Place and displacement are always included in post-colonial writings, whether it's Derek Walcott's poem 'A very far cry from Africa' or powerful novels for example 'Heart of Darkness'. This feature opens up a broader principle where post-colonial crisis of individuality comes into reality. Whenever a novel carries components of place and displacement, the theme of alienation is usually reflected, this hails from a feeling of displacement. The sense of displacement may have produced from migration, enslavement or even alterity which may be submit by similarities or distinctions between different civilizations. This concept was heavily reflected in Heart and soul of Darkness by Joseph Conrad and Season of Migration to the North by Tayeb Salih. Both authors appear to be revealing an account about colonisation with the own interpretation of different experiences. Salih's book revolves around the story of brilliant Mustafa Sa'eed, the book indicates voyage to the 'center of light'. Whereas, Conrad's book is a whole reversal to Kurtz's voyage to Congo and connotes a journey to 'heart of darkness'. Both books focus on physical locations that have in some way formed the individuals in the novel and recognized their feelings such of loathing and despair. It seems that both writers are searching for a true identification and avoiding the conflicts of other cultures. Their search is in the end a pointless and time squandering experience; nevertheless their connection with colonialism was all about corruption and greed. The concept of displacement is uncovered by us (the readers) when Conrad instigated racism to the Africans that was quite transparent. In contrast, Salih bravely indicated himself being misogynist, which is rather controversial in today's society-since women and men come across as being equal.
The representation of both continents in these novels is exhibited in diverse ways to one another. In Conrad's novel, the narrator expresses his view of River Thames being "mournful gloom, brooding motionless". His description of Britain "but darkness was here last night" clearly shows Conrad's view concerning how Romans once colonised Britain. The description gives an impression of Great britain being outrageous: "Here and there a military camp lost in a wilderness just like a needle in a bundle of hay-cold, fog, tempests, disease, exile and death- death skulking in the air, in the, in the bush. " The metaphor is cleverly used here for camps being lost and it's really impossible to find them because of fog and exile. Here we discover Conrad's first information of displacement from the evidence (as stated above). When Romans first appeared, England was regarded as a displacement for folks living there.
In contrast Tayeb Salih's narrator identifies European countries (where he studies) thus: "I had developed lost for a while in a land 'whose fishes expire of the wintry'. " This evidently evokes a feeling of displacement he felt when he is at Europe-the sense and thoughts he got when he came back are complete reversal "and it was a fantastic point in time" of feeling for Europe. Later in the book we run into the narrator's sense of alienation which evoked from displacement "the trial into a turmoil between two worlds, challenging of which I got one of the victims. " Here the narrator seems to be tangled up between two worlds and striving to suggest that where he examined (European countries) is a new world to where he was created; his town. However, when he comes back to his community, he appears to remember European countries, one possible reason could be he becomes attached to that world. That is quite evident in the novel "I am from here- is not this certainty enough?. . . . I used to cherish within me the image of this little village, experiencing it wherever I gone with the eye of my creativity. " Before in the novel his explanation of the community has drastically improved, as a result of experience that he found in the village "Over there is like here, neither better nor worse" the narrator seems to come to a bottom line that world is the same there is no difference Europe is equivalent to his community.
The idea of Western european being the dominating and powerful one is set up in Edward Said's Orientalism (Is knowledge based mostly idea in particular knowledgeknowlege and ideasisead of Asian ethnicities andnad dialects. ) In his book Said presents a disagreement argue of East being made by american/European scholars who signify those civilizations from a colonial perspective. Salih gives an impression of Africa is what Europeans make it. Which I think is a valid impression and it's really clearly evident in Conrad's book: "They [the slaves] were dying little by little - it was clear. These were not enemies, they were not criminals, they were nothing earthly now. . . inefficient, and were then allowed to crawl away and relax. These moribund forms "- Marlow's description of African men and they're not treated humanely, thus Marlow describes them as less individuals. In another of his chapter he brilliantly says "Orientalism was eventually a political eyesight of reality whose structure marketed the difference between the familiar (European countries, West, "us") and the strange (the Orient, the East, "them"). " This is true to an degree if we starting it after both novels.
