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The Chikungunya Trojan In India Biology Essay

Chikungunya virus, also called Chikungunya fever, is most often found in cities of India and also in other countries such as Africa and other areas in Southeast Asia. They tend to appear in very packed areas, which allow transmission of the disease to become more efficient. It is an individual stranded, enveloped RNA disease that is clearly a part of the genus Alphavirus (Riezebos-Brilman). All Alphavirus' are sent to Humans through afflicted mosquitoes, which for Chikungunya virus in particular, does not cause as dangerous symptoms as will other trojans. Although Chikungunya is not reported to cause death in Humans, its symptoms can still have an effect on some individuals adversely. These symptoms can be long-lasting; nonetheless they appear to eventually vanish. There is not one specific treatment for Chikungunya fever, but it can be treated individually by each sign ("Chikungunya"). Even though there are not any specific treatments for Chikungunya fever, there are extensive reduction methods or strategies that can be used to avoid mosquitos.

In order for Chikungunya trojan to gain access into Humans, it must first infect mosquitoes. Mosquitoes become contaminated by biting Humans that already are contaminated with Chikungunya trojan and the mosquitos can then infect Humans who are not contaminated. Specifically the vector that mainly transmits chlamydia is the mosquito Aedes aegypti, which can be also known as the yellowish fever mosquito ("Chikungunya"). After Aedes aegypti spreads chlamydia to Humans by biting into the skin, the disease primarily does all of its replication in the cytoplasm. It starts off by attaching its surface proteins to the web host cell's receptor on its plasma membrane where after that it gets into the cell by endocytosis and transferred to endosomes. Uncoating of the capsid occurs by acidification that involves a big change in pH eventually leading to the capsid to uncoat. The capsid is a regular, icosahedral, twenty-faced composition that contains the genome. The genome is made up of an optimistic single-stranded RNA, which is therefore grouped as Baltimore course IV. If the genome is free from the capsid, it can miss transcription and go right to mRNA processing (because it is a confident strand) and translation in the cytoplasm. An essential step that initiates translation requires eIF2-alpha, that allows normal-house keeping genes to shut off. Also, during translation, the first ORF is translated, which encodes for four particular protein (nsP1, nsP2, nsP3 and nsP4) that makes replicase (a viral necessary protein). Replicase sorts the negative strand intermediate (42S RNA) and which will then subsequently create more positive stranded RNA. After translation, the capsid is built by ribosomes and the lipid-protein envelope (only proteins in envelope are glycoproteins) is assembled at the plasma membrane where it egresses the cell by budding (Riezebos-Brilman).

Upon replication of Chikungunya computer virus, there are numerous symptoms and diseases that affect Humans. Most symptoms commence to show within one to twelve times and sometimes symptoms do not show. One of the most typical symptoms that first appears is fever (which explains why is it commonly known as Chikungunya fever). Fevers can be as high as 104F, which can keep going from days and nights to weeks. Other common symptoms that appear in the beginning of contamination are fever, chills, vomiting, joint pain, head pain, vomiting, swelling of joints, bleeding/hemorrhage, exhaustion, muscle pain, and rash (Bhowmikb). One sign in particular that is the frequently seen indication is arthritis. The word Chikungunya comes from an African main that means bend over, which is identifies arthritis ("Just The Facts Chikungunya). "

Even though the vast majority of these symptoms can be long term (days to weeks to even a few months), they eventually fade away. The computer virus' lipid envelope is exactly what allows the immune system to identify it. The symptoms are incredibly a lot like Dengue, which sometimes appears in the same areas as where Chikungunya computer virus is present and also which explains why Chikungunya computer virus is often misdiagnosed as Dengue. The only path to differentiate the difference between Dengue and Chikungunya disease is by undertaking a bloodstream test (ELISA), which is often time consuming. Although it is important that the two diseases are recognized in one another, many doctors use the symptoms to distinguish between the two viruses exclusively for the fact because blood testing takes too long ("Chikungunya").

