Posted at 05.10.2018
This project is dependant on the use of technology to improve mathematics in secondary schools of Mauritius. It discusses about the many theories associated in the use of new means of communication and teaching-learning mathematics, as well as the available scientific tools and their applications. After much research work, this project has been successfully completed and applied on an example of 'Lower six' students.
PURPOSE WITH THE STUDY
Mathematics is an essential subject at the primary and supplementary educational level. The topic finds its place in all sciences, accountability, economics and technology. To be able to understand principles or application of statistics in the latter topics, a good base in mathematics is highly recommended. Also, after completion of supplementary education, a student must give proof a good analytical and numeracy skill through his/her mathematics results to be able to qualify for a chair for almost all of the field of the tertiary education locally or overseas. Consequently, instructors and the institution administration should leave no stone unturned in creating a competent teaching-learning environment and bonuses for his or her students.
Mathematics is a subject which includes been regarded as being very difficult by many students and parents. This stereotype thought process has acted as a demotivating factor and has lead to a downfall in the performance of students in mathematics, especially in top extra classes (Form 4 - Top 6). Many students take the subject as a burden since it is just a compulsory at the mercy of their analysis stream. Hence, Mathematics, including Additional Mathematics, is neglected leading to research undone or uncompleted and poor performance in assessments and exams.
JUSTIFICATION FROM THE STUDY
At the start of every academic 12 months, plenty of problem are encountered by professors and school administration to persuade students and make clear to them the importance of mathematics in their subject combination for Lower Six. Also, following the first few weeks of pursuing Additional Mathematics classes, many students wish to drop the topic, but because the subject is essential for technology, economics and technology channels, students find no solution. This situation comes up because students are exposure to more abstract mathematics than the basic. As a solution to this mathematics crisis, efforts need to be done to build up the educational mindset and mathematical pedagogy.
Technology is the tools or the ways used by individuals to enhance the standard of living or comfort of moving into their civilization. The children of this time are highly and easily fascinated by technology. In other words, it could be said that it is the 'fashion of technology'; therefore, technology can become more easily used as a teaching-learning tools to accomplish educational goals.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS STUDY
The use of technology in coaching mathematics will attract students towards liking the subject, thus motivating those to work harder, get a clearer knowledge of concepts, develop their reflex, rational thinking and problem-solving skills, and enhance their performance as a whole in the subject.
LIMITATION FROM THE STUDY
Despite all the theories and scientific tools existing, it's very depressing that anticipated to restricting resources, materials and finance in our educational system, it's very difficult to use all instantaneously. Also, though technology is reaching the society extremely fast, there are still individuals who cannot find the money for to provide their children with all technical facilities. Therefore, children from such individuals would feel very underprivileged if technology is completely applied to teaching and learning. For instance, these children will be deprived if any computer-based or internet-based research is given.
Hence, the job is based on "theoretical procedure" so that students interact "on this strategy" with the next "learning activities".
SUMMARY IN THE CHAPTERS
(Yet to be written)
PSYCHOLOGY AND PEDAGOGY IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
Piaget and the learning of Mathematics
Jean Piaget (1896 - 1980) was a Swiss developmental psychologist and philosopher known for his epistemological studies with children. He positioned great importance on the education of children. Piaget's theory is a theory of intellectual development rather than theory of learning, educating, training or curriculum in general or with respect to mathematics specifically. But much writing and many investigations have been directed toward hypothesized implications of Piaget's theory for mathematics learning, teaching and education, for the nature and sequence of curricular content, as well as for classroom structure, group and management. Also, concerns have been indicated regarding ways in which Piaget's theory has been put on different facets of education and mathematics.
Very often it has been suggested that one Piagetian tasks (conservation responsibilities, for case) give a good basis for identifying students' willingness for learning one aspect or another of university mathematics. But Hiebert and Carpenter (1982) have indicated that the available research information suggests that Piagetian tasks are not useful willingness steps. The hypothesis was that Piagetian responsibilities may be used to identify children who struggle to benefit from teaching in mathematics, but all the available evidence clearly advised that the hypothesis was null. Instead, many children who fail Piagetian tasks have the ability to learn mathematical ideas and skills.
Kirby and Biggs (1980) indicated that "Cognition returned to psychology in the 1960s and flourished in the 1970s, permeating most areas of mindset. Its metaphor, information control, became dominant in that discipline".
