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The Impact of Education on Economic Cost of Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is undeniably a global epidemic. Development of drugs and other healthcare tools for the treating diabetes patients are completely swing all around the globe, yet, little attention is given to the education of the diabetes patient. The option of literature related to diabetes education in Saudi Arabia is not a lot of. Most books and studies have focused on the prevalence of diabetes throughout the spot. Diabetes education is of significant matter as a result of detrimental effects of diabetes to the lives of the diabetic patients, especially in the economical and interpersonal aspects. Diabetes self-management education (DSME), if properly implemented and evaluated, can help improve glycemic control, self-care and mental well-being and reduce the cost of care (Izquierdo, 2003). According to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) (2009), a few of the long-term goals of diabetes education are to decrease the burden for those in danger for or coping with diabetes and their families; and to decrease the financial burden of diabetes at individual and societal levels. The government and healthcare sector plays a very important role in the proper information of the Saudi people. This newspaper explores the effects of healthcare education on the price tag on diabetes mellitus treatment in Saudi Arabia.

Research Statement

Diabetes mellitus has already become the most common non-communicable disease on the planet (Alwakeel et al. , 2008). Corresponding to recent epidemiological data, the occurrence of diabetes mellitus in many Arab countries is particularly high; the info about the prevalence of diabetes in Saudi Arabia is quite limited, but it is clear that diabetes remains one of the most serious medical issues in Saudi Arabia (Alwakeel et al. , 2008). The current status of research implies that a multi-disciplinary method of diabetes is a viable solution to the existing diabetes issues in Saudi Arabia (Udezue et al. , 2005).

Unfortunately, little if any information is provided about what diabetes is; how it operates, and whether it can be cured and avoided. Al-Saeedi, Al-Dawood and Elzubier (2002) wrote that hundreds of diabetic occurrences in Saudi Arabia are uncontrolled because they maintain numerous misconceptions about diabetes and its own treatment. These myths have a negative effect on their treatment effects (Al-Dawood et al. , 2002). This research is important because education is actually a significant factor on diabetes reduction and management issues, and may play a role in finding a solution to the situation. Education may provide people with better awareness of preventive steps to avoid or control diabetes, and therefore also contribute to reducing the monetary costs of diabetes mellitus treatment in Saudi Arabia. In addition, diabetes patients who have low income can take advantage of the more detailed education programs, and in place enhance their financial status (Izquierdo, 2003).

Given the seriousness and extent of the diabetes situation in Saudi Arabia and the prevailing gap in literature, there can be an urgent need to explore the positive economical effects of diabetes education in Saudi Arabia. This research will also try to prove the efficiency of diabetes education as a form of preventive health mechanism. The researcher expects that the results will lay the building blocks for the development of audio medical educational regulations in Saudi Arabia.

Justification

In 2010, Saudi Arabia ranks third in the global prevalence of Type 2 diabetes and second highest in conditions of percentage of national healthcare expenses on diabetes (Kalyani, 2010). Corresponding to Al-Dawood et al. (2002), the speed of treatment-related misconceptions in Western Saudi Arabia is high, which implies that there is a dependence on one-on-one level education to encourage better knowledge. Far away, proper diabetes education has reduced the incidences of lower-extremity amputation, decreased medication costs and hospitalisation. Izquierdo et al (2003) likened diabetes education through telemedicine and that with in-person education. The study demonstrated that both tools were accepted by the diabetes patients however the technology provided by telemedicine suggests that more diabetes patients can be educated when using this tool (Izquierdo, 2003). These literatures offer an overview of the current situation for Saudi Arabia with regards to diabetes treatment. There may be some parts of Saudi Arabia where in fact the diabetes patients do not have the transportation to visit the Primary HEALTHCARE Centers (PHCCs). This shows that diabetes education must be considered a priority in healthcare in Saudi Arabia to diminish the prevalence of diabetes in the united states and to decrease the treatment costs for diabetes.

