The Scope Of Research And Limitation Structure Essay

The topic for this dissertation is a report on the development wastes minimization in Malaysia Structure Industry. Nowadays, building and demolition waste materials that stated in the site is increasing and becoming greater part of the waste material disposed in Malaysia landfill. This research is picked and carried out mainly due to the waste materials from site have been largely generated and most of the Construction Industries in Malaysia never have been practising by using 4Rs Concept to minimize the waste materials on site.

This is may cause serious impact to the surroundings. The construction waste material has generated a significant amount of throw away to the planet earth that triggers major effect on the global. Therefore, solutions have to be implemented to reducing the construction misuse to lessen the impact of the environment.

Rising disposal costs and reduction in volume of landfills create a need to find alternatives to reduce, reuse, recycle and replace of building waste being made. Under this assertion, execution of construction waste products management can be one of the evident solutions for the industry to minimize waste and throw away disposal, ultimately minimizing costs incurred through the process and contributing to the global "Environmental-friendly" activity (Bon-Gang Hwang, 2010). The structure waste increase from time to time in through the development of large projects especially located in Town area. Thus, the necessity of finding appropriate solution to lessen the probable of construction waste materials been produced.

Nowadays the waste material management is not an option ever again but necessary. It must be very seriously concerns and use a good tool to minimize the construction throw away on site. Therefore, Reused and Recycle has been known as among the finest solution to recycle the waste materials into recycled contents and turn into usable materials. Sadly though, our nationwide home recycling rate still excurse around only five percent (Bernama, 2006). Currently in Malaysia, it is still not much of the construction industry practice of 4Rs Idea. Thus, employing of 4Rs Notion is one of the methods to resolve the material waste to minimize the throw away.

According to Yusoff (2010) has seemingly stated that wastages have an impact on not and then the environment but also incur extra costs. In Malaysia, there is a huge probable in reuse and recycle of engineering waste into choice materials that is functional in Malaysian Structure industry if put into action correctly. This will hopefully create development resurgence (Yusoff, 2010). In lots of of the developed countries have started to execute reuse and recycle of the structure materials aggressively.

The construction wastes have an impact on not only the environment but also incurred extra cost has been allocated to the new material. This is mainly due to maybe the un-used materials on site has been damaged and extra cost need to reorder the material. Therefore, there's a need of applying a good material storage to avoid damaging the material. Besides that, the method of reuse and recycle of waste material has been generally used on other developed counties. Which means that there are has the huge probable in reuse and recycle of waste material on site in Malaysia. Thurs, putting into action 4Rs Concept to lessen the excess cost incur on the needless materials and also reuse and recycle of development waste material in the Malaysian building industry. This will likely hopefully decrease the construction waste from being essentially produced on site.

Problem Statement

It is actually that almost all of the construction establishments may produce or create a significant amount of debris and also sturdy waste products from sites. These dust and solid throw away will leave onto the websites for decades or just dump into the sea that may cause to water air pollution not just to our country but also harming the world. To be able to allow construction waste to be reduced, it is either by controlling the materials properly such as give a good housekeeping, provide proper materials storage and so on or using 4Rs Concept such as reduce, reuse, recycle and replace of materials throw away on site.

Most of the constructions establishments generate a lot of debris that can be totally cease because atlanta divorce attorneys building industry during activities in on going, there will be waste occurred no matter what method used to avoid it. It is depend on how the project management reduce the waste material to the minimal.

In Malaysia, most the building industry do not take advantages or practise of using reuse and recycle method and by the end the material abandon on the engineering site. As a result, this will cause increasing of burden on landfill loading and operation on site. Thurs, its about time for Malaysia to commence to manage the materials properly and also practise using recycle and used again to reduce the material waste products on site. Therefore, it is advisable to all development establishments in Malaysia should start to practise 4Rs Concepts in order to minimize the construction waste materials.

Research Goals

Project Aim

The aim of this dissertation is principally to carry out study regarding to minimize the construction throw away in the building industry. The Malaysian building industry should implement several solutions to minimize the engineering waste such as provide proper management for the material, reuse and recycle method and so forth. Therefore, all the solution should be applying in all building industry to be able to attain the aims of this study.

