The need for children's play and talk

The first example is of J's first experience of tag making with felt idea pens and on talking with the parents this was his first experience of using any pulling implements.

This activity came into being from J's own initiation his interest was gained when he found his sister with the pens she was sat beside him sketching a picture of what she described as a rabbit, J watched for some time then grabbed at the pen his sister asked Do you want to pull an image, J made a sound his sister gave him a bare piece of newspaper and a noticed hint pen. J made markings on the paper looking up at his sister once in awhile who would say wow J that's fantastic, good youngster' J would smile then continue to make more marks, J's sister provided him more colours J tried to pick all the pens up simultaneously but dropped them all, he picked one up made a tag then tried another he continued this action for the duration of the activity. The experience was initiated and endedby J which lasted around 30 minuets.

The second example is again by J and his first draw making and exploration with paint.

This activity was adult initiated, the adult created a big rectangular blank canvas and various coloured paints with different size paint brushes. J was uncertain initially and retained his distance, however transferred closer and deeper first of all poked the canvas along with his finger, he found a brush checking out it along with his oral cavity and then fingertips, he place the brush on the table then put his finger in a car paint pot he viewed his finger touching it with his thumb he put his hand up for grabs when he lifted his side off he viewed the draw the paint acquired made poking his finger in the symbol moving it around this made the symbol bigger, J put his finger on the canvas the adult said what that' look it's J's finger', J put his finger back the paint moving it throughout the canvas. The adult chosen the large clean up handing it to J do you want to try the clean' J had taken the clean he explored it with is mouth area screwing his face up as the brush touched his tongue, ewwwww' said the adult tugging his face put it in there' directing to the pot of car paint. J looked at the pot he dipped the edge of the large clean in the paint then dragged the brush across the canvas he extended this action a few times the picked the smaller brush adding it into different colorings by using a dabbing motion he made more masks on the canvas, he performed the brush in a single hand then put the other onto the canvas raised it up taking a look at his hand that was covered in various coloured paint he shifted it closer to his face lowered the brush poked his painted hands moving his finger surrounding the paint, J looked at his finger then put both of your hands together tugging them apart them put one on the canvas considering the adult smiling wow J that's J's side' J squealed then poked at the canvas with his decorated finger. J put his palm on his face the adult laughed J then put both of your hands on his face laughing the adult said come on J we better get you cleansed up'.

Because of age J the activity was more about exploration and exploration and the intro to new experience.

Clay 1979; Goodman 1973; Smith 1971 cited in Barrat-Pugh 2000 challenged the developmentalist view of literacy pulling upon the 1970 research into how children figure out how to read and write their ideas were that reading and writing aren't isolated skills that can be taught but nevertheless the child can be an lively participant and the process is ongoing from birth. Arguing that reading, writing and oral language developments are interrelated, growing as time passes through involvement in literacy events. The childs family and community are central to the process as they provide experiences that facilitate emergent literacy.

The importance of children's play and conversation is accepted in the Government's literacy and numeracy strategies where a commitment is stated to using these for reception children in their first time of university (Wood, E. 2004). The Connection for Early Years as a child Education suggests that practitioners make allowances for the fact that children learn at different levels and so activities have to be well designed and organised, thus providing opportunities for different children to sparkle in different contexts. The Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage in Britain also suggests a play-based curriculum. The practioner must have the ability to plan and resource challenging learning surroundings and to support children's learning through planned play activity. The specialist must also be able to stretch and support the spontaneous play of children and help develop their terminology and communication skills through play. The practitioner must also ensure the child's continuity and progression (Lumber, E. 2004:20). Moyles et al (2001) have argued that a learning environment that would depend on play leads onto more mature forms of knowledge, skills and understanding. There is certainly evidence to suggest that through play children develop high levels of verbal skill and creative problem resolving capabilities.