When having the factor of place and displacement in a colonial novel, it will always be essential that the beliefs of the area are considered; what effect do those prices have on the type. In Center of Darkness, Conrad mainly reveals the prices of Africa through the character and what view does the narrator have. In chapter one Conrad presents the narrators' view of Africa " They were dying slowly-it was clear. . . nothing but dark-colored shadows of disease and starvation" (pg20). The whole passage gives the feeling of African men as than individuals, as they the are mistreated and overworked slaves. Similar approachapproch is also seen further in the book "He was useful. . . the bad heart inside the boiler are certain to get angry. . . So he sweated and fired up and viewed the a glass fearfully" (pg 45). In this passage Conrad's narrator, Marlow still doesn't consider them evenly and compares them with pets or animals "a puppy in a parody". The reason being for this is the person acquired no knowledgeknowlege of machinerymachinary because for the kids its something new, thus they are really dependent on thethr white men to train them. The white man had taken takes advantage of their insufficient capacitycapcity and scares him by referringreferrring to the evil spirit.
Not only the narrator within the Heart and soul of Darkness doesn't respect the worth of Africa nor the natives living there, the character of Kurtz, who's portrayed as a powerful, corrupt man, calls for full benefit of these less ready men and treats them as slaves. Kurtz doesn't value the Africans and treats them like childrenchidren who needs correction or assist with anything "He began with the discussion that we whites, from the point of development we had attained. . . By simple exercise of your will we can exert a power once and for all. . . " (pg 61). Kurtz received the theory that before he went to Africa, the natives were living as uncivilised people that was then corruptedcorrpted by Kurtz's objective. On another surface level Kurtz, this wrotewuote also offers an impression of him believes that white men can revolutionisedrevolutioned Africa and bring goodness to the country as well as making African men more able. Thus the Africans will dsicover the white men as Gods displaying them the road, which they will observe.
Conrad appears to dismissdimiss the beliefs of Africa and therefore portrays the role of white men ruling over Africans during when the book was written. Africans were cured as slaves by the Europeans and white race during slavery and the periodperoid of slavery was started long ago, during the 15th century. Through the entire novel Conrad identifies the natives as "Savages", which ultimately shows his brutality towards them. This approachapproch was very obvious in the book when he refers to the Africans as " Well when a lot of secret niggers armed with all sorts of fearful weapons" (pg 23), another example "unless the body of your middle-aged negro, with a bullet-hole. " (pg 24) Both these rates are very harsh and suggest that Conrad has been very racist for the Africans. At the time, native Africansafricans were used to hearing such insulting brands and because they weren't cared for just as white men, this made them more weaker and less capable to are a symbol of their personal. Furthermorethemselves. Furtehrmore, the audience wouldn't find this racist besides Great britain would expect something a lot more racism than this, as they ruled over them for hundredshunderds of years.
This issue was consideredcondidered by many African Professors and one of the most effective approachesapproch to Conrad's racism was seen by Chinua Achebe, Nigerian novelist and teacher of African Literature. Achebe called Joseph Conrad a "bloody racist" (Knowles & Moore 299), which he moderated in later printed editions to a "thoroughgoing racist" ("Image" 257). His view is contradictory, as some would trust him. Due to the fact Conrad was very immediate when he was discussing the Africans with the racist term, from the point of view of Africans he would definitelydefinately be classed as a racist. Achebe also said in his lecture that "Marlow signifies Africans as a part of the wilder- ness. He reduces these to fragmented areas of the body, "limbs or moving sight" (254). Alternatively, Marlow finds that an African who does something more than materializematerialise from the 'evil jungle' to scare him resembles "your dog in a parody of breeches" ("Heart" 38; "Image" 254). With an level his argumentsarugemts are obviously valid ones, the image of Africans portrayedportaryed by Conrad is very brutal and showssowss the narrator's hostilityhostality towards Africans. Alternatively, from the point of view of Europeans Conrad would bebeen viewed as racist. They might argue argure that Conrad only portrayed the occurrences that occurredoccured during the time and at that time people wouldn't consider this as racism. However, from a spot of view of 21st century era, this would be looked at as racism, such deference is much more serious and sensitive;, people would be more careful and consider the have an impact on of the term before declaring it.