Objectives of Project

To identify the types of waste material that can be used to reuse or recycle in engineering industry.

To analyse the advantages of construction waste products minimization in engineering industry.

To hand out recommendation on how to overcome the construction waste materials problem in construction industry.

Key Questions

What are the types of waste material you can use to reuse and recycle in structure industry?

What benefits can the building waste minimization donate to the development industry?

Which types of method can be integrated to triumph over the construction throw away problem in development industry?

Background of Study

Nowadays many constructions market sectors about the world have produced a significant amount of waste products into this world. Lots of the waste created from the constructions site has been dump on all around the places and it will increase from time to time relatively with development of rural and urban areas if construction industries did not monitored them properly. Therefore, construction waste management takes on an important role to minimize or control the quantity of misuse that produce from the structure site.

The Malaysian building industry has mainly concerns regarding to the amount of construction waste generated in Malaysia. In lots of of the developed countries have been using reuse and recycle of building waste products. Therefore, reuse and recycle have been recognised among the most workable technique to control and decrease the waste materials on site. In most of projects, over fifty percent of the engineering wastes are recyclable materials.

There are several creators have been highlighted strategies for waste minimization. One of the strategies that find repeated mention in the literature is the strategy known as 3Rs - reduce, reuse, recycle. (Shekdar, 2008; Wang et al. , 2008; Kibert and Languell, 2000;Teo and Loosemore, 2001). Therefore, there is a good possibility to implementing 4Rs principle somewhat than 3Rs. This is mainly due to the 4Rs Concept is a much better and workable strategy that can be used to control and lessen the construction waste materials.

Scope of Analysis and Limitation

This research is principally focusing on the building wastes minimization in Malaysian building industry. On this research, a case study of development wastes minimization in Malaysian engineering industry which mainly concentrating on locations or town area such as Kuala Lumpur.

Firstly, this research is carry out to ensure whether that the practise of reuse and recycle waste materials has been applied in Malaysian engineering sectors. Besides that, to investigate the current trend of the waste products management in Malaysian structure industry in order to determine the waste material minimization method that delivers smooth flow of process.

Secondly, this research is undertaking by questionnaires to the relevant respondents which have the abilities and knowledge regarding to the study topic. Not all respondents has the knowledge that can contribute to the research matter due to not many respondents possessed the experience and knowledge regarding to the construction waste material minimization.

The targets of the respondents are mainly give attention to who have the encounters and knowledge regarding to the engineering waste minimization in Kuala Lumpur such as contractors, specialists, professionals, task manager, etc.

Contribution of the study

First of most, this research is completed due to various reasons. The primary reason of this research is to reduce the price of construction materials and disposal. For this reason reason less waste material will be made means that a reduced quantity of materials will be purchased and less squander taken to landfill will reduce gate fees for disposal as well. This will likely improved recovery routines and inspire a continual change in waste material management practise in future. To be able to reduce the price of construction material, used again and recycled engineering waste material is the best solution to dispose the waste materials in the building industry.

Secondly, used again and recycled can be an economically feasible option. Using used again and recycled, the spend on site will not be dumped indiscriminately and delivered to incinerators of burnt on-site or delivered to landfill sites. Companies could just send the materials to recycling centres. From recycling of building wastes, companies could recoup their loss and make a wholesome profit from it. This method has already been been used in america.

In Malaysia, reused and recycled is still not commonly practise. Therefore, there is a lot potential to add on the market for recycled building wastes. Therefore, our country not merely decrease the landfill sites but also cut down a great deal of bills on construction materials to construction industry.

The engineering industry produces substantial amount of waste, which is approximately four times of that produced in homeowners therefore accounting for more than 50 per cent of the waste material deposited in a typical landfill (Ferguson et al. , 1995; Coventry and Guthrie, 1998). This implies the rising of removal costs and reductions in amount of landfills that induce a need to get for other answers to either reduce, recycle and reuse or providing a good material storage area management for the materials from being damage and business lead to construction waste.

