Globalization is something that has been with the people ever since the world has begun. From local to global, we're able to attribute this to the consequence of human innovation and technological progress. Globalization from the term global means spreading across the world, in other words spreading world-wide. The aims of experiencing a 'globalized community' is to get interdependence of the entire world and its people from the other person with concern for all of those other world at the expense of national self-development and self-interests. Globalization became world-wide popular about 1992, when most people talked about it mainly in the field of economy. But today, it's been spoken of as a fashion word, and it attracts much attention from he academic scholars. Associated with that globalization has been an unstoppable world trend which changes the whole world so greatly that no countries and nations can be separated from it.
But what is globalization? Before answering this question, we have to admit that there is no universal definition about it. It is because the concept of globalization doesn't enter into the form at the beginning in human history. It develops in to the present being through an extended historical process. Widely speaking, it refers to the exchanges and utilizations among different resources and production factors, and the interactions, conformity and coordination of human activities and their achievement. Therefore, it offers at least two essential factors: firstly, the activity in space must overstep one area or one nation, at the same time it has to show the trend of continuing development. Secondly, the participants should be related to one another, not being isolated.
B, The constitution of globalization
Besides, the constitution of globalization involves many fields of human society, including economy, politics, culture, ideology etc. . Dating back the history of globalization, it started from the economic expansion, and it was Europeans that lift the curtain of globalization when they established colonies beyond their own counties. And follow the expansion of culture, civilization, region or ideology, etc.
2 Some main top features of globalization and the according reasons of these.
A, Integration of world economy
First of all, globalization is mainly drived by the profit of economy. From the above introduction, we realize that globalization started by the expansion of colony, from which colonists gained big money, quite simply, they build their treasure in so doing. Therefore, today the integration of world economy is regarded as the building blocks, main cause, motivation and symbol of globalization. It really is first shown by the internationalization of manufacturing systems. The world production has undergone a historical transformation because the 2oth century, consuming development of technology and the promotion of technological revolution as well as the use of mass production factors. Many big companies of developed countries build their companies or factories in overseas countries where they will make full use of the native work force and other resources by paying lower cost. Whereby the can form huge multinational corporation which greatly promotes international production. Economic integration through trade, migration, capital flows and communication flows has been officially around since 1870. This new concept could noticeably profit if based on D. Ricardo' financial theory of comparative advantage. The latter theory states that each country should produce those products/services, that they can produce/provide with the lowest opportunity cost and total production cost. Hence, allowing all countries to produce and trade in the most effective way so that the highest attainable welfare for everyone countries is reached.
Nowadays, multinational coporations have overspreaded among more than160 countries on the planet. They take 40 percents of the complete world's total output value; 90 percents of the world market shares, 80 percents international economical trade, 90 percents of the international technological trade. In 1996, the number of the multinational corperations reached over 44000. They invested their capitals to overseas to make s greater profit. With all the furthering opening of the market and the expansion of the trade scale, the planet manpower and material and technological resources are absorbed into the world production systems, where these are interdependent and impartible with one another.
Besides, a huge mount of financial capital move at a higher speed in the number of whole word. Because the World War11, drived by the marketplace demands and investing interest, a huge mount of money has been use beyond the issuing countries. With the exploration of overseas business and production and development of technologies, financial capital finally broke from the constraintion of national boundaries and practical tools which made become real international citizens. A study shows that the current financial capital market on the planet has reached 35000 billion dollars, and the overseas capital reached more than 1000 billion dollars. The sum of international financial capital is not only large in amount but also move at an easy speed. Owing to the present day science and technology, the treasure activity with a huge amount of cash can be conducted with a call or whatever fast means. With all the huge treasure accumulation high movement of the international financial capital, the pace of the integration of world economy has highly been accelerated.
What's more, the formation of world market also offers a good environment for the integration of world economy. World market refers to place which gives a room for world- wide exchange of products, servers and technologies. It formerly started between your 16th century and the 18th century and underwent an easy development in the 19th century, and came into the proper execution in 1970s. The current world market is a veritable global universal market, whose main symbols shown in the manner the sharp expansion of the exchange scale, the unification of the market rules and the expansion of market capacity and overseas business.