More right to the point, Groen and Kieran (1983) pointed out that "A few years ago, research on children's mathematics was dominated by Piaget. To numerous in the field, the duty was to extend Piaget's theory or reinterpret it. Information-processing theory, broadly conceived, has changed the Piagetian platform as a wide explanatory model. The significance of information-processing theory in cognitive development is continuing to grow concurrently with a retreat from the Piagetian framework".
Within the present-day framework of cognitive knowledge, emphasis is located after understanding and understanding. The learning of mathematics and research associated with such learning is more and more commonly being identified or explained with regards to a system which includes provision for the consumption of information, because of its compilation within an operating memory, and then for interaction with other information stored within and retrieved from a long-term ram.
Latest research associated with the learning of mathematics is a lot more likely to target after individuals than after groups. It looks beyond observable performance related to behavioral goals for its data platform. Romberg and Carpenter (in press) have suggested that "internal cognitive functions are acknowledged. Rational task research, which is based on a logical analysis by experts, has developed to empirical task analysis, which targets what children do when they solve mathematics problems". A few of this "doing" may be observable in a student's explicit actions, but a lot of the "doing" may be not only conditions of your student's observable but self-reportable thinking.
The term metacognition refers to a person's knowing of and level of sensitivity to his own thought processes, and includes the ability to keep an eye on and control such techniques to some degree. There is growing facts that learning associated with problem fixing is facilitated or enhanced by a student's increased awareness of metacognitive aspects of the problem-solving process. Also, there exists evidence that a few of the dissimilarities between expert and beginner problem solvers may be related to variations in metacognitive skills.
Romberg and Carpenter (in press) believe that "We currently know considerably more about how exactly children learn mathematics than we realize about how to apply this knowledge to mathematics education. Research is obviously had a need to explore how understanding of children's learning of mathematics can be employed to the look of instructions". Furthermore, "But the emphasis in research on learning has altered dramatically within the last 15 years, the bond between theories of instruction and theories of learning remains a concern".
Cognitive Guided Instruction
Cognitively Guided Instruction is a specialist development program based on a built-in program of research on
the development of students' numerical thinking;
instruction that influences that development;
teachers' knowledge and beliefs that influence their instructional practice;
the way that teachers' knowledge, beliefs, and practices are influenced by their knowledge of students' numerical thinking.
CGI can be an approach to educating mathematics rather than a curriculum program. At the main of this approach is the practice of hearing children's mathematical thinking and utilizing it as a basis for education. Research centered frameworks of children's thinking in the domains of addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, base-ten ideas, multi-digit businesses, algebra, geometry and fractions provide guidance to teachers about hearing their students. Circumstance studies of educators using CGI have shown the most attained teachers use a variety of practices to increase children's numerical thinking. It really is a perception of CGI that there is no person way to use the approach which professors' professional judgment is central to making decisions about how precisely to utilize information about children's thinking.
The research basis on children's numerical thinking after which CGI is situated demonstrates children have the ability to solve problems without direct training by drawing after informal knowledge of everyday situations. For instance, a study of kindergarten children (Carpenter, et al. , 1993) exhibited that small children can solve problems including what exactly are normally considered advanced mathematics such as multiplication, division, and multistep problems, by using direct modeling. Direct modeling can be an approach to problem solving where the child, in the absence of more sophisticated knowledge of mathematics, constructs a solution to a tale problem by modeling the action or composition.
The drive for learning
Another critical assumption about the mother nature of the learner concerns the level and way to obtain desire for learning. Matching to Von Glasersfeld (1989) sustaining drive to learn is firmly reliant on the learner's self-assurance in his / her prospect of learning. These thoughts of competence and opinion in potential to solve new problems are derived from first-hand experience of mastery of problems in the past and are much more powerful than any external acknowledgment and motivation. This web links up with Vygotsky's "zone of proximal development", where learners are challenged within close proximity to their current degree of development. By experiencing the successful completion of challenging tasks, learners gain self confidence and inspiration to embark on more complex difficulties.
The term educational technology is often associated with, and includes, instructional theory and learning theory. Educational technology, also called e-learning, instructional technology and learning technology, is the utilization of technology to aid the learning process. It really is an innovative way to create, deliver, facilitate, and manage education for learners of all ages, whether it's face-to-face in a class, online, or a combo of methods. While instructional technology protects the functions and systems of learning and training, educational technology includes other systems found in the process of developing human being capability. It offers, but is not limited to, software, hardware, as well as internet applications and activities. Although technology is widely used in the supervision, management of education and in research, educational technology is merely worried about the impact of technology on the learning process. Quite simply, technology is used as an instrument or support to provide learning materials, to help communication also to provide examination and feedback. Within this present information era, the demand for knowledge keeps growing at an extremely fast rate resulting in the introduction of e-learning at a higher pace.
