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The issues of Organization Behavior and Group Development

Hewlett-Packard Company (Horsepower) was founded in 1939 by Stanford College or university classmates- Monthly bill Hewlett and Dave Packard. Now, HP is a respected global supplier of products, technology, solutions and services to consumers and business. The business's offerings span Information Technology Infrastructure, personal processing and gain access to devices, global services, and imaging and printing. In May 2002, the merger of Hewlett-Packard and Compaq Computer Corporation-the greatest technology merger in history-forged a active, powerful team of 140, 000 employees serving several billion customers in 160 countries. For fiscal time 2002, the put together companies reported revenues of $72 billion.

Overview of Accenture

Accenture is a global management consulting, technology services and outsourcing company. Merging unparalleled experience, comprehensive functions across all business and business functions, and extensive research on the world's most successful companies, Accenture collaborates with clients to help them become high-performance businesses and governments (Accenture's website).

1/Change in Organization

1. 1/ Theory of Change

Organizational change can be named a changeover from the existing state to a desired future status. Kurt Lewin exhibited a management strategy- Drive Filed Examination to diagnosis the condition that influence to the changes of an organization. He said that "An issue is held in balance by the relationship of two opposing pieces of forces - those wanting to promote change (driving a motor vehicle forces) and those attempting to maintain the status quo (restraining causes)".

Figure 1: Power Filed Analysis

Source: Kurt Lewin

According to the theory of Kurt Lewin, Organizational change can be influenced by internal driving force such as proper product diversification or an external one such an advancement of technological development. Conversely, the change can be restrained or hold off by retraining force, for example, fear of change.

In the publication "Leading change", Kurt Lewin described that: now, a globalization overall economy is creating both more hazards and more opportunities to make transformation not only to compete and prosper but also to merely survive.

Understanding about the change in business and pushes for change by assisting from ideas would help firm have a simple knowledge to plan and also to execute changes effectively.

1. 2/ Circumstance studies: Key Driven Change in HP Norway

Global businesses have a tendency to a greater range to improve efficiencies in computer and it lines of business-with the overall goal of increasing shareholder value. However, along with size, increasing difficulty and difficulty in coordinating geographically dispersed operation is accurately the task that HP encountered when it merged with Compaq. Following the combination, it was problematic for HP to immediately start integrating the procedures of the two companies to accomplish economies of scale, reduce the cost and complexness of information technology systems for business and increase the overall experience consumers have with technology. Performed over a country-by-country basis, this integration process engaged physically mixing HP and Compaq resources, facilities and people, and solidifying its image as a unified, high-performance company.

Throughout the move, HP Norway's executives were very focused on understanding current staff manners and acknowledging where changes needed to occur to achieve the eyesight of the unified HP whose home based business model would enable the company to dominate its markets. These market leaders further recognized that the real challenge of integration would come when the company formally merged its people and resources into one new, distributed facility. At that time, the eye-sight of the new company in Norway would really become more active.

2/ Management Consulting

2. 1/ Definitions

Consulting was determined basing on two techniques through some different ideas.

The first methodology bases on the efficient point of view of consulting. Fritz Steele defines consulting like: " any form of providing help on this content, process, or framework of an activity or group of tasks, where in fact the advisor is not actually responsible for doing the duty itself but is assisting those who find themselves" (Fritz Steele, 1969). Besides, Peter Stop describes consulting in this way: "you are consulting any time you are trying to change or improve a situation but have no immediate control over the implementationMost people in staff jobs in organizations are actually consultants even if indeed they don't officially call themselves consultants" (Peter Stop, 1999). Thus, a director can also become a consultant if she or he offers advice and help to fellow manager, or even to subordinates alternatively than directing and issuing orders to them.

The second methodology views consulting as a particular professional service and emphasizes a number of characteristics that such a service must possess. Relating to Larry Greiner and Robert Metzger, "management consulting can be an advisory service contracted for and provided to organizations by specially trained and experienced individuals who assist your client organization to recognize management problems, evaluate such problems, recommend answers to these problems, and help, when wanted, in the execution of alternatives [in an objective and 3rd party manner]" (Larry& Robert, 1983). Similar pretty much detailed definitions are being used by other writers and by professional associations and institutes of management consultants. Based on the International Council of Management Consulting Institutes (ICMCI), for example, "management consulting is the provision of self-employed advice and assistance about the process of management to clients with management responsibilities".

These meanings depict that consultants are helpers, or enabler, and suppose that consultants play role in a variety of positions.