Globalization, no matter as a phenomenon or an economic trend, deeply impacts every country in the world. Economies of each country are becoming more related. They infiltrate, influence and be based upon each other more and more. Globalization has become an inevitable fact and trend that will not change with people's will. It brings challenge as well as chance to each country. Every country are active to find yourself in just how of globalization by adjusting their financial and diplomatic polices.
B, Integration of world culture;
Culture and economy interdependently support each other, because they often develop together. Along with the global application of production factors, global capital flows and the forming of world market, different cultures from various nations and areas are surely to switch, conflict and integrate each other in the number of globe. The conflict and collision of different cultures help to increase the metabolism of a fresh culture and form a mechanism for developing the superior and weeding out the inferior and initiate the ideological trend of parochial nationalism and cultural hegemony but cannot lead to the homogeny and unification of the cultures, which is bound to lead to a harmonious situation through such conflict and integration and finally reaches a state where balance is kept. The reason for this phenomenon is based on that the cultures reserved through a long history reflect the idea, ideology, means of thinking and living of humans. They bear some unusual values and the existence of themselves has certain special meaning. It is of the same importance to keep cultures in diversity as we do to different biology, because the diversity of culture lays an important foundation for the sustainable and sound development of human society. People with the competence thinking rationally and reflections are surely to realize that the ruin of the diversity of culture means to the ruin in our human's spiritual home and the cultural resources, which could push humans for an abyss of unsustainable existence and development. Therefore, it is essential important for us to carefully protect our cultures in diversity once we do to animals and plants and keep them from ruin.
The integration of global culture identifies different cultures coexist and intergrow harmoniously under the same sky. As an important content and symbol of globalization, culture is the magnification of the integration of globalization everywhere. Geographically speaking, it offers the conformity of the west and east cultures; seeing from national perspective, it includes the integration of the cultures of both native and foreign areas; considering form different levels, it includes the integration of both individual and collective cultures, and folk and official as well as academic cultures; viewing from the essence of culture it offers the integration of the scientific culture and the literary culture; from the connotation of culture perspective it also contains those aspects on sense of value, ways of thinking, structure of knowledge in different counties and areas. Each one of these aspects give a vital foundation for the integration of global culture, and it also serve as an important precondition of the realization of economic globalization. However, Globalization is sword with two blades. To begin with, it helped to highlight a nation's culture, draw on the srength of other cultures and contribute the cultural diversity. For another, some small countries' native culture are being challenged. Their distinctive cultures are driven towards extinction. For them, to preserve national identity is crucial. Anyhow, it is an unavoidable for a country to be a part of globalization. if not, it'll be kicked out of world competition eventually. So, what merits our special attention is how to keep and promote native culture under globalization. The priority is to enhance the cultural knowing of native people, make them cherish and glory in one's country's culture. When the native people take initiative to safeguard and promote their own culture, whatever influence globalization exerts, native culture will not be replaced. Inclusion, globalization has given rise to a larger sense of nationalism in many countries and for that reason has helped people to realise and protect their own national identity including their culture from these outside forces. Therefore although globalization is changing the way a lot of us behave/eat/dress and even speak it has additionally helped to highlight aspects of our own cultures.
C, Intergrowth of world ecology;
Human activity can be an exchange of material, energy, and information process with the natural world which can lead to intensive ecological effects. Along with the speeding up of the integration of world economy, human's production scale and consuming ability are largely expanded and increased, which includes seriously afflicted the ecological environment on the earth and it includes greatly changed the entire world from it's content to it's magnification. ecological integration identifies the intergrowth of human and nature to reach a prosperity in the same ecological system. And it also means that the complete human's existence and future development deeply rely on the quality of our ecological environment. However, the improvement of the surroundings condition requires our individual to improve our consciousness of protecting it and demands our common efforts to reserve it. As an important part of the globalization, the intergrowth of world ecology is mainly shown by the flowing aspects:
Firstly, humans and all living things coexist on a single planet, quite simply, we share the same liveable space. We are simply a part of the world, and existence and development deeply rely on the other parts of the world. People from different nations and areas are interdependent each other, and the globe is our common home for all those. We all contain the obligation to care for the ecological environment in order to get the area for a better future development. Although were born to have the to make full use our space and land where we live and belong to, we have no right infiltrate that of others, not mention to the ruin of the complete ecological space that participate in all human beings.
