The Mistreatment Of Native Americans

The white colonizers of the past helped switch the once "New World" in to the United states, a dominating world power that prides itself on being truly a good, non-discrimatory and liberal country. What has been long forgotten is that they made their improvement, that is, the damage, torture, and unfair treatment of the first inhabitants of America, and exactly how these people are treated even today.

Early Colonization

The colonization of the Americas is dated completely back to the 11th century when the Vikings (the Norse) resolved in Greenland and Newfoundland. The contact that they had with the indigenous people, the Inuits, was hostile, something that might have been taken as a sign of forewarning of the later contact between your natives and the Western colonizers. These Norse colonies weren't long-lived plus they eventually disbanded in the 15th century.

In 1492, Columbus going the expedition to America in the name of the Spanish. Colonization and exploration grew extremely popular and soon almost all of the hawaiian islands in the Caribbean had been colonized. By 1494, the Spanish and Portuguese experienced made the treaty of Tordesillas which divided the New World between themselves. The Portuguese required all of what is now present-day Brazil as the Spanish forced onward with conquering as much as possible.

Spanish Conquistadors

Spanish conquistador, Hernan Cortes, experienced overthrown the once very powerful Aztec Empire in Mexico who acquired thought him to be Quetzalcoatl, an Aztec god who experienced come to demolish their empire. He slaughtered thousands and people and burned a few of the town. Pizzaro, another cousin to Cortes, overtook the Incas in Peru, also massacring thousand and ransacking the whole empire. What's astonishing is the genuine cruelty of these men in the name of Spain who had been welcomed with wide open arms. Within an profile by Waman Poma, the Incan emperor, Atahualpa, dispatched gift items to the Spanish. Poma composed,

"The presents consisted of male servants and sacred virgins. A number of the virgins were also wanted to the Spaniards' horses, because, discovering them eat maize, the Peruvians took them for some sort of individual. Until that time, horses were unfamiliar to your people and it looked advisable to treat them with value. "

Continued Colonization

Colonization extended on, with Spanish Florida, the British colonies of Virginia and New Britain, the French colonies of Acadia and Canada, the Swedish colony of New Sweden, and the Dutch New Netherland. By 18th century, Denmark-Norway revived their colonies in Greenland and Russia got Alaska.

It is quite obvious that with the onset of so many foreigners, the Europeans, clash was eminent. What wasn't so easily seen was the particular Europeans helped bring with them-disease. Smallpox, typhus, influenza, diphtheria, and measles wiped 10 to 20 million of the indigenous inhabitants. Before these plagues, the natives had been used as servants and slaves but once they began dying out, Africans were brought to the Americas for taking their place.

White Overtaking and "Express Destiny"

As increasingly more Europeans arrived to the Americas, the more land they wished to cultivate and occupy. By the 17th century, for each and every one Native American, there were three white Europeans.

During the 1800's, John L. O'Sullivan, the brand new York newspaper editor used the term "Manifest Future. " He had created a term for a long-held belief that the whites of America had the right to expand their place to the West, that it was their responsibility and was approved by God in every way. People started making advertisements, paintings, and pictures to encourage the development.

What all of this did was concrete the idea of white supremacy within the Native Americas. None of them of the was a good thing for the Native People in the usa because now the whites possessed even more a reason in their thoughts to keep their expansion and continue their attempts for "civilizing" them which designed making them live as Whites. This meant they need to be Christian, must build homes and practice private property, and educate their children in a manner that the dutiful White Christians saw fit.

Indian Removal Act and the Path of Tears

What was one of the primary steps taken to move Native People in america therefore the Whites would have all usage of the land was the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which was signed by Leader Andrew Jackson. Though this work was said to be voluntary on the side of the Local People in america, community and tribe leaders were designed to feel significant amounts of pressure to hint the treaties that would move them using their ancestral homes to the Western world. This was a very controversial work and many white individuals were opposed to it because of how unfair it was to the Local Americans.

There was definitely higher support of the Indian Removal Work though, especially by the South because they sought usage of lands where different tribes were occupying. These tribes were called the "Five Civilized Tribes" which consisted of the Cherokee, Choctaw, Muscogee-Creek, Chickasaw, and the Seminole.

