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The Battle Of The Alamo Background Essay

The Alamo today still resides in the hearts of many as one of the greatest struggles for independence in the United States short history. Us citizens and Tejanos including others in the Texan revolution against all odds demonstrated that the struggle for liberty under tyranny or unjust rule will live on forever no matter the oppressor. Common phrases such as "Remember the Alamo!" and "Death to Santa Anna!" cried out by Texan defenders during the siege live on in society today through catalogs and movies. The theory that the little man can stand up to the marvelous opposition gives motivation and hope to all; just what the Texans at the Alamo did, writing themselves into history in just 13 short times. The Alamo exhibited to everyone in the world that independence and liberties could not die which if people could group together they could easily get what the people want.

In the early 1700's, the Spanish had laid promise to parts of the current day New Mexico and Texas area in the Adams Onis Treaty of 1819 when America attained Florida. In 1716, the Spaniards began settling and forming small missions and settlements in Texas. One of these early settlements became the famous Alamo near a century later. As greedy Americans looking for land slowly traveled western world, they steadily dispersed throughout Tx. The Spanish had always had the thought of loyal themes living on this mostly empty land, but Mexico receiving their self-reliance from Spain thwarted their opportunity. Americans were flocking to Texas for cheap land, and the thirst of adventure. For just 30 dollars, each settler received 4, 428 acres in support of had to check out a few guidelines. Settlers that changed into Mexico had to be of the Catholic faith, and inclined to be Mexicanized. The Mexican federal government required the settling Us citizens to swear allegiance to Mexico, but most settlers disregarded the idea of integration and the idea of embracing Mexican modern culture. American settlers got the idea that they could do whatever they needed, since they were American. The tiny Mexican existence in Tx also encouraged Texans to do as they delighted. Texas was in an almost laissez faire state as more and more Americans settled into Texas, but not by their choice. By 1835, Texan People in america numbered in the thirty-thousands keeping track of for almost all of the population. The quantity of Mexican impact in Texas aside from the few soldiers made Us citizens feel free; People in america saw Texas as a free land where they could do what they pleased. As Mexico attemptedto enforce its electric power in Tx the People in the usa residing there were unhappy. Issues over slavery, immigration and local privileges became serious issues of discourse. The issue over slavery was most controversial because Mexico emancipated all slaves in 1830, and prohibited any slavery in Texas and the taking of slaves in to the territory. American Texans did not abide by these laws and didn't free their slaves and continuing to bring slaves in to the territory without regard for regulations. The Mexican Constitution followed in 1284 got some elements resembling U. S constitution, but also included vast influences from the Spanish Constitution of 1812. The constitution with time made the Texans extremely angry because the federal government of Mexico selected associates and the Anglo-American existence in Texas had no representation. Alcaldes or more commonly known as local mayors who ran each town appointed by the governor placed the representation; the Anglo-American population had no affect in anything politics. The Mexican federal government was fearful their culture would be obliterated by the extreme influx of Anglo-Saxon People in america, so they experienced this was a good way to keep their culture alive. Then in 1830 the Mexican federal government passed a legislations banning us citizens from settling anywhere in Mexican territory. Texan American boldly defied regulations for a long time, but eventually Mexico was prepared to assert its dominance.

In 1835, the then dictator-like Mexican chief executive Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna had taken away all local rights of Texans, and started out raising an military to place down the Texan disobedience. The following year Texas declared their freedom and elevated their lone legend flag. The guideline of Santa Anna often called "The Age of Santa Anna" quickly turned into a dictatorship in 1835. Then suspended the constitution of 1824, and the settlers experienced discontinued and betrayed by the Mexican authorities. The usually American presence in Mexico became extremely angered by the switch away from federalist policies, leading to many to revolt. Using their individual rights involved, Texan Americans prepared to fight because of their liberty, even die for it.