2. 2/ Internal versus Alternative Consulting

The large-scale designed change programs need some person leading or guiding procedure for change. They can be considered as professionals or consultants. Internal consultants are from within the organization and could be either professionals practicing OD with the group or OD specialists which may be from recruiting or group development department. On the other hand, external consultants aren't area of the organization and come from outside. However, both use of external and inner consulting has advantages and disadvantages.

Figure 02: Benefits and drawbacks of Internal and Alternative Consulting

 

Internal consulting

External consulting

Advantages

More knowledge of organizational culture, history and practice.

More experience with a number of clients

Already has marriage with organization people.

Does not get into business with bias from earlier experience with organizational members

Perceived as possessing a longer-term view and possibly increased stake in success of outcome.

Less political participation; can be truthful with less outcome.

Earn a regular salary.

May have increased "star electricity".

Less need to advertise services.

Organizational member may feel safe sharing private information without fear of leaks.

Disadvantages

May be blind to experiencing some issues because of history with culture.

May have trouble experiencing the invisible meanings or delicate issues.

Less variety in clients, establishments and issues.

Must build marriage trust with organizational people.

May be offered ethical troubles where it is hard to refuse.

May be perceived as short-term.

May be confronted with confidentiality concerns, especially with an interior manager.

Must look for clients to earn salary.

Organizational participants may be reluctant to share hypersensitive information for dread that may drip internally to colleagues.

May have suggestion perceived as selling or stretching work unnecessarily.

May be observed as an agent for manager

May not be able to follow through beyond interventions to see long-term results.

(Source: Donald L. Anderson, 1971, Company Development: The Process of Leading Organizational Change, Sage Publication, Inc. , California, Pg 90)

Choosing properly whether external or internal resources to require in organizational change process is very important to successful change. Actually, a collaborative between internal and external assessment in the change task brings the best advantages.

3/ Consulting for Organizational Change

It can be observed that in the recent time, management consulting is getting more important for the organizational change. Under influence of environmentally friendly changes running a business or modern culture, organizations have regarded that needs of consultations because of their change strategies.

Paton and McCalman released the list of the roles taken on by effective change agents that pursuing:

To help the business define the problem by asking for a meaning of what it is;

To help the organization examine what causes the situation and diagnose how this is overcome;

To assist in getting the business to offer alternative solutions;

To provide direction in the execution of alternative alternatives;

To transmit the learning process which allows the client to deal with change on a continuing basis alone in the future. (Paton and McCalman, 2000, p. 182)

3. 1/ The Role of Consulting in Different Mode

For sensible purposes, Gordon and Ronald recommended visualizing in regards to a greater number of consultative tasks along a directive and non- directive continuum. It is illustrated in (physique 03). By directive, the expert may certainly be a position of authority, initiates activity or explains to the client how to proceed. Within the non- directive role, the specialist provides information for your client to utilize or not. However, it is useful for consultants to experiment with different compatible functions concurrently or consecutively, moving over from role to role as the relationship evolves to response to a client's needs.

Figure 03: Illustration of the consultant's role over a directive and non-directive

 

MUNTIPLE ROLES WITH THE CONSULTANT

 

 

Reflector

Process specialist

Fact finder

Identifier of alternatives

Collaborator in problem solving

Trainer/ Educator

Technical expert

Advocate

 

 

 

 

Client

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Consultant

 

 

 

 

LEVEL OF Advisor ACTIVITY IN PROBLEM-SOLVING

 

 

 

 

Non directive

Directive

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raises question for reflection

Observes problem-solving operations and raises issue mirroring feedback

Gather data and stimulates thinking

Identify alternatives and resources for clients and help determine consequences

Offer alternatives and participates in decisions

Train the client and designs learning experiences

Provide information and recommendations for policies or practice decisions

Proposes suggestions, persuades or direct in the problem-solving process

 

Advocate

In an advocate role, the advisor tries to effect the client. You will find two quite different kinds of advocacy, including: positional or "contact advocacy and methodological advocacy. The positional advisor stresses on persuading the client to choose particular goods or alternatives or to agree to particular worth. However, the methodological advocacy consultant tries to effect the client to become productive as problem- solver, and to use certain ways of problem- handling, but is careful never to promote any particular solution (which would be positional advocacy). In such a role, the position of believe or value on content or methodological matter is the derivation of the consultant patterns.