Lastly, the companies in every construction industry should be practising 3Rs Notion or provide proper training regarding on efficiency of the material storage management. This can hopefully to prevent losses in the building industry because the quantity of construction waste made is equal to waste of money in the development company. This research is completed to investigate the best options to minimize or dispose the waste materials from the website in order to make the business gain revenue.

Research Methodology

This research will be give attention to the benefits associated with the construction throw away management, the types of waste materials used to reuse or recycle and the technique used to get over the construction throw away in order to minimize the construction misuse in Malaysia structure industry.

The stages of the study methodology can divided into 4 stages, which can be:

Stage 1 - Literature Review and the Pilot Study

Stage 2 - The Technique of Data Collections

Stage 3 - The Result of Examination and Findings

Stage 4 - THE FINAL OUTCOME and Advice of Data Analysis

Stage 1 - Books Review and the Pilot Study

The books review is a crucial and comprehensive evaluation of prior research. The literature review serves to demonstrate and more understanding and understanding of theoretical and research issues related to research topic. In order to accumulate information in the literature review, the extra sources is implement which included journal articles, catalogs, newspapers, periodicals, online sources, older dissertation, etc. Therefore, a thorough of literature review regarding to the building misuse minimization in Malaysian construction industry is perform. These will maybe providing some useful information in undertaking the research matter in literature review. The books review become a guide to found out more knowledge regarding to the study topic.

Stage 2 - The Approach of Data Collections

Primary Source

Primary source can be collected through research study, questionnaire and interview. They are the effective alternative solution that allows to collect satisfactory and solid information regarding to research issue. The questionnaire review approach is chosen to collect the data.


Questionnaire will be the most important data collection that was selected as review method for this research. The info collection is dependant on the "open-ended" questionnaires will be given out 20-50 respondents to relevant one who has the experience and knowledge in engineering waste material management. The questionnaire was designed in several parts and categories, the questionnaires will be distribute to the construction industry companies situated in city section of Kuala Lumpur. The target respondents to distribute the questionnaire are mainly focus on the person who have knowledge regarding to the types of throw away used to reuse or recycle, the benefits associated with the construction misuse management and the method to triumph over the construction waste material.

Secondary Source

Secondary source can be gathered through journal articles and journal review. In this secondary source, carry out study as much journal articles as is possible in order to understand and provide help upon this research topic. Other than that, other extra source in including books, newspapers, magazines, internet sources, mature dissertation may also be completed to perform this dissertation. The information that has been review or review must relate with the research theme in order to carry out this research successfully.

Stage 3 - The consequence of Analysis and Findings

The data can be collected through surveying in questionnaire method. The framework of the questions is dependant on the research subject matter which is reducing construction waste materials in the Malaysian structure industry. Approximate 20-50 packages of questions are send to the relevant respondents who has the experience and knowledge with the building misuse minimization. The respondents are mainly targeted on the task manager, specialists, professionals, etc.

After the data of questionnaires has been gathered and gathered, the analysis end result will be analysed and present into bar charts, pie charts or histogram form with explanations in details regarding to the data collected. Form the info that had been gathered, writing up of the content of the dissertation is utilized in this level to create up the result of analysis and results that cover the chapters suggested in every each one of the pursuing section.

Stage 4 - THE FINAL OUTCOME and Suggestion of Data Analysis

In this stage, the overall result of the study is mixed and accumulated, then turn out with the conclusion of the data analysis. After effect analyse of the data is taken, suggestion of the data examination from the study is advised regarding to the structure misuse minimization in Malaysia structure industry.

The engineering wastes minimization in Malaysian structure industry

To identify the types of waste products you can use to reuse or recycle in construction industry

To analyse the advantages of construction throw away management in building industry

To give out recommendation on how to triumph over the construction waste products problem in development industry

Literature Reviews

(Supplementary source)


Technique of Data Collection

(Most important source, Questionnaires)


The Result of Evaluation and Findings

A case study about the fireplace security system in commercial building

A group of question will be distribute to the commercial building's users to dertermine theier knowledge about fire safety

An interview would be perform to the open fire safe practices professionalSTAGE 3

Conclusion and Recommendation


Figure 1. 1: The Circulation Chart of the study Methodology

Summaries of Chapters

Chapter 1: Benefits to the Research

The Section 1 for the job and dissertation is advantages to the study. Under this chapter, the researcher must clarify to the audience that the reason why that choosing the dissertation name and briefly expose the research name. The study goals for this research also one of the important parts to be one of them chapter. The aim, objectives and hypothesis to be tested for the research name should be clear before start. A study content is a simple requirement to prepare yourself before check out the next level. This is to brief the complete process of dissertation to the reader before browse the content.