The Texan trend officially commenced in Oct of 1835 when Us citizens in Gonzales refused to come back cannon directed at them by Mexicans to protect themselves from Indians. Texan People in america fought off practically 100 cavalrymen, greatly increasing the self-assurance of anyone questioning the rebellion against Mexico. Texans then began systematically clearing the Texas region of Mexican troops. An army formed called The Military of the individuals, made up of colonists and anyone inclined to support their cause of independence. As the army of Texans, Us citizens, and Tejanos grew they needed control. At one point almost 600 military devoted to the reason for Texan freedom fought in the Army of the People. Stephen F. Austin was positioned in control of the volunteer army of Tx, and swept through Tx eliminating Mexican presence. The Army embroiled missions along the San Antonio River attaining marvelous momentum and self-assurance. As the army arrived at metropolis of San Antonio and the Alamo they ornamented the Mexican army, ready to force them out. The Mexican military got about 20 cannons poised for battle, therefore the Texan army hatched an idea to guarantee win. For a month, they surrounded the location and Alamo while soldiers arrived and remaining as they pleased. On December 5th 300 men of the Army of people started out the siege on both the location of San Antonio and the Alamo. Once the Texans finally succeeded, that they had effectively taken out the previous significant Mexican stronghold in Texas. On December the 8th, the Texans got control of San Antonio, and on the 9th the Mexicans inside the Alamo surrendered. The surrendering Mexicans claimed they might never fight again resistant to the constitution of 1824 and guaranteed to leave Texas immediately. Santa Anna that day had arrived 700 kilometers south the day the siege started out of San Antonio, and was building an military to rid Texas of the international pirates. He was prepared to assert his dominance, and make the Texans pay for revolting resistant to the mighty Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.

In late Dec Santa Anna was marching north towards Tx with a power of over 6, 000 men. Santa Anna modeled his strategies following the French napoleon Bonaparte, but set alongside the great Napoleon, Santa Anna acquired only few of his exceptional control expertise. Santa Anna counted on the Texans pondering he'd not march in later winter, planning to catch the enemy by surprise. The plan worked perfectly in favor of Santa Anna. The Texans thought there is no way that anyone would make a march such a long time during winter. The Texan army that was defending metropolis had figured they could wait to fortify the city and the Alamo, but Santa Anna's move found them by wonder. The march in the winter created by Santa Anna and his close to 6, 000 men brought on hundreds of the Mexican military to perish, and hundreds to desert at worries of fatality. Santa Anna also possessed a serious problem to face because near none of his men experienced proper training, or were ready for a fight situation. The mass of troops put together by Santa Anna were either compelled to become listed on or usually extremely inexperienced. The Mexican Basic relied noticeably on the strength of numbers, but what he had in amounts, he lacked in experience. Santa Anna explained in a meeting with his generals "What are the lives of troops than so many hens?" The Mexican standard understood that his military might maintain extreme casualties to put down this uprising, but wanted to show his dominance in doing it with velocity and efficiency. Santa Anna being truly a young lieutenant in the early 1800's had already been apart of adding down one attempted Texan rebellion in 1813. The Mexican armies demonstrating complete power no mercy when every survivor experienced execution and their bodies were hanged from trees. Santa Anna presumed strongly in no quartering for these pirates that got swept into Tx. Santa Anna acquired coincidentally struck at a perfect time while there was department in the Texan military. The department in the Texan command and military significantly hindered their attempts of defending the Alamo, splitting the army effectively in two. The Texan army stationed in San Antonio and the Alamo was starting to suffer terrible interior conflicts. 50 percent of the Texan management believed that they should launch an attack in the heart of Mexico the status of Tamaulipas. The other half of authority thought they need to stay where these were for an episode on Mexico was foolish and idiotic. At first leaders such as Governor Smith and Sam Houston thought it would be smart to invade Mexico, but then changed their brains pondering the possible effects. The Texan council thought normally and promoted a guy by the name of Wayne Grant to improve an army to strike the Mexican city of Matamoros in Tamaulipas Mexico. Frank Johnson at that time in control of the garrison of the Alamo decided to venture with Offer on their intend to attack Mexico. They needed over two thirds of the whole garrison, along with crucial supplies that the garrison at the Alamo would need later. The soldiers at the Alamo and San Antonio was required to endure an awful winter. That they had to survive with almost no equipment or men to arrive to alleviate them credited to one half of the garrison leaving with crucial resources. This internal discord break up the Texan military in two and significantly weakened the defenses at the Alamo and San Antonio. The Alamo and San Antonio remaining improperly defended and supplied was in need of help. Wayne Neill, recently acquiring control of the garrison at the Alamo, directed a notice to Governor Smith insulting the council and Johnson and Give for going out of them with next to nothing. This letter covered the offer and split Tx into two armies and governments. Johnson and grant who took purchases from the council being one part, and Basic Houston and the men defending the Alamo taking purchases from Governor Smith the spouse. General Houston knowing he had to take matters into his own hands rode to cut off the military marching towards Matamoras, frantically trying to get those to re-think their marketing campaign. As he provided his speech he received a letter that wrote that 1, 000 Mexican military were advancing on San Antonio, and 2, 000 on Metamoras. He urged the 200 volunteers to return to the Alamo to help defend, but only 30 agreed to keep coming back. Most men moving to assault Matamoras were American arrivals only thinking about the possible riches in Mexico and didn't particularly care for the destiny of Tx. With so few men defending San Antonio and the Alamo therefore many advancing, the idea of any possible victory was fading quickly.