Practitioners need to be resourceful and also have a firmly organised environment if they're to integrate play into the curriculum and the child becomes a powerful player in making their own learning (Malaguzzi, 1993). To ensure that the procedure is meaningful the teacher needs to know how and what the child thinks and has learned, and to be able to engage with this (Solid wood, 2004). Vygotsky (1933) argued that what children learn and how they learn it is powered by the sociable experiences and cultural interactions that they come across and the development of their thinking occurs as a result of the interaction between themselves, their environment, and more capable others. Thus, learning is a collaborative process, professionals have to be aware however of the power relationships which exist in educational configurations. Children haven't any control around the world they go into, of the pre-existing social practices or of the power of the anticipations of others, especially their parents and teachers (MacNaughton, 2004). Training for those who plan to work in the first years sector should not neglect the problem of vitality or the contexts in which it runs.

In English preschool classrooms, learning by being dynamic and interactive, by discovering the surroundings, has gained universal position (Curtis, 1998). Dewey advocated that children learn best by checking out and manipulating their environment. Isaacs (1933) also emphasized the value of learning by doing. She composed that play is not the sole means by which children come to find the world; the whole with their spontaneous activity creates their psychic equilibrium in the early years.

Communication, Words and Literacy includes the kid to read a number of different books, having the ability to communicate in various ways, such as facial expressions and vision contact used in non verbal communication. Children should be able to communicate to allow them to take part in their world. Children should also acquire simple reading jobs and text messages and writing for different purposes. Drake, (2001)

A study completed by Halls (1987) in a literate home area, demonstrated that where paper, pencils, newspapers, planners, telephone internet directories, cookery literature and catalogues were added within the environment. During the four hour times of this review, children were involved in 290 literacy situations. For example it was found that the frequency, length of time and difficulty of children's play with print out increased which the objective inspired self-generated literacy activity. A particularly interesting finding was that children in the involvement group often changed the literacy things into something else. Another example was the cookery books became powerful genie catalogs, and magazines became magazines. Terms is a robust source of signs or symptoms, and empowers the kid to restructure his or her environment, (Taylor and Woods 1998).

There a wide range of techniques children make associations with writing and reading, and many pathways into literacy. Writing and reading can enter into young children's lives in a variety of ways. Early activities with literacy may be initiated by the kid or by other people, they might be playful or work-like, and could happen at home, in the neighbourhood or in community options.

The range and variety of early literacy experiences shows that there a wide range of ways that children make connections with writing and reading, and many pathways to literacy.

Literacy development often starts off in young children's early symbol using activities: in communicating, in play and illusion, in scribbling and pulling, in pretend reading and writing. Between your age groups of 1-5 children learn to use symbols they invent for themselves and those "donated by the culture" (Gardner & Wolf, 1979, p. vii). The use of symbols-which may include words, gestures, markings on paper, objects modelled in clay, therefore forth-makes it possible to signify experience, emotions and ideas. Icons also allow children to go beyond the immediate here and now and to create imaginary worlds

Play consumes a lot of young children's time and energy, and for many children, play is where writing and reading get started. Play is the area in which young children make cable connections between their immediate personal world and activities that are essential in the larger communal world of family and community, and play is the framework where many children find ways to make culturally appreciated activities part of the own personal experience. When children play with writing and reading, they may be actively aiming to use-and to comprehend and make sense of-reading and writing long before they can in fact read and write. When books, newspaper, and writing materials are one of the things children play with, important literacy learning may appear. As they experiment with written dialect, often in playful ways, children commence to learn what writing and reading are, and what they can do with them. At the same time, children can acquire a selection of information and skills related to writing and reading, as well as emotions and expectations about themselves as potential viewers and authors. This multifaceted body of knowledge and attitudes constitutes early or "emergent" literacy (Holdaway, 1979; Teale & Sulzby, 1986).

Play appears to have at least two potential links to the development of literacy: First, as a symbolic activity, pretend play allows children to develop and refine their capacities to utilize symbols, to signify experience, and construct imaginary worlds, capacities they will get on when they commence to write and read. Second, as an orientation or approach to experience, play can make the various assignments and activities of people who read and write more important and therefore more accessible to small children.