Some of the many types of technologies that can be found in today's traditional classrooms are:
With your computer in the school room, a teacher would be able to demonstrate a new lesson, present new material, illustrate how to use new programs, and show new websites.
In today's population, children learn how to use the computer and navigate their way by having a website.
Therefore, a class web page is a fairly easy way to display students' work. Once a web page was created, the teacher can post research assignments or other university student works.
Class websites and wikis
Blogs allow students to keep up a operating dialogue, such as a journal, thoughts, ideas, and tasks. They also provide for learner comment and reflection. Wikis are more group focused to allow multiple participants of the group to change a single document and create a truly collaborative and carefully edited finished product.
Wireless classroom microphones
Noisy classrooms are a daily occurrence, and by using microphones, students have the ability to hear their teachers more clearly. Children learn better when they notice the teacher clearly. The benefit for educators is that they no longer lose their voices at the end of your day.
Mobile devices such as clickers or smartphone can be used to improve the experience in the school room by giving the possibility for professors to get feedback.
An interactive whiteboard provides touch control of computer applications. These enhance the experience in the class room by showing whatever can be on a screen. This not only supports aesthetic learning, but additionally it is interactive, that is, students can sketch, write, or manipulate images on the SmartBoard.
Streamed training video websites can be employed to enhance a classroom lessons, for illustration, United Streaming, Tutor Pipe, etc.
Podcasting is a comparatively new invention which allows anybody to publish files to the web where individuals can subscribe and acquire new audio documents from people with a subscription. The principal good thing about podcasting for educators is fairly simple. It enables teachers to attain students through the medium that is both the new style of today's youngsters, and a part of their daily lives. For the technology that only takes a computer, microphone headset and web connection, podcasting gets the capacity of improving a student's education beyond the class room. When students listen to the podcasts of other students as well as their own, they can easily illustrate their capacities to recognize and specify quality and develop their creativity. This is often a great tool for learning and expanding literacy inside and outside the school room. Podcasting can help sharpen students' vocabulary, writing, editing, presenting and public speaking, and presentation skills. Students will also learn skills that'll be valuable in the working world, such as communication, time management, and problem-solving.
There are many other tools being employed depending on the local school panel and funds available. These may include digital cameras, camcorders, document cameras, or LCD projectors.
Educational leadership, also known as school management, is the process of enlisting and guiding the talents and energies of educators, pupils, and parents toward reaching common educational seeks. Educational leadership came into attention in the past due 20th hundred years since needs were made on colleges for higher levels of pupil accomplishment, and colleges were likely to improve and reform. These objectives were accompanied by calls for accountability at the school level. The idea of leadership was preferred because it conveys dynamism and proactivity. The institution head is often thought to be the school head. However, school leadership may include other folks, such as people of an formal leadership team and other individuals who add toward the seeks of the school.
RESEARCH AND METHODOLOGY
THE MAURITIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
The education system in Mauritius, prototyped after the British isles model, has increased greatly since independence. Following the country became indie in 1968, education became one of the main preoccupations of the Mauritian Federal to meet up with the new difficulties awaiting the united states. New sizes have been put into education, which have gradually democratized the complete system. The government made an effort to provide sufficient money for education, occasionally straining tight costs. Significant investment of resources, both individuals and material, has been put into the training sector and impressive improvement has been achieved in conditions of free and common education. Since 1976, education has been free for many and from the entire year 1991, education has become compulsory for both children. As from the entire year 2005, with the launch of 11-calendar year schooling, education has been free in any way levels and compulsory for all up to the age of 16.
From Primary university onwards, education has been organised in a 6-5-2 system, whereby a kid follows at the least 6 years' free and compulsory Main Schooling resulting in a License of Key Education (CPE). That is followed by at the least 5 years' Supplementary Schooling which is free and, compulsory before years of 16. This 5 years' schooling leads the pupil to a School Certificate (SC) or General Certificate of Education (GCE) - Ordinary Level, which henceforth permits him to pursue another 2 years' schooling leading to a Higher University Certificate - Advanced Level (HSC), which is the key towards Tertiary Education, either locally or abroad.
Students who neglect to attain a CPE are accepted to pre-vocational schools setup specially by the federal government to enable those to learn only basic content such as Mathematics, English and French, and some skilled works such as plumbing, electrical, handicrafts, artwork and painting, agriculture, etc.