Chapter 2: Books Review

Literature review is to introduce the types of materials that can be reuse and recycle in Malaysian construction industry, the building waste management that may lead benefits to the Malaysian structure industry and recommend on how the construction waste materials problem can be conquer in Malaysian construction industry. Within this chapter, books review will done by carried out studies on Articles from the web, online sources, books and publications regarding to the development throw away in Malaysian construction industry, the types of particular waste material that can be used to reuse and recycle to be able to minimize the waste material in Malaysia and recommend some treatment for overcome the condition regarding to engineering waste.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

In this section will clarify about the study methodology used in order to handle this research. This chapter contains the scope of the chapter, the declaration of the research aim, the rational of questionnaire, research samples and lastly the technique of analysis. Inside the first level, the rule of waste management that normally deal with in Malaysian development industry. The next level will be adding the advantages of waste management which may lead benefits to the Malaysian structure industry. From then on, present the types of waste material you can use to reuse and recycle and recommend the very best ways to overcome the throw away problem in Malaysian development industry. In order to achieve effective and productive opinions from the respondent, all the look questionnaire should met with all the research targets.

Chapter 4: The Result of Evaluation and Findings

In this section will analyse the effect from the questionnaire that collected from the relevant respondents. The goal of this section will analyse the info collected also to analyse the info that obtained to graphs or histogram from the respondents regarding of that particular title.

Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations

In this chapter will sum up the conclusion and suggestion regarding of the task and dissertation upon this research topic. Basic on the result that obtained, the researcher should write down the conclusion and recommendation upon this research topic. This will conclude all the information obtained and summarise the major bottom line to briefly explain what this research subject matter is focused on.

1. 9 Summary

As a summary, a brief intro has been mentioned in this section regarding to the structure waste materials minimization in Malaysian construction industry. Besides that, history of construction waste material in the industries is reviewed and turn out with several factors such as reduce, used again, recycle and replace. Next, problem assertion has been explained the issues that face in the current construction establishments regarding to the waste material, thus 4Rs Theory is implement to reduce the waste material. Therefore, desire to and aims is carried out to look for the research topic. Besides that, the scope of the study has also completed to turn out with the positioning that the researcher heading to focus and what exactly are the targeted respondents. Last but not least, research methodology is carried out to determine the method used to gather the data such as major and secondary options. After the data collected, evaluation of the result will be conducted to analyse the info obtained into graphs and histogram.

Chapter 2: Books Review

2. 1 Introduction

In this section, literature review is going to carry out in depth analysis on the overview of the Malaysian Building industry. After that, present the types of waste products that normally produced in Malaysia and the technique to triumph over the construction waste materials from site in order to reduce the waste products produce on site. The process of this is to investigate whether Malaysia engineering industry has practise and carried out the 4R Notion in order to reduce the misuse on site.

2. 2 The overview of the Malaysian development industry

Figure 2. 1: Country wide GDP and Development GDP of 2006 to 2009

In Figure 2. 1 explained that the GDP has constantly increased from 2008 to 2009. This means that the economy is growing in Malaysia. Therefore, Malaysian structure projects are needed to give momentum to the economy to make company on the Building GDP. Once the economy grows, the standard of living, chance of the jobs, current economic climate will increase as well.

Whenever things that has a good side, there will be also a bad aspect of it. The bad aspect is the fact as there are demands of advancements in Malaysia, the development wastes produced will also increase as well. The development industry will be known as non-environmental friendly industry anticipated to air pollution of air, water, sound and land. Besides that, it will cause natural disasters such as flooding, landslides etc. This is mainly due to inappropriate development management and Insufficient concern for the environmental consequences of large development assignments.