General Houston presumed that defending the Alamo would be impossible with the impending forces of Santa Anna arriving, and bought for the fortifications of San Antonio and the Alamo to be damaged and all cannons removed. Wayne Bowie arrived to find a good garrison, but found that only 80 men were in struggling with form. Green B. Jameson a armed service engineer then recommended they could strengthen the Alamo to defend from some episodes, but after all it was just a Spanish mission. Governor Smith rejected the thought of destroying the fortifications and getting rid of the cannons and ordered them to guard the Alamo. Give and Edwards acquired taken most of their labor pets or animals such as mules and horses on the Quest to invade the Mexican city of Matamoras. The Texans at the Alamo as a result of lack of family pets to eliminate the cannons acquired no way to follow requests from Sam Houston. As the Alamo was in need of defenders due to the great number of Mexican soldiers under Santa Anna, leaders inside the Alamo viewed to others for support. Adam Bowie published a plea to Governor Smith for men, desperate for reinforcements. Smith experienced already purchased William. B Travis to raise a small group of cavalrymen, but only succeeded in acquiring 30 men. The actual fact that Texan military split into two armies and political parties tremendously lowered the chances of getting reinforcements at the Alamo. People of different viewpoints were hesitant to help you and provide themselves or their services, hurting the Texan cause all together greatly. At the same time when help of any sort no matter how small was critical, a famous man then attained the Alamo with around a dozen men to help protect. David Crockett was a Tennessee congressman and esteemed article writer, and his appearance though small in proportions boosted the moral of the men already in the Alamo greatly. The have difficulties finding prepared volunteers was mostly due to division between Texans forgetting what they were fighting for, and splitting off to invade Mexico. The Alamo experienced amazingly few defenders, and with minimal more reinforcements to come the results of the Alamo seemed bleak. The heart of the men in the Alamo was a true testament to the American view of liberty or loss of life.

Information came up on the night time of Feb 10th that Santa Anna's pressure of 6, 000 men disseminate along the Rio Grande, were headed straight for the Alamo. Santa Anna experienced taken extreme affinity for taking down the Alamo professionally because his spies prepared him that some revolution leaders such as Adam Bowie, William Travis, David Crockett, yet others. The day after information of Santa anna's evolving forces came the existing leader James Neill had to leave the Alamo. The anatomist mind who had mastered in improving the defenses of the Alamo were required to leave due to disease in the family. His leadership was going to be immensely skipped in his departure, but substitutes with equally strong if not better leadership then needed control. The energy being passed on to William Travis, and Wayne Bowie dropped into skilled hands. As the men ready for the inevitable thousands of Mexican forces coming closer and better everyday they fortified the Alamo even more, they dug ditches, strengthened surfaces and properly set up cannons. The Texans defending the Alamo were fortunate to have purchased all the equipment deserted by the Mexican Basic Cos. The Mexicans left behind hundreds of muskets, cartridges & most essentially 18 cannons back of. The surplus of weapons and ammunition allowed defenders to own multiple guns filled at once, that has been a slight benefits considering the reload time of 1 1 rifle. Without the supplies left behind by the Mexicans, the Alamo would not have been a meeting in history to keep in mind. The soldiers in the Alamo were extremely blessed to acquire the items they do. William Travis tried consistently to get help from anyone prepared to no avail. On Feb 23, the Tejanos in metropolis of San Antonio commenced to leave. These were afraid of struggling alongside People in the usa, knowing of the hatred Santa Anna possessed for People in america. No one wanted to be subject to the wrath that Santa Anna's army was bringing, but the small garrison in the Alamo stood ready to fight for what they assumed in.