Secondly, the ecological resources are possessed by all human beings. It includes such factors as air, water, sunshine, land, temperature and so forth, which are absolutely indispensable for people to go on this planet, which also change the people's activities and allow them to make a sizable amount of achievement by taking advantage of them. Seeing from the present condition, the serious pollution of environment is caused by people partially persrue financial growth and leading a consuming lifestyle, but concerning the pollution-maker, it is some individual coporations who make huge profit at the price tag on environment that are main responsible for such matter. As people's environmental protection consciousness steadily raise, they start to have actions to fight against pollution, defend and keep maintaining their environmental right, and ask to punish those who contribute to environmental pollution. Their behaviors lead to the formatiom of a trend of environmental protection.
Thirdly, the global resources are shared by people around the term. Humans as part of living things, we can not do without consuming different resources proposed by the nature. However, the resources on the planet earth aren't inexhaustible, besides they participate in everybody, so they should be allotted fairly among folks of different areas and generations. Therefore, any country and any generation shouldn't meet its own interest at the price of that of other countries and generations. We don't possess the right to impair the interest and potential development of others or our future generation. People's idea about sharing resources among areas and generations contributes to the raising consciousness of defending their right in sharing the normal resources in the range of globe, which helps to lay a theoretical basis for the use of a sustainable development.
At the fourth place, human beings are met with the same problems and disasters. We have no choices but to are in the same ecological environment on this planet. Were faced with the same disasters as severe air pollution, deterioration of water quality, desertification, acid rain, ozone hole, etc. All these problems have seriously influenced people's living environment and their life quality. According to the study of the World Health Centre and American Disease Controlling Centre, each year, polluting of the environment has made a negative effect on people's heath of about 4-5 billion, and 40% of the world population's deaths are caused by air pollution and other environmental problems. Their conclusion is the fact human's activities improper behaviors on the planet earth are ruining themselves.
At the fifth place, all humans are responsible for the ecological environment. Human could do nothing without the support of earth, which provides essential materials for us. Since many of environmental problems that the earth facing are caused by human activities, thus to resolve such issues, it needs the common efforts of most people surrounding the world. As a member of the world society, we have the full reasons to take part in the social activities to protect our common ecological environment, to keep the global ecology in balance and to beautify our common homeland.
D, Mutual recognition of individuals on the planet;
Men are the center and main part along the way of globalization, so the development of globalization has gone out of men's sense of global view and the increase with their mutual understanding the other person using degree. However, on the other hand, the essence and magnification of globalization stimulate men's practice and enhance the mutual recognition and understanding. In other words, people's mutual recognition round the world can both be regarded the reason and precondition of globalization as well as the content and magnification from it. Both of these aspects are interdependent and mutual reliant along the way of globalization.
But what does people's mutual recognition make reference to? This means that people's mutual understanding and recognition of different countries and areas air highly increased. The interaction of their sense of value and thought process are also strengthened. The reason for this firstly is due to the expansion of the communication scale and the acceleration of human source exchange. Today's world is a widely opened society, with more and more folks participating in such activities in business, financial trade, cultural exchange, and touring, etc, which take place in several countries and regions. The all-direction exchanges and interaction are sure to strengthen an improved communication and understanding.
However, Globalization itself is a process that is completely, uncertain and keep changing, which make it hard for people to come quickly to consist in views of globalization because of different knowledge background, even we've had lots of consistent conclusion. Difference in knowledge and value orientation may cause different ideology, even inside of capitalism and socialism. Everything that difference come out all sorts of globalization theories with different ideology. Theory comes from real world and will serve real life, so those different globalization theories will also affect the globalization's natural progress. That is the ideological problem through the process of globalization, itself or implied. But such ideology difference doesn't hold the key trend of mutual complementation by frequent contact under the help of modern communication tools.
The communication and understanding between people in several region are transformed via just how of information exchange. Under the help of the modern communication technology and the increase of the input information, people can have a much better international view toward the world. Nowadays, we've entered a society of knowledge economy, the key feature of such society is shown by taking information technology as the fundamental technology, and treating information industry as the best industry. By the end of 1998, over 100 million computers had placed into use by internet, plus more than 500 million people become net citizens, the primary page of internet amounted to over 130 million with the sharply increasing trend by 100 thousand pages and 20 million new words surrounding the world every year. As for other communication means, such newspapers, it does increase 5 times as fast as the previous year, and list will continue. The highly developed communication technology and information industry has facilitated the communication of folks surrounding the world and provided a sound precondition for an improved interaction.