Technical expert

Besides that, complex specialist or expert is also regarded as one of another functions followed by any advisor. It is clear that traditional role of the advisor is that of a specialist. In such a role, the specialist uses special knowledge, skill and professional experience to provide the client. The consumer is mainly responsible for defining the goals of the appointment. Then, the specialist assumes a directive role before client is more comfortable with the particular strategy picked. Later in the relationship the consultant may become a catalyst in helping to use the suggestions made. The advisor may be considered a source (content) specialist in the client's problem, or an activity specialist advising how to handle a problem and how to implement change. This particular role employs the consultant's knowledge.

Trainer and educator

Innovative consultation frequently requires the expert to handle periodic or continuous training and education within your client system. For this role, the skill of the trainer can be an important need. The consultants may impart their activities, information and knowledge immediately. Besides that, the specialist can suggest needs in the aspect of helping romance.

Collaborator in problem- solving

The helping role assumed by the expert runs on the synergistic (cooperative) method of match and collaborate with your client in the perceptual, cognitive and action- taking operations needed to solve the situation. The consultant really helps to maintain objectivity while stimulating conceptualization through the formulation of the condition. Additionally, he or she must help to isolate and define the centered and independent factors that inspired the problem's triggers, and will finally influence its solution. She or he also aids in weighing alternatives, sorting and developing a course of action for an efficient resolution. The expert in this role is involved in decision- making as a peer.

Identifier of alternatives

Costs or current economic climate is one of considerations of decision making. Therefore, in selecting a proper solution to issues the expert can normally identify several alternatives, with their attendant hazards. Thus, another role of consultant is identifier of alternatives. Within this role, the specialist establishes relevant standards for examining alternatives and advances cause - impact relationships for each, along with an appropriate ser of strategies. Noticeably, the advisor is not really a direct participant in decision making however in this situation, the expert is a retriever of appropriate alternatives facing the decision- manufacturer.

Fact- finder

Fact- finding is an crucial part of any consulting assignment, both for developing a database and for resolving intricate consumer problems. The consultant's role may even be restricted to fact- finding. In cases like this she or he will assist the client system by choosing the sources of data, by using a technique that are certain to get the client more or less involved with gathering and examining data, and showing data to the client in a manner that show where and why improvements are needed. With this role the consultant functions fundamentally as a researcher. (Kurb, 2002, p76)

Process specialist

This is the "pure" process role. The specialist concentrates chiefly on the interpersonal and intergroup dynamics impacting the procedure of problem- handling and change. She or he works on developing joint consumer- consultant diagnostic skills for addressing specific and relevant problems to be able to focus on how things are done alternatively than on what jobs are preformed. Furthermore, the expert helps the client to integrate social and group skills and situations with process- focused activities, also to observe the best match of connections. In such a role, an important function of the expert is to provide feedback. (Kurb, 2002, p76)

Reflector

When functioning in the mode of the reflector, the advisor stimulates your client to get ready and make decisions by requesting reflective questions which might help clarify adjust or change confirmed situation. In doing so, the consultant may be an arbitrator, an integrator or an emphatic respondent who experience jointly with your client those blocks that provided the structure and provoked the situation primarily. (Kurb, 2002, p76)

3. 2/ Case Study: The Role of Accenture in Successful Change in HP Norway

After recognized the necessity of change, Horsepower Norway turned to Accenture for assist in making sure that its integration momentum would not falter during the actual relocation. Horsepower selected Accenture because of its history of helping companies identify and capitalize on ways to improve overall business performance. Participating in a key role in HP's decision were Accenture's history of successful project execution; deep knowledge of not only HP's business and beliefs, but also the technology industry overall; intensive experience in producing impressive tools and technology; and proven, all natural method of organizational change.

How Accenture consult HP Norway effectively

For Horsepower Norway's integration to be successful, the company needed to maintain a highly effective, external focus and continue steadily to provide its customers throughout the integration process. Compared to that end, Accenture quickly assembled a team to help the business design, use and manage-over a period of just three months-six different activities:

eSurvey - Accenture and Horsepower Norway created and allocated a tailored Web-based survey to all or any employees to show you cultural characteristics, distinctions between the ex-HP and ex-Compaq workforces, behaviour toward the integration and areas of potential risk. The eSurvey helped the Horsepower/Accenture team understand the employees' expectations, assess awareness of HP core values and develop programs to guide a smoother change.

Defining Focus Areas - Predicated on the results of the eSurvey, Accenture caused HP Norway to recognize potential regions of resistance through the integration process, build information and define activities to promote and secure the effective cooperation between employees.

