisation to foster inclusiveness.
By building a collective identity in a organisation social individuality point of view can be of strong use to organisations in a negotiation scenario.
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Scott, C. R. , (2007), Communication and Social Personal information Theory: Existing and Potential Links in Organizational Id Research, Communication Studies, Amount: 58. Concern: 2, p123+