The pressure grew and chiefs finally offered in. First to sign a treaty to move with promises of new land and money was the Choctaws in Mississippi. The treaty the Choctaw key agreed upon was called the treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek so when interviewed by the Arkansas Gazette, he said the removal was a "trail of tears and death. " Five years following the initial passage of the Indian Removal Work, the Cherokee authorized the Treaty of New Echota.

The removal of the Cherokee, Muscogee-Creek, Seminole, and Choctaw was called the Trail of Tears. These tribes were relocated to Indian Place and experienced vulnerability, disease, and hunger during their trip. 4000 of the 15000 Cherokee that made the voyage died on the way to the Indian Place.

Resistance, Victories and Defeats

Though many Indians cooperated with the American federal government, some fought back again and tried resisting. Indian Wars broke out plus they did succeed some, such as the Challenge of Little Bighorn. The greatest victory by the Local People in america was when Tecumseh, a Shawnee leader of your multi-tribal group, allied with the British and defeated the White Us citizens in Detroit St. Claire's Beat.

Although they gained sometimes, the Local Americans lost quite a few battles, like the Creek Conflict, the Sioux Uprising, the Sand Creek Massacre, and Wounded Knee. Times were very hostile and by 1872, america government passed an insurance plan that recommended the extermination of most Indians unless they transferred to reservations in order to be more "civilized" and be Christianized. Paul Wellman describes quite accurately in his 1934 publication the pure torture and disregard of Local Americans during this time:

The Indian [was thought] as significantly less than human and worthy only of extermination. We do capture down defenseless men, and women and children at places like Camp Grant, Sand Creek, and Wounded Leg. We did supply strychnine to red warriors. We performed set total villages of people out naked to freeze in the iron cool of Montana winters. And we performed confine hundreds in what amounted to concentration camps.

Americanization

Once the federal government had gotten most Native Us citizens onto reservations, they began the procedure of "Americanizing" them. The federal government was able to treat them almost as if the Indians were their wards because, in fact, they were. This is so because in 1871, the Indian Appropriation Act was exceeded which explained that the government no longer looked at the Indians' land as split countries and their areas as separate nations but that the land would belong to the federal government and the Local People in america would become wards of america government. This is exactly what the Indian Appropriation Function said:

That hereafter no Indian region or tribe within the territory of america shall be recognized or recognized as an independent country, tribe, or vitality with whom the United States may long term contract by treaty: Provided, further, that nothing herein contained will be construed to invalidate or impair the obligation of any treaty heretofore lawfully made and ratified with any such Indian nation or tribe.

Once this was done, the federal government passed more lawful restrictions which constricted the Local Americans even more. These laws required them to give up their old life-style, such as moving from their traditional places of inhabitation to more "Americanized" homes. They were also made to change the look of them and their titles. Men were often made to cut their head of hair and whole neighborhoods were designed to abandon their old spiritual practices and only Christianity.

Schools were designed for the Indigenous American children so as to have them used to their new lives also to also quickly "Americanize" the youth. They were compelled to choose "American" names and only speak British, abandoning their native tongue. Carrying out this to the Local People in america was very harmful to their tribal identification and also essentially stripped them of most that they had once known in favor of the odd "American" way.

The General Allotment Action of 1887 (The Dawes Function)

The Dawes Work was enacted in 1887. What this does was it took once tribally-owned land and fractioned it off to the Native Americans. People received about 80 to 160 acres while unmarried people received about 40 to 80 acres. The rest of the land that was not allotted was exposed to railroad development and settlers not of Native American descent.

The Dawes Take action was enacted so as to better assimilate the Indians into American modern culture which supposed getting them to learn how to farm and eventually support themselves.

Though it appeared like this act got good intentions, the prevailing concern that it was enacted was unspoken, but the most important at the time. The dividing of land was to split up the Native People in america sense of culture and unity. Along with this negative aspect was the fact that the land allotted to them was not sufficient for living from.

Though this was clear, in 1906 the Burk Function was exceeded which meant that allot tees were deemed competent and in a position and could be taxed. If they were motivated incompetent by the Secretary of the Interior the land could be studied away and leased by the federal government. Altogether, the Dawes Action was manipulated and performed in a manner that negatively influenced the Native People in the usa, robbing them of the land and resources.