It is thought that the GDP has increase constantly. This demonstrates the standard of living, chance for the jobs, overall economy is increasing which mean waste generate by the Malaysian engineering industry will be also increasing that may lead to air pollution such as noises, air, normal water and land. This may cause to natural catastrophe such as landslides and flooding. Most of the developed countries such as Kuala Lumpur, they didn't matter about the waste materials that produced to the surroundings and they just matter about the income they are going to earn following the project is performed.

The development industry in our country is fast becoming a major throw away generator. The intensive building and infrastructure development tasks have resulted in a huge increase of construction and demolition waste material recently. Knowing that, the government unveiled EIA (Environmental Impact Diagnosis) in 1987 within the framework of the Environmental Quality Work (EQA). Environmental impact assessment (HA) is a legal solution to suppress environmental pollution and ecological devastation at the source Environmental review of projects inhibits not only environmental degradation, but also construction errors and faulty economic analysis (Yusoff, 2010).

In developed country such as United States, the engineering industry has recently produced shades and shades of construction waste products on site. Whereas, within develop country such as Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is expected that numerous numbers of wastes will produce in the Malaysia structure industry. The throw away stated in Malaysia will be more than United Stage due to there is certainly more development on-going that cause waste material definitely. Recently, the development of creating and infrastructures task generates the majority of the waste anticipated to hacking, dismantling, mending work. On the other hand, the government also introduce the Environmental Impact Analysis. Environmental impact examination is a legal solution to stop environmental air pollution and ecological devastation at the source Environmental review of projects. It is not just lessening the waste that generated in Malaysian development industry but also environmental degradation.

According to Ibrahim (2010) has mentioned that the development materials wastage has shown that the costs of materials have been exceeded 50 percent of the structure cost, with regards to the type of construction. The main reasons of triggering such materials wastage credited to poor aiming error, workmanship, placing your order of materials not getting together with specifications and need, extreme use of materials, damage in poor handling of materials and incorrect planning of storage area (Ibrahim, 2010).

This demonstrates in the engineering industry, the percentage of the development waste produced contain very high percentage in Malaysia. It is therefore time for everybody to take into consideration of putting into action several ways to minimize the construction throw away on site.

Some waste material is inescapable even under perfect conditions of design and engineering. But excessive waste products is common in the structure process and has received lack consideration by contractors or the industry. The throw away levels in Malaysia is considerably high and from the Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2005 we might find that waste materials may be produced and cared for in many forms. "Predicated on notification received by the Office of Environment (DOE), a total of 548, 916. 11 metric tonnes of slated wastes were generated in 2005 when compared with 469, 584. 07 metric tonnes in 2004 (Teoh Su Ping, 2009).

It is astonishingly that the development material resulted in to be development waste speedily and steadily increasing from 2004 to 2005. It is merely within twelve months, the waste products that generated has gone up quickly and the quantity of the waste materials is computed in metric tonnes of wastes which mean the production of waste material is very serious in Malaysia. There's a lot of possibility to improve on misuse minimization in Malaysia.

The breakdown corresponding to spend categories and industry types receive in (Number 2. 2 and Number 2. 3 respectively). Of the total wastes produced; 8s5, 734. 92 metric tonnes (15. 6%) were treated and disposed at Kualiti Alam Sdn. Bhd. , 8, 423. 26 metric tonnes (1. 5%) were treated and disposed at Trinekens (Sarawak) Sdn. Bhd. , 17, 650. 01 metric tonnes (3. 2%) of specialized medical wastes were incinerated at licensed off-site facilities, 5, 224. 00 metric tonnes (1. 0%) were exported for restoration purposes, 149, 569. 99 metric tonnes (27. 2%) of planned wastes were recovered at off-site facilities, around 120, 345. 25 metric tonnes (21. 9%) were treated on-site and 161, 968. 68 metric tonnes (29. 5%) were stored onsite at waste materials generators' premises. Six land farms and 16 on-site throw away incinerators have been qualified by DOE to permit for on-site treatment and incineration respectively. " (Malaysia environmental quality report, 2005).