Today the training sector is being marked by a series of reforms based on innovation and creativity from pre-primary to tertiary level. The reforms are aligned on innovations worldwide plus they focus on empowering the Mauritian child to face the issues of the new millennium and also to use information and scientific tools available. Among the main the different parts of the reforms is the National Curriculum Platform for principal and secondary education. It results in an all-around development of the individual, hence allowing him to lead a balanced, active and effective lifestyle as well as a knowledge of the biological, physical and scientific world. Education would also make the kid conscious of the notions of equity and interpersonal justice.
As concerns secondary and tertiary education, innovations brought are mainly designed to enable academic institutions and establishments to act in response effectively to local, nationwide and international priorities. Further, the new reforms 2010 try to meet specific learning needs of most students, give a strong groundwork for lifelong learning and instill in all learners the skill they have to adjust to an ever-changing world.
The curriculum construction for extra education is based on the need to indulge students in meaningful and integrated learning experiences. Lasting development, citizenship, growing and preserving a culture of serenity and coping with stress are elements that will cut across the learning process. The curriculum bottom programme at the secondary level has been broadened with emphasis on the coaching of knowledge and technology to prospects not going to take technology as their field of study in higher classes. Standard Science will become compulsory till Form V for students not deciding on a pure research subject in view of the more and more important role of knowledge. Changes at the secondary level also consist of the vocationalization of the curriculum through the intro of new subject matter like Travel and Tourism, Physical Education, Marine Science and Environmental Management and the pedagogy will be strengthened by the use of ICT and media.
The inclusion of extra and co-curricular activities for those in secondary universities is also proposed by the Ministry of Education, Culture and RECRUITING. Thus students will have activity time during which they can choose from a variety of co-curricular activities. These activities include arts and crafts, processing, debating, drama, party, music, performing and a wide range of physical activities.
Students at the end of Form III will be at first assessed at nationwide level in literacy in British and People from france, Numeracy, ICT and Friendly Studies, leading to a National Qualification of Accomplishment. This certificate will provide a assertion of the particular level achieved by each learner in these central competencies.
The new extra education curriculum has been developed by keeping in view the next key characteristics:
Promoting global awareness
Integrated with other disciplines
Acceptable to the community
Thematic / Spiral in approach
Fair to the learner
Despite the actual fact that major inventions have been released in to the system, you may still find a number of challenges that require to be confronted and get over as a go with to the reforms carried out. Today, the major problem is the reorganization of the supplementary education to ensure the fostering and development of the abilities and knowledge required for socio-economic expansion.
Since the entire year 1991, all state academic institutions have been outfitted with a tv set and VCR player so that teachers could make the most of the tools along the way of coaching and learning, by giving more visual support. Currently, the VCR players have been substituted by Dvd movie players and schools have been provided computer systems and projectors. For the past 5 years, most classes even have web connection to enable teachers to do their research work in planning of the lessons. Also, students are permitted to use internet in institution libraries to improve their research skills. However, only 33% of extra universities in Mauritius have ADSL interconnection and others are still using the dial-up connection.
In 2009, the Ministry of Education launched the EDU-WEB project. This project enables live broadcast and interactive treatment in real time between your Minister and older officials and heads of both most important and secondary schools and the training staff.
Furthermore, two Status Secondary schools have been equipped with Interactive Whiteboards by the Ministry of Education on the pilot base. Eventually, the government, in collaboration with the Sankor Job, is coming with the setting up of at least one Interactive Whiteboard in each of its most important and secondary schools by the finish of this time. The Sankor Digital Education for many in Africa program is area of the French contribution to the Franco-British collaboration made to achieve the Millennium aims in education in Africa. In its 2010 - 2015 program, the Sankor task is providing digital class equipment, tool creation and writing, professional and schoolmaster training. The gadgets provided include computer systems, projectors and Interactive Whiteboards (IWB).
There is a growing body of data that small children invent or develop much of their own mathematical knowledge, and that they come to classes with some well-developed, although understandably immature means of dealing with various mathematical situations. We do not appear to use full benefit of children's conceptions in our programs of mathematics educating and instructions.
EMPHASIS ON TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION
The ultimate purpose of any educational organization is to boost student accomplishment so that individuals may accomplish their personal dreams and become contributing members of society. This requires important change in the way educators do their work. It needs new set ups, new tools and new knowledge. But more than anything, the culture of the education system must change. And building a culture of accomplishment throughout an education system requires a different mindset totally.