Research Objectives

This research aims to:

  • Determine the price tag on diabetes treatment in Major Health Care Centres (PHCC)
  • Determine the impact of the cost of diabetes treatment to the patients
  • Determine the effects of the economic impact on the immediate family of the patients
  • Determine the methods being used in diabetes education in PHCC
  • Determine the efficiency of diabetes education in PHCC as a kind of preventive health mechanism
  • Search for other possible tools you can use to provide an improved complete diabetes education

Methodology

The research methodology done by Azab (2001) and Udezue (2005) in diabetic patients will be modified and customized. Three Primary Health Care Centres (PHCCs) in another of the cities (Riyadh) of Saudi Arabia will be researched and the populace of the diabetic patients in each PHCC will be noted. The chosen PHCC will be representative of the existing situation of the diabetes treatment in that locality, but not necessarily the nationwide situation. Therefore, increasing the number of PHCC under analysis in future researches will provide a far more exact situation of diabetes education in Saudi Arabia.

This study calls for diabetic patients having treatment in their respective PHCC as well as their own families. The diabetic patient will be required to visit the PHCC for two consecutive months on a monthly regular visit system and given diabetes education. During these appointments, the fasting blood sugar (FBS) of the diabetics will be monitored and recorded. The diabetic patient and his family will be inquired with series of questions about their financial situation, family health background, cost of medication and treatment, the type of diabetes education provided to them, the efficiency of the diabetes education and the changes they may have made or discovered during the course of the study. The diabetics will be labeled regarding to gender and generation. The info of the patients will be extracted from the selected PHCC. Obtaining a stratified population, it is expected that this group to where diabetes education should be centered will be estimated. The interviews and questionnaires will provide information on the economic aftereffect of diabetes to the individual and to the family the patient belongs to. The economic effects will focus on the losses they have got acquired due to the onset of diabetes, and the delineation of the diabetes patients income from the basic everyday needs to the needed treatment and other medications.

Sampling Frame

The Primary HEALTHCARE Centre will be decided on through systematic arbitrary sampling. A set of all the PHCC in Riyadh will be made and random selection of the three PHCCs will be achieved. This quantity will be used to choose the rep PHCC.

All the diabetic patients in the three picked PHCC will be considered as the representative examples for the diabetic society for Riyadh. Predicated on the study by Al-Nuaim (1997), prevalence of diabetes in the rural areas is lower than that of the cities. This suggests that the populace being considered is a rep of the diabetics situated in the cities of Saudi Arabia.

Method

The analysis will obtain data by interviewing diabetics and their own families and providing them with a set of prepared questionnaires designed to provide the over-all financial situation of family members with a diabetic patient. Medical information and health background of the diabetic patient will be obtained through the PHCC where they are recorded. The fasting blood glucose level of the individual will be taken and recorded during the set appointment to evaluate the efficiency of the diabetes education which will be directed at them.

On the first month, the diabetics, and their families will be provided with diabetes education through one-on-one degree of education, counseling and by using other types of press such as journals, books and audio-visual presentations. The questionnaires will be handed out to them and data consolidated for evaluation.

On the second month, which is the follow-up appointment, the fasting blood glucose level of the diabetic patient will again be taken and another set of questionnaires will be given.

Interviews with diabetics and their families are necessary because these details provides a more reasonable picture in the lives of the diabetic patient and their own families. Although it may be difficult to acquire data in this manner since the patients will divulge areas of their personal lives, the questionnaires can suggest their lifestyle and their insights about the event of diabetes in their house.

The data for the cost of the treatment for diabetes will be from the selected PHCC and the decrease or upsurge in the cost of treatment will be obtained through the questionnaires passed out to them.

Ethical Issues

The goals of diabetes education are to optimise blood glucose control, prevent chronic and probably life-threatening issues, and optimize standard of living, while keeping costs within suitable restrictions (Ozcan, 2007). A lot of the cost studies were done in the medical sector and very few on the average person or their families.