Figure 2. 2 DOE: Quality of Scheduled Waste material Generated by Category, 2005

(Sources from Malaysia environmental quality report, 2005)

Figure 2. 3 DOE: Quality of Scheduled Misuse Generated by Industry, 2005

(Sources from Malaysia environmental quality survey, 2005)

2. 3 The types of waste products produced in Malaysia

There are various throw away made in Malaysia industry. The waste can be differentiating as pursuing:

Construction and demolition waste

Commercial and commercial waste

Domestic waste

Special waste

In this research, it is mainly focus on building and demolition throw away that generated in Malaysian engineering industry. The engineering and demolition waste is accounted as the second highest in Malaysia. Although engineering and demolition waste materials is not the best waste that produced in Malaysia but building and demolition is consider quite high in Malaysia.

Figure 2. 4 Types of waste stated in Malaysia

2. 3. 1 Structure and Demolition waste

The development industry uses a wide of material including lumber or hardwood, cement, aggregate, drywall, masonry products, clear plastic and metal products. In addition, harmful materials such as paints, solvents, and adhesive are used. Several materials eventually become wastes. Typically, up to 10 percent of the materials delivered to a construction site become throw away (Magdich, P. 1995).

According to Magdich (1995), it is understandable that the the majority of the material found in construction industries are normally wood, concrete, aggregate, metal etc. The construction waste materials defines as almost all of these materials only uses 90 percent in the construction and all of those other 10 % will be end up wastage on site. The demolition throw away defines as misuse that generate from the demolition work of the structures or set ups. The element of the construction and demolition wastes change mainly be based upon the mature of the task or activities engaged. Stand 2. 1 shows the major components of the Development and Demolition wastes.

Construction waste

Demolition waste

Dimension lumber

Dimension lumber





Concrete / Masonry

Concrete / Masonry



Soil and land-clearing waste


Foam insulation


Hazardous waste material (solvent / Natural oils)




Table 2. 1: Major Element of Development and Demolition wastes

(Source from Magdich. P. 1995)

Construction waste

Percent (%) By Volume

Dimension lumber


Gypsum Wallboard


Masonry and Tile




Manufactured Wood




Other Wastes




Other Packaging




Plastic and Foam



100The estimated composition of Engineering wastes in Malaysia is shown in below Stand 2. 2 and 2. 3.

Table 2. 2: Believed Composition of Engineering waste material in Malaysia

(Source from Magdich, P. 1995)

Demolition waste

Percent (%) By Volume

Wood Products


Masonry and Tile








Table 2. 3: Predicted Structure of Demolition throw away in Malaysia

(Source from Magdich, P. 1995)

2. 4 The classification of the building waste

In building industry, the waste can be stated in anytime and anyplace on site or off site. There are excellent probability of the materials waste material may be occur when deliveries to site is unacceptable handling or material on sites have been idling for too much time. This means the wastes can be happened in any point in time and in every stages of constructing the jobs. Therefore, material should be controlling correctly, moving carefully, keeping in the correct storage to be able to minimize the material to become wastage. Material wastes can be categorised into four aspects such as:

Avoidable waste

Unavoidable waste

Potential waste

Compensating waste

Avoidable waste

Avoidable waste means material misuse that may be avoided and handled in Malaysian development industry by the contractors. Therefore, the builder must try his best to minimize the waste material that produce from site by on site supervision. However, the company must search for an alternative solution to minimize the avoidable waste materials. The builder also must retain supervisor to check the material delivery and also during installation on site. A couple of another solution is the fact hire guards on where paths and vehicles access and egress to prevent the theft from getting into the site. That is to all the theft damaging the material on site. Besides that, a proper storage area is required to prevent or decrease the material from being deteriorate and damage.

Unavoidable waste

Unavoidable waste materials means material waste on site that can't be handled by the companies. The builder must accept this kind of waste products that produced through the operation. Over the building site, the providers will work in a chaotic and superior environment which they cannot handle the materials properly and will be end up huge probability of material misuse generate on site.