In the day of Feb the 23, a watchman stationed high above in a bell tower in the city to warn of the getting close to Mexican force experienced spotted the opponent. To confirm the actual watchman saw for sure, two Us citizens rode out to scout the drive themselves, and observed 1, 500 military poised and ready for challenge. After that it quickly became a mad dash to get in the safety of the Alamo, along with any possessions of value managed. Citizens and damaged soldiers from the sooner conquest of San Antonio hobbled, limped, and carried into the objective on their bedrooms. Citizens grabbed anything that could come in convenient in the quest such as blankets, food, weapons, and ammunition. Anyone left in metropolis scrambled into the fort hoping to find safe shelter there. With such little food and resources, the soldiers in the Alamo under Jim Bowie ventured out into a close by shantytown thankfully finding 30 cattle and 90 bushels of corn, enough to supply the garrison. The Mexican Standard extremely fed up with these pirates ready to end them forever in a gruesome fashion. Santa Anna signaled a red flag of no 1 / 4, indicating no mercy, prisoners, or parole. Santa Anna was here to end the uprising forever, and he recommended business. Two notes sent to the Mexican general requesting a meeting and requesting to know the conditions of the siege were dropped. The garrison in the Alamo understood exactly what they were up against, and everything the men who remained were prepared to meet their destiny honorably struggling with for freedom they maintain so dear.

James Bowie dropped gravely ill on only the second day of the siege, and in turn transferred all his ability along to William Travis. That day William Travis published the sole most important and famous letter of the Texan revolution. The letter titled "To the People of Tx and All Us citizens on the planet" was Travis writing one previous plea, begging for aid from his fellow People in the usa, and stated he would fight to death and die such as a real soldier without surrender. The famous slogan "Victory or Fatality!" written in this notice shows how powerful individuals will is. This notice printed nearly 200 times and allocated, have been too later. The reinforcements could not make it in time to save their Texan brothers. The Mexican military then encircled and fortified their positions across the mission. On March 1st a group of 32 men arrived to aid the tiny garrison in the defense of the Alamo from the siege of the Mexican army. Tejanos got also started to leave the Alamo due to a promises made by Santa Anna for pardon, but that was not the case. Tx had gotten standard declaration of independence from Mexico on March 3rd, unaware to people in the Alamo because of the lack of effective communication.

Santa Anna purchased an official episode on the day of March 6th. His generals possessed suggested him against attacking with their largest cannons still in route to the Alamo, but his tolerance for the Texans ran out. Over one thousand Mexican soldiers were purchased to dash the Alamo and size the walls with ladders, and permeate the gate. Santa Anna experienced no regard or care for the lives of his military. He experienced that the Alamo must fall season no matter what, no matter just how many of his men died. Added onto the siege make 400 men would hang on as reserve if needed, and 300 cavalrymen waited south of the Alamo for just about any escapees or deserters and eliminate them. Mexican soldiers awoke at midnight and proceeded with their positions at around 1 a. m. The military received the order to assault at 5:30 A. M. and following the plan split into four columns. The first would go directly to the northwest, the next to the north wall structure, the 3rd to the east wall membrane, and the fourth to the south end. The all out siege of the Alamo by Santa Anna and his now nearing 2, 000 men experienced begun. An official working in the Alamo fortunately listened to the Mexicans coming with crying yelps of "Viva Mexico!" and "Viva Santa Anna!", and warned his Texan brothers. The Texans then were awoken and scrambled with their positions to guard the Alamo, and that is just what they does. Cannon hearth pounded the mission for days on end, ripping defenses and buildings to bits. Texan defenders required to work later part of the into the evening as cannon fireplace ceased to repair crumbling defenses, and dig bigger trenches became extremely fragile. After days and nights of unlimited cannon fire and jeers from the adversary keeping the defenders sleepless, the Texans lacked sufficient energy to hold from the monstrous drive knocking on their door. Travis gathered all his men jointly and gave them the choice, stay and battle to the death; or leave the Alamo by free will. Only one man remaining the Alamo that day as the rest remained and fought to the fatality. Less than 100 men resided in the Alamo after the desertion of the Tejanos; the few men remaining fought with the might of any force ten times their amounts. Travis fired the largest cannon in the Alamo the morning hours prior to the great siege, signaling that they might not quit, and that desire resided on in the Alamo. The defenders inside the Alamo were ready to expire for what they thought in. Texan cannons repelled influx after influx of attackers with damaging deficits to the Mexicans. The cannons had repelled all the Mexican pushes to a full out frontal assault on the north area of the objective. On the north wall, wave after influx of Mexican military pried at the gate with crow bars, axes, and any tool they could get their hands so that they can break through the gate to quickly end the struggle. Mexican soldiers attemptedto climb ladders and most were repelled at the top by brutal Texan American fighters moving them backwards. Colonel Travis rallying his men with screams and shouts as they stored the Mexicans at bay on the north part of the objective slumped over lifeless. Travis had been shot in the head and perished. Santa Anna discovering the failure and carnage of his first influx of men purchased the 400 reserves men to attack the mission. Mexican soldiers began to size the wall space on the north, east, and south wall surfaces. With the strength of pets in close 1 / 4 fight situations, the Texan Us citizens fought to the loss of life. The Mexicans swarmed in from all sides, forcing open the key gate as more Mexican soldiers poured in to the objective, outnumbering the defenders ten to one. The famous Adam Bowie, who was sick and could not move, waited in his bed for the Mexicans to surprise through the entranceway. Which has a pistol in each hand, he shot and wiped out two Mexican soldiers in his previous occasions of life. Bowie then was rushed and wiped out by Mexican bayonets. The misunderstanding once fighting begun inside the Alamo was so wide spread that no one could inform fellow companions from opponents; some soldiers even taken at their comrades unknowingly. Useless physiques of the Texans strewn everywhere in the mission were remaining to the Mexican soldiers stealing any jewelry, and anything of worth from the dead Texan Us citizens. The few Texans left over defended building after building, fighting for their freedom and rights furiously. Mainly outnumbered they retreated to the barracks and any properties defending them room by room. The last building held by Texan Americans was the cathedral. Their cannon turned on them by Mexican soldiers blasted the entryway for the Mexican military into the previous Texan building and with that the Texans got nowhere else to run. The Texans stood their surface and fiercely fought with anything accessible as the Mexicans registered in through in to the church until every one of the resistance in the Alamo had been killed or considered prisoner, the church being the Texans last stand at the Alamo. The complete battle lasted from 30 to 90 minutes, a miraculous feat for the tiny garrison defending from a huge pressure. Some Texans attempted fleeing, and Mexican Calvary lower them down; only 7 Texans were used prisoner. The fact that the military even had taken prisoners infuriated Santa Anna, because he assumed in no quartering of the pirates, and keeping true to his term he proved no quarter, and purchased all 7 of the prisoners carried out. Less than 10 women and children were spared after the carnage of the fighting ended. Susanna Dickerson was summoned before Santa Anna and purchased her along with one of his servants to adopt the news headlines of American defeat to the in route Texan reinforcements. Santa Anna acquired used control of the Alamo with extreme pressure, but also extreme casualties for the amount of defenders the Alamo possessed.