Integration Site - To answer any questions employees may have about the integration process and any office relocation, Accenture and HP quickly developed a one of-a-kind Integration Site, integrated with Horsepower Norway's existing website and interior Web posting tools. Using an easy-to use navigation composition and a subway map metaphor, the portal provided practical information (e. g. , "Where will my workspace be positioned in the new facility?"), as well as kept up to date messages from Horsepower leaders that monitored workers' anticipations and kept them focused on fruitful activities. This portal was hugely successful, logging 10, 000 "hits" in the month before the move.

Office Relocation Event- Accenture did the trick closely with HP to create a "no-hassle" change on the day of the office and workforce relocation. The team made sure that "info butlers" and tech support team resources were on site to guide employees on introduction, answer any questions they could have during the day and solve any setup problems immediately. The team also setup "base channels" on site to encourage the HP and Compaq communities to meet and connect to each other. For many, this was the first time they met their new fellow workers. Finally, the team helped ensure that Horsepower Norway's management created a positive atmosphere by giving important information related to the new path and hosting special meetings with their work groupings.

Project Support for the HP Management Team - Furthermore to coordinating activities and techniques on the day of the relocation, Accenture helped develop and execute the plan, tools and checklists for precise job control and also recognized high-risk areas and possible repercussions.

Creative Concept - Accenture developed a creative concept to help communicate the critical issues and information related to the integration. Using a popular local comedian, Accenture created a series of highly engaging videos-available via the web in the three-week period prior to the relocation-that described the core beliefs and new rules for the Horsepower organization. The success of this project is due, in large part, to HP Norway's determination to its employees and primary ideals. Building on the successful completion of the relocation program, Horsepower Norway once more turned to Accenture-this time for assist in changing the organizational culture so that it best helps "the HP Way. " For this project, Accenture has hosted executive discussion boards, workshops, team discussions and interviews to determine HP Norway's existing culture. Armed with information from these sources, as well as data from the eSurvey tool, Accenture is currently helping Horsepower Norway determine and apply the changes had a need to align the culture in a manner that best supports Horsepower Norway's goals.

4/ Suggestion for Successful Organizational Change with Consulting

The consulting process includes two associates - the expert and your client. In theory it ought to be easy to put the consultant's expertise to work on the client's task, since it is fair to assume that both gatherings will do their best to achieve the same purpose.

The reality is infinitely more complex. The consultant remains exterior to the business. Even an internal consultant is external from the point of view of organization units where he or she is likely to intervene. Quite separately of its specialized relevance and quality, the consultant can annoyed people and injured their emotions in many various ways. Rejection may take many forms. The history of consulting contains a large number of excellent reports that contain been buried in professionals' desks and never implemented, although they were formally accepted. Many consultants terminate their tasks with feelings of bitterness and frustration. They are absolutely sure they have provided excellent advice, the clients do not follow it. This underlines the critical need for creating and keeping an effective expert- client romance. (Milan Kubr, 2002, p61).

Building this relationship is not easy. To achieve success, both consultants and clients have to be alert to the human, cultural and other factors that will have an effect on their marriage, and of the problems to be avoided when working together. They need to be prepare to make a special effort to make and keep maintaining a relationship of understanding, cooperation and trust which makes the effective intervention of an unbiased professional possible. There is absolutely no alternative. (Milan Kubr, 2002, p62).

Developing a Trust Relationship

The development of openness and trust between specialist and client is an essential aspect of the business change. It's important because trust is necessary for cooperation and communication. When there is no trust, people will have a tendency to be dishonest, evasive, and not authentic with one another, and communication is often inaccurate, distorted, or incomplete. There are many basic replies that the practitioner might use in the communication process aimed at developing a trust relationship:

Questions- "How do you see the business"

Applied experience (advising) - "One possible intervention is team development. "

Reflection - "It appears like you would like to visit a participative form of leadership".

Interpretation - "From your own description, intertearm turmoil may be the problem. "

Self-disclosure - " I've thought discouraged myself when my ideas were turned down"

Silence - Say little or nothing; let the consumer sort out his / her thoughts. (Donald R. Brown & Don Harvey, 2006)

CONCLUSION

Change in company is a way to adapt to its goals as well as the changing in environmental business. By recognizing the necessity for change and both factors improving and resisting change, the business could be build change strategies correctly.

Contributing to the successful group change is the participation of both inside and exterior consulting. The roles of specialist are showed in a variety of mode or style of consulting. For the most of all, consultants are helpers in process of put into action change in organization.

However, the challenge to consulting in organizational change is building and keeping relationship between advisor and company (customer) to make effective co-operation for change program. The most important for both celebrations is creating a trust relationship.

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