Even after diagnoses, the disease or disease can't be treated because there is no vaccine or a particular antiviral treatment. Generally, symptoms are singularly cured and medications such as ibuprofen, paracetamol, or naproxen are recommended to relive symptoms of fever, head aches, aching. Often times NSAIDA pills are given to those who find themselves infected to take care of only certain symptoms. There were a few professional medical studies in the making. One for example, is a prototype vaccine that has been successful in monkeys, but will be tested on Humans later this year. The vaccine is live and it allows the disease fighting capability to identify the outer level of the pathogen but does not allow the immune system to recognize the virus' genome (which essentially prevents replication from happening). Then they isolated antibodies from the trojan and put them into mice, that have been also protected against the virus (Maugh).

Since there are only clinical trials in the making as of this moment and since there is not one specific treatment, it is highly recommended, that fluids are generally taken. An abundance of break is also advised and also infected people should avoid staying out doors from other potential mosquito publicity. Keeping away from potential mosquito subjection will essentially help avoid transmitting rate in confirmed region to go up.

It is a good idea to have reduction methods in mind since there is not a specific treatment for Chikungunya fever. A good example of a prevention method is using mosquito repellents formulated with DEET (Bhowmikb) or Picaridin on clothes and on the skin. Also when remaining indoors, a well-netted/screened area or air conditioned areas would help prevent transmission. When outside the house, on the other side, wearing long clothing that covers most of the skin can assist in preventing mosquito bites. Also, getting clear of any source of mosquitos around living areas would assist in preventing mosquito existence vastly. Areas such as birdbaths, standing water from flowering pots, barrels, and pet meals would clear a large source of mosquitoes ("Chikungunya).

Large options where mosquitoes usually can be found are urban areas because Humans are good reservoirs for the virus. Those areas that are especially encircled with poverty, environmental tragedies (such as natural disasters), exotic climate predominantly all year round, and areas where general population health is corrupted are perfect areas for mosquitos and are also good areas for a virus to transmit by mosquito-Human-mosquito. Many third world countries are targets for Chikungunya fever. Countries such as India, Pakistan, South Africa, and the Philippines have been seen with issues with this particular disease. In areas where there is an plethora of mosquitos and where poverty has flourished, nets or displays are usually used to avoid mosquitos from coming into homes. Since there can be an abundance of the condition in under-developed countries, there can be an issue of money. Many of these countries cannot find the money for to provide every household with screening process or net and for that reason transmission becomes easier.

Not only is location an issue but demographic is also. Anyone who's bitten with a mosquito is at risk to be infected, but many people show symptoms more than others. For example, a lot of people do not show any observeable symptoms. This is generally observed in children. Women that are pregnant can be in danger for transferring it with their children. They can be infected at any time of their motherhood but they are usually only vulnerable for moving it with their child if it is in their blood vessels during the time of delivery. Also, mortality rate is suprisingly low and is almost never seen but it increases with increasing years.

Perhaps the reason why Chikungunya fever is a difficulty in a variety of countries throughout the world is due to the fact that there surely is no genuine treatment and there is only medicine available to help relieve the symptoms. And yes it seems as if there were various clinical tests (Dwivedi) arising due to a recent growing epidemic in countries such as India and South Africa. Though this computer virus is not seen as detrimental compared to other trojans to populations because of low mortality rate, it still has been arising symptomatic problems in certain people, such as those who experience joint pains or bloating of joints for a long time ("Chikungunya).

Not only are the symptoms themselves a problem, but the fact they can last for so long and they they can cause multiple symptoms at one time. Since the computer virus does have a tendency to show up frequently in third world countries money tends to be a concern. There are so many young families whom result from poverty and cannot afford to cover medication that will require to be taken over such an extended period of time. Therefore if there were a specific treatment for Chikungunya virus, then maybe is wouldn't normally be an epidemic in certain countries.

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