Ozcan (2007) found out that short term diabetes education has shown efficiency, and diminishes with long term diabetes education. This shows that diabetes education must extend from the health health care sector to the diabetic patient and the families of the patients to guarantee a continuing treatment. Ozcan (2007) also described the effect of the environment to the diabetic patient. That is indicative that the support of people around the individual is significant to the welfare of an diabetic patient.

In 2005, the system cost of haemodialysis in Saudi Arabia is SAR 1700 & most diabetic patients need this at least thrice per week (Udezue et al. , 2005). Thus, the price required by a single diabetic patient for haemodialysis by itself, is approximately SAR 265, 200 per time. This does not include any costs needed for treatment of other difficulties of diabetes such as blindness, amputations and hypertension. Relating to Udezue et al. (2005), the higher acceptability and effectiveness of one-on-one coaching versus group coaching may be ethnical.

The treatment misconceptions cited by Al-Dawood (2002) must also be corrected, if not eradicated. Therefore, diabetes educators should be highly skilled in the organisation of effective educational programmes. They need to follow the books and apply the latest information in their daily practice (Ozcan, 2007). The IDF has arranged guidelines for medical care sector to follow to be able to provide a thorough and effective diabetes education for the patients (IDF, 2009). Areas that have limited usage of or resources for diabetes education may choose to use telemedicine to be able to help the diabetic patients, as suggested in the study by Izquierdo (2003).

The Ramadan is female traditions which requires fasting. Although studies have shown that fasting reduces blood sugar levels, the complications scheduled to diabetes might occur such as retinal vein occlusion (Elhadd et al. , 2007). This should be considered for diabetes education. Proper information dissemination and full understanding of the diabetic patient and their own families is needed to make the treatment successful, and consequently decrease the cost needed for medication.

Data Analysis

Data analysis must determine the relationship between diabetes education, change in the blood glucose level of the diabetic patient and the believed changes in the price of the procedure. A two-month comparability of the blood sugar level and the price needed for purchasing medicine will suggest the efficiency of the diabetes education. The amount of glycemic control will be calculated using the criteria of The Scientific Committee of Quality Confidence in Primary HEALTHCARE as done by Azab (2001).

The data of the stratified inhabitants will provide a information of this group that will require the most education. In addition, the efficiency of the educators will also be estimated. This will provide a baseline for the quality of diabetes education being given to the diabetic patients. The analysis of the educators will also determine the need for proper training of the educators, as well as an upgrading or improvement of the tools that the PHCCs have. This study will demand the college students t-test to determine if certain outlier data will have to be considered.

Timeline for the Research

This research study requires preparation of the location and members for the analysis, which include formal letters to the possible PHCCs and agreement from the diabetic patients. Proper orientation of the diabetes educators will also be considered. The materials for the determination of blood glucose level also need to be prepared and the resources have to be properly allocated. Time for the actual conduct of the technique, data gathering and analysis, and report era may also be considered. Stand 1 shows the timeline because of this research.

The Kind of Community Participation

This review will concentrate on the diabetic patient, the immediate family of the diabetic patient and the folks mixed up in selected Primary HEALTHCARE Centre. Thus, this study does not necessarily require community involvement.

The family members of the diabetic patient will be the only people involved in the study. Supplementary data may also be taken to verify and supplement information. However, this does not require the participation of the city that they belong to. All the members will be considered to represent the metropolitan community of Saudi Arabia.

This study will demand the contribution of the different health professionals in the chosen PHCCs. The multi-disciplinary approach done by Udezue (2005) will be modified for the role assignments of the people who will participate in diabetes education. The analysis conducted directed to boost diabetic control by teaching about diet, exercise, medications and other sensible diabetic management issues (Udezue et al. , 2005). The team for diabetes education will be led with a consultant physician; and its members is a group of medical researchers with knowledge and curiosity about proper diabetes self-management. The diabetes educators of the determined Primary HEALTHCARE Centre will play an essential role to the success of this research. The data or information they'll provide will determine the changes in the standards of living of the diabetics. Re-training and re-evaluation of the diabetes educators may be necessary to give a more standardized diabetes education during the study. This may minimize versions in the information being disseminated to the diabetes patients and their own families.