Santa Anna reported to the Mexican federal their success but transformed the shocking figures. He recognized people wouldn't normally want to see such staggering Mexican losses by so few Texan American defenders, so he defined the Alamo as having 600 defenders. Santa Anna ordered the defenders physiques to be used up, altogether 182 bodies burned in the first evening. The fact that such a little force could inflict such substantial damage on such a sizable pressure as Santa anna's army surprised his generals. They praised their devotion and devotion with their cause. As information of the beat come to Sam Houston as well as others preparing an military an enormous sadness ensued, that they had been too later in their re-enforce their Texan brothers. The news headlines of the death of over 180 Texan Americans swept across America like outrageous hearth fueling hatred for the general president Santa Anna. The Texan People in america soon possessed their swift revenge a short 6 weeks later at San Jacinto, eliminating Mexican presence in Tx.

After the Alamo fell Santa Anna started out to sweep through Tx wanting to eliminate all Texan opposition in his avenue. In one struggle, 342 prisoners captured were carried out on orders from Santa Anna himself. Then on Apr 21, a pressure of 900 Texan soldiers under the command of Sam Houston attacked 1, 400 Mexican soldiers under Santa Anna at the San Jacinto River. Santa Anna made a fatal mistake in taking a day siesta placing no sentries. The Texans under Houston required good thing about this and swarmed the camp taking control within 20 short minutes. The Texans attacking the camp appreciated their fallen comrades with yelps of "Remember the Alamo!" and "Remember the Goliad!" Over 600 Mexican troops were slain in the fight, along with 700 captured and 200 wounded all because of Santa Anna's foolish oversight. The Texan army of 900 had decimated their competitors and rightfully honored their fallen Texan brothers at the Alamo. Santa Anna was trapped the next day attempting to present as a typical soldier. Sam Houston made the smart decision in making him live, but forcing him immediately to remove all Mexican troops in Texas.

Texas then continued to be impartial for 9 years, later annexed in to the union as circumstances in 1845. Mexico refusing to identify Texan independence led to the Mexican battle in 1846. As the Mexican-American warfare concluded Mexico lost over half its land. Mexico experienced lost Tx, California, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and some elements of Colorado and Wyoming. AMERICA had finally extended all the way west, the dominating super ability of the now not so new world.

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