People's mutual recognition is firstly shown by the increase of the level of people's recognition of the present mutual understanding. Before the modern times, owing to the backwardness of communication means, people of different counties and nations were isolated from one another, so communication between people in sun situation seldom happened, not mention to mutual understanding. Nowadays, folks of different areas can get contact with the other person in a far more direct way, under the assistance of modern communication technology, by way of a close intercourse. The popularization and attachment to the education of the world history and world geography greatly strengthen people's understanding of the planet theoretically. At exactly the same time, the present day technology of media and the introduction of traffic tools has shortened the length of people in several areas and deepened the communication between people living a long way away.
People's mutual recognition is also shown by the emulation and assimilation with their way of thinking and behaving. For example, people tend to pursue a far more proper and sound lifestyle. They will probably leading a life where they could realize their value. In the production field, the industry means starts to mode from intensive form into intensive form in order to reach a more environmental growth and a sustainable development. In the manner thinking, people will probably differ from a closed way to a far more open way, from reserved manner to a more original manner, and unilateral to multilateral.
Besides, people's mutual recognition is also shown in the form of infiltration and assimilation of people's sense of value. The sense of value is the fundamental part of human culture as well as the guidance of people's action. The trend of globalization can be accepted by the folks across the world, because they share some typically common concepts such just as culture, politics, way of economical development and especially in the form of thinking. It's hard to imagine if people don't share the simmilar ideology on these aspects, what the world end up like.
In conclusion, with the rapid development of globalization, we are living in a global village, and it includes allowed a better communication flow amidst More Developed Countries (MDC's) and Less Developed Countries (LDC's). They have enabled trade to grow, capital and education flows to increase and an improved allocation of resources to be met across the world. There are various gains from globalization for companies round the world, some Multi-National Enterprises (MNE's) that locate themselves in LDC's bring along growth and development, like for example employment, technology knowledge, profit reinvestment among other factors to host countries.
Nevertheless, there are several negative aspects about globalization as well. For example, MDC's tend to profit from globalization in various ways when negotiating with LDC's. MNE's that go to LDC's for example, gain from cheaper work force, cheaper land and tax rates. In the end however, some MNE's conclude negatively affecting the host country's economy by taking all profits back, socially, by polluting the surroundings and finally also politically by paying bribes to the local governments to reduce tax rates or other fees.
In spite of its controversial position in several regions, some countries like the Asian tigers or the Asian New Industrial Countries (NIC's) have gained incredibly from globalization in the past 30 years. Other continents however, have proved themselves not yet ready for such a big change. An example of the latter is Africa and South America, where due to different facets like corruption, low education level, weak political policies and poor transport infrastructure globalization was not in a position to benefit them in a higher rate like in Asian. Hence, it is up to each county to choose and control Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and gain from it or not.
Summing all the above, globalization is quite a while procedure for in the human's history. Though we couldn't provide a definite definition to it, observing from it main constitutions and the features of them, we can have a overall idea about any of it. It features is firstly shown in the economical field, because the globalization is basis on the development economy which supply the essential precondition for globalization. Then follows the feature in culture. Culture is the carrier of any human civilization, therefore it is another important constitution of globalization. Similar to the integration of world economy, people can also benefit from the integration by learning from each other. However, while we bear the diversity of different cultures we ought to also keep our nationalism. We also discussed the intergrowth of global ecology, because ecological system is very vital for human beings' existence. It offers the essential material for our life, quite simply, minus the support of ecology, we can do nothing. While were enjoying various resources that the type offers to us, we also need to bear the obligations to preserve it from ruin. At last this paper also mentioned the mutual recognition of individuals involved in the globalization, because this is another precondition of globalization, as well as an important factor for mutual understanding. With all the mutual recognition and understanding globalization may be accomplished and can have a better development. It is true that there may be some unwanted effects of globalization, however, with it's more merits, we must admit that the trend of this tide will continue.