Diabetes nurse educators provides general coaching, insulin injection technique and hypoglycemia acceptance and treatment, and exercise. Communal workers will determine family life, schooling and social and socio-economic obstacles; dieticians provides education on functional diet, food availability and tastes and exercise; nurses will provide patient subscription and screening and the consultant physician will give general guidelines and assistance as overall coordinator. Concentrate of the diabetes education will be on exercise, diet and medication, as these three factors are the most afflicted by an specifics lifestyle.

All participants, particularly: the diabetic patient, family and the diabetes educators will have to be properly oriented of their roles on this research prior to the conduct of the analysis.

Importance of the Research

In the analysis by Al-Ajlan (2007), he described diabetes mellitus as several metabolic disorders with multiple etiologies seen as a chronic hyperglycemia with disturbance of carbohydrate and excess fat, caused by insulin defect in secretion or action.

Education is definitely a simple need inside our every day lives. This will not count out the necessity for diabetes education. Diabetes education should determine the target population, determine educational needs relating to ethnic backdrop of the community and education level of the target group and identify the resources to tailor the appropriate program (Al-Ajlan, 2007). The economical burden of diabetes does not only affect the average person patients and their families but the talk about and health services as a whole. Saudi Arabia is predicted to invest between 620 and 1, 142 million ID; and regarding to WHO files, almost one Saudi diabetes mellitus person is priced at the government about $800 monthly. The annual cost of treating diabetes in Saudi Arabia is about $9. 6 billion (Al-Ajlan, 2007).

The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) emphasizes that diabetes-specific education is required for diabetic patients and the professional medical personnel. The correct training of the professional medical personnel is vital to enhance the outcome of the procedure for the diabetic patient.

At present, diabetes self-management education is becoming an integral and critical area of the lives of the diabetic patient (Ozcan, 2007). Some studies provided major barriers to diabetes management such as low resources and the receptivity of the patients anticipated to cultural dissimilarities (Elhadd et al. , 2007). These concerns can be tackled properly if the government provides enough resources, specifically on working out of diabetes educators.

Other countries have already tried to use technology as a means to boost diabetes education for the treating diabetes patients. A good example of this is the use of telemedicine. Some studies show that using telemedicine to provide diabetes education through counseling resulted in short and effective interventions that reinforced lifestyle behavioral changes (Hayes et al. , 2001). In the analysis done by Klonoff (2009), the use of telemedicine as an instrument for diabetes education helped the health care providers talk better with the patients and lower the cost needed for healthcare of the diabetic patient. Through this technology, the diabetes patient doesn't have to burden the price of transportation merely to reach the PHCC. The diabetes educator, on the other palm, can allow for more patients because the use of telephone will provide usage of areas which may be underserved (Izquierdo, 2003). Hence, telemedicine may provide a short yet complete diabetes education to the diabetic patients of Saudi Arabia.

The prevalence of diabetes in Saudi Arabia, and consequently, the cost of diabetes treatment, can be reduced by proper education of folks about diabetes. This does not only entail the diabetic patient, but also the folks who influence the approach to life of an diabetic patient (Ozcan, 2007). People who have diabetes tend to be less profitable in their lives scheduled to the expense of their medications and issues of the disease. Therefore, proper guidance, through diabetes education is best tool to improve their productivity. This undertaking requires both healthcare sector and the intervention of the government to have the ability to guarantee its success. The governments effort to enhance the services provided by medical care sector will provide profit to more diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia. A reduction in the prevalence of diabetes in Saudi Arabia, and those that want diabetes treatment will improve both the individual and countrywide economic position.

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