In play the concentrate is on discovering alternatively than on achieving predetermined ends or goals, so are there few pressures to produce correct answers or last products. Play's non literal, not-for-real, "not-for-profit" orientation allows players the liberty to manipulate materials, experiences, roles and ideas in new, creative, experimental, "as if" ways (Bruner, 1977, p. v; Garvey, 1974). Play thus creates a risk-free framework where children do not have to fret about "getting it right" or around "ruining. " This independence may lead children to find or invent possibilities-new means of doing things and new ways of thinking about ideas-which may, subsequently, lead them to new questions, problems, and alternatives. Getting close writing and reading with this experimental, "as if" attitude may help children realize that written language is something they can change in a variety of ways and for a variety of purposes. "Playing at writing and reading-by scribbling, attracting, pretending to create, or pretending to read-may help to start the actions of writing and reading for children's factor and exploration (Bruner, 1976; Sutton-Smith, 1979).

While pursuits like talking, participating in, and attracting are closely linked to writing and reading, and while their use often intertwine and overlap, there are no direct or inevitable transitions between earlier-and later-developed icon systems. Whether and how children make contacts between talking, participating in, attracting, and writing and reading will depend on the children's pursuits and personalities, on what is available and valued in their unique culture, on how people around them use writing and reading in their own lives, and how these people start and react to children's writing and reading activities.

In other words, early on literacy development does not simply happen; rather, it is part of any social process, embedded in children's associations with parents, siblings, grandparents, friends, caretakers, and professors.

Early writing activities tend to be more visible than early on reading activities because they require making something. If given crayons or pencils, children usually start to scribble around age 1. 5 years; they find scribbling interesting since it leaves a noticeable trace-they have made something that didn't are present before. When children come across print out in their environment, they utilize this visual information in their scribbling and pretend writing. Marie Clay (1975) shows that as scribbling develops, it begins to incorporate various top features of conventional written language, such as linearity, horizontally, and repetition. As children learn that markings and letters signify or are a symbol of something, they can be developing a knowledge of what Clay phone calls the "sign concept"-which is of central importance in learning to write and read.

Robert Gundlach (1982) has argued that beginning writers need to understand the functions, uses and purposes of writing; the forms and top features of written terminology; and the processes of writing. Children must learn what writing can do, and, in particular, what they can do with writing.

Early literacy development is carefully linked with the specifics of young children's connections and activities. To these human relationships and activities, children bring their attention, their curiosity about communicating and getting together with others, and their inclination to be a part of family and community life. They also bring their need to use and control materials and tools that they understand as important to the people around them-their craving to "do it myself. " Plus they bring their determination to get help from more efficient writers and visitors. When they connect to more competent authors and viewers, children provide as "spontaneous apprentices" (in George Miller's key phrase), learning about written language and how to use and control it for a range of purposes.

What is the relationship between early encounters with literacy and later, long-term literacy development? A couple of up to now no definitive answers to this question, but as in other areas of subconscious development, we expect that there surely is a romance between early literacy experience and later older literacy. How this romantic relationship unfolds for a particular child will depend on several factors which interact with each other in intricate ways. Included in these are the child's interests, nature and personality, opportunities at home and in the neighbourhood for writing and reading, as well as the type and quality of the instructions the child encounters in school.

Even children who do not narrate their play are enacting a narrative with the gestures. It's been shown that children take part in this type of symbolic play more and in richer ways when they certainly it with a facilitating adult, usually a father or mother or caregiver. An average interaction contains a kid moving a toy around, guiding the toy or playthings through a sequence of activities. Often it's the adult who provides the language that highlights the narrative form inserted within the child's play gestures The Emergence of Story Sharing with During the First Three YearsBy Susan Engel Bennington College, Bennington, VermontZero to Three Journal, December 1996/January 1997. http://www. zerotothree. org/site/PageServer?pagename=ter_key_language_storytelling&AddInterest=1145

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