The Indian Citizenship Action of 1924 (The Snyder Action)

Life was a little easier for Local Americans if they had position as an American resident. They could acquire citizenship if a female hitched a white man, through military service, if indeed they had allotments, or through special treaties. This was unfair because they had to go through special and uncommon techniques to even be considered citizens of the state they lived in while any white man acquired full American citizenship your day they were born. People understood this simple fact and in 1924, the Indian Citizenship Take action (also known as the Snyder Take action) came along. It was proposed by Representative Homer P. Snyder of NY and was authorized into enactment by Leader Calvin Coolidge on June 2.

The biggest reason though because of this enactment was to, once more, better assimilate the Native Us citizens into American modern culture. They had already proven themselves possible good associates of society by being part of the armed forces during World Warfare I. This act did not include citizens blessed before the enactment date but have include all Indigenous Americans that were blessed after.

Native People in the usa in WWII

Once World Battle II broke out, the Native Americans joined in only as that they had during World Warfare I. This acquired them more respect than that they had experienced before. Because they had always possessed the image of the mighty and brave Indian warrior, non-Native Americans often called their Indian comrades "chief" which could have been seen as a token of admiration. The motion of the Native Americans to go to war was the most significant scale exodus because the Indian Removal Action during the 1800's. The war had an enormous impact on the Native Us citizens and their lives back. Seeing the outside world change their perspective on life. Also, these were in a position to find well-paying work because of the wartime labor shortages as a result of men away at battle.

What also brought added esteem and boosted the reputations of the Local People in the usa was that the military used Navajo code talkers to talk magic formula information in the Pacific. This code was never decoded by the Japanese.

Further Racism and Discrimination

Though Native Americans had migrated further up in position as time passes, it was not by much, Indigenous People in america were still highly discriminated against and were not seen as equals in American world. Because of this, the American Indian Movement (Goal) was developed and was very much active through the 1960's and 1970's. They proved helpful to better the quality of Native American life and men and women leaders became powerful in doing this. One innovator was a woman known as Anna Mae Pictou Aquash. She put her own beliefs and demands for equality before her own safety. Because of this she was often involved with plots which resulted in her being in and out of jail.

One storyline, though, resulted in her being in a lot more serious trouble then her usual short jail phrase. She have been imprisoned in South Dakota to be an FBI killer. Two providers had been killed by people of Purpose and because Aquash was a dominant leader, it seemed likely by the authorities for her to be somehow engaged and deserved to be under suspicion. She was released on bail. Aquash was caught in Oregon and fled once again, fearing for her own life and protection. Regrettably, she was found dead in 1976 over a Lakota ranch. She had not been identifiable by police so her hands were minimize from her body to possibly identify her.

The loss of life of Aquash made Local People in the usa even more alert to their position in American contemporary society because she got only stood up on her behalf beliefs, and she had been killed for this. Her people later found a bullet hole in the rear of her mind and found it suspicious that the authorities had cut off her hands to "identify the body" that they saw to be unnecessary and an indicator that they may have been covering up Aquash's murder.

Indian Reservations Today

Though the Indian Reservations were created such a long time ago, the quality of life has barely changed. It is rather poor. So poor, in reality, they are likened to developing countries. 60% of children are born out of wedlock and Local Americans will be the third highest group in the country for teenage pregnancy. The suicide rate of Native American young adults is three times that of the rest of America.

Alcoholism is a huge issue of reservations. Native Us citizens are four times much more likely to die of alcoholism and 17 times much more likely to die in an accident involving alcohol. Furthermore, they are twice as apt to be involved in an arrest concerning liquor.

One of the most severe reservations is the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. It really is one of the poorest in the country. The unemployment rate is 35% to 45% and homelessness is 30%. The common income for those living upon this reservation is $6100 per annum.

Because of the terrible reports, the reservations in the nation have the right to run casinos to bring in earnings through attracted vacationers. They were with all this right in the 1987 case, California v. Cabazon Strap of Objective Indians. In the Indian Video games Regulatory Action of 1988, their right was formally recognized.

Conclusion

The Native People in the usa of the Americas have been through so much since the colonization that commenced hundreds of years ago. The treatment of them has been cruel and inhumane in all regards. Thankfully, some acts have been taken up to fix the issues these people face everyday. Ideally in the future, they have a better life for themselves and will experience less racism and poverty. With the help of the others of American contemporary society, this is 100% possible.

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