In Salih's book, Season of Migration to the North discounts withiwth the ideals and culture of Sudan and the way the narratornarrotor and other characterschracters develop their reference to the country they were born in. In the novel, Salih reveals the NorthernNothern and Southern Sudan as completely different to each other. The Northern Sudan is modernizedmordernised, in that theretheere are numerous facilities such afacelities sucha s nursing homes, colleges and other modern infrastructures. Thismordern indrsstructures. That is contrasted with the narrator's village in SouthernSouthewrn Sudan, where there's barely a institution for children. This issue of Sudan is reflectedrefelcted in the novel by TayebTayed Salih and the book givens the feeling of traditional tradional Sudanese beliefs being substituted by materialistic things and technology.
Furthermore, in 1956 Sudan gained its independence and tension was on its top between the north and the southern due to differencesdiffernces in religious beliefs and ethnicity. In 1983, the warfare brakes out againagin between the Muslim north and Christian south. Now the Southern SudaneseSudanease have gained their self-reliance and are permitted to choose between unity and secession. The next narrator, Mustafa Sa'eed like the first narrator feels alienatedaliented when he's in European countries to complete his research "and I, in addition to the rest, am a colonizer, I am the intruder whose destiny must be made a decision" (pg 94) like the narrator, Mustafa Sa'eed's comment evokes a feeling of displacement. This increases an argument that is Europe a hostile place for anyone like the narrator and Mustafa Sa'eed or whether it's just your personal experience.
ReferringReferrring to the prices Sudan, Salih evidently reflectsreflets these principles and traditions through the characters. Mustafa Sa'eed'sSaee'd's better half Hosna portraysportays the type of typical devoted wife, who keeps the tradition of an Muslimmuslim wife " 'After Mustafa Sa'eed', she clarified with a decisiveness that astonished me, 'I shall go to no man' ". Her character is completelycompletly contrary to Jean Morris, to whom Mustafa Sa'eed hitched and then wiped out her. Her personality reflectsreflecst the values and culture of Britain or what he recognizes in her "I used to be thrilled she laughed so freely. Such a woman- there are many of her types in European countries- recognizes no fear; they acknowledge life with gaiety and interest. And I am a thirsty desert, a wilderness of southernsourthern dreams. " This declaration stereotypes the women and the way they approach men and Mustafa Sa'eed offers an impression of women being objectsojects in his eye. Thus he compares himself to a prey, on a look out for any women. Furthermore, he's suggesting that he originates from a place which outrageous and filled with desires and in cases like this his desires are intimate ones. These two women are complete reversal to one another, one is loyal portraysportays the worthiness of Sudan and other portrays the careless Western woman. The prices of Europe are very differentdiffernt to Sudan, however it doesn't seem to be impacting on Mustafa Sa'eed yet he moves further along with his desires.
Frantz Fanon's 'Black colored skin White masks' is about the search of true individuality, race and skin color. colour. "There's a fact: White men consider themselves superior to black men. There may be another reality: Black colored men want to prove to white men, no matter what, the richness with their thought, the equivalent value of these intellect". In his book he reveals his personal experience and responses on other ideas of psychologists. psychiologists. Fanon shown the idea a person is criticizedcritised for their native culture, then they become subjects of inferiority organic, when they are placed in the center of an excellent culture. Thus he believesbelievs that black men have to look at white masks to be remembered as part of the superior culture. Matching to him, the ultimate way to achieve this is to speak the words of this culture and by speaking the dialect, you must understand the prices and choose the culture. cultre. So did Mustafa Sa'eed placed on a white mask? To an extent, it's its clearly apparent from his dreams that are not the values of Sudan. It appears that Mustafa Sa'eed appreciated the white culture very much above his original culture. However, this is arguable, as he might be trying to be part of what he believesbeleives a superior culture; thus he adopts its it's words as well as culture.
Marlow similarly adopts the culture of Africa or Kurtz's. Like Kurtz at the end he becomes corrupted and lays.
Structure, language, form used in HOD and SOM to make effect
Critical conclusion on both books/or any parallelsparalells