Unavoidable waste materials must be allowed such as the allowance of material waste including charges during tendering level. This should be allowance when the purchase division are preparing the materials schedules and ordering of materials.

Most of the materials that contributes to unavoidable waste products is "slicing misuse". For examples, the operator slashes the materials such as bricks, timbers, encouragement pubs and sheeted materials to match the dimensions in line with the specification so the rest of the cutting waste wrap up to be misuse that inevitable.

Potential waste

Potential waste products means the materials of every other components sent to site, all of these materials have the probable that may lead to waste. Many of these materials may be destruction when managing, moving, stacking and holding. Materials such as tiles are incredibly fragile which may easily damage if it is not properly stored or treated.

Other than that, the potential waste may comes up when there are way too many materials are delivered to the site without adequate storage for storing the materials. This might lead to potential waste if the materials idling or unused for too much time. Mostly the site workers will be asked to remove it as soon as possible to avoid problems of material. They'll be then moving these increased materials to other sites.

2. 4. 4 Compensating waste

Compensating waste means when the materials or components are purchased to site and these materials will be used for its purpose other than those specified. For instance, for compensating waste material is known as "substitution waste". It really is recommended that the specs of the surfaces should be built by concrete blocks, but rather than concrete blocks, the operator replaced the concrete block with common bricks. This means there are losses of profit changing the used of the material due to the common bricks are more expensive than the cement blocks.

2. 5 The causes of the construction waste

There are extensive factors that donate to construction waste technology on site. The building waste may cause due to single or a mixture of many triggers. The construction waste can be prepared under four phases: (1) design; (2) procurement; (3) managing of materials; (4) procedure (Ekanayake, 2000).

From the declaration above, it is explained that the structure wastes technology can be divided into four distinct phases such as:

Project Phase

Causes of Waste


Lack of attention paid to dimensional coordination of products

Changes designed to the design while construction is at progress

Designer's inexperience in method and series of construction

Lack of information in the drawings

Errors in deal documents

Incomplete contract documents at commencement of project


Ordering errors (e. g. ordering a lot more or less)

Lack of possibilities to order small quantities

Purchased products that not adhere to specification

Material handling

Damages during transportation

Inappropriate storage leading to damage or deterioration

Use of whatever materials which are close to working place

Unfriendly attitudes of task team and labourers


Errors by tradespersons or labourers

Accidents scheduled to negligence

Damage to work done brought on by succeeding trades

Use of wrong material, thus needing replacement

Required variety unclear due to inappropriate planning

Delays in passage of information to the service provider on types and sizes of products to be used

Equipment malfunctioning

Table 2. 1: Causes of construction waste materials (Ekanayake, 2000)

2. 5. 1 Design

Design Stage can be lead to increased cutting of wastes scheduled to carelessness or miscalculation done by the artist on site. The designer's inexperience in method and sequence of construction can affect the construction improvement of a job. Besides that, the changes designed to the look while development is happening can also result in a lot of waste products in constructability and assemblies of the building.


In the procurement, one of the primary causes of buying error is material order to the website is over-ordering or insufficient buying. Besides that, the materials purchased that not adhere to the specification. Lastly, lack of caring will lead to damage of building materials during travelling that may also lead to misuse.

2. 5. 3 Handling

Inappropriate safe-keeping of material will lead to destruction or deterioration that may cause wastage of materials on site. Besides that, lack of limited space on site always cause problem for materials safe-keeping. In the engineering industry, there are many unfriendly attitudes of job team and labourers look on site that manage the materials in the bad manner such as bad stacking, harm and maturity of formwork, etc.


Errors by tradespersons or labourers will lead to destruction of material on site. This errors cause by the tradesperson that destroying the materials are mostly crashes due to negligence. Materials that are completely produced to the building lead to damage triggered by subsequent trades such as use of incorrect materials or not in line with the specs, therefore demolition and alternative are required. Thus, this will create a great deal of waste through the stage of demolition and replacement of other materials.

2. 6 The impact of development waste

In order to reduce or reduce the construction waste materials in the Malaysian Engineering Industry, it's important determine to consequences that have an effect on the construction waste. This will hopefully prevent the bad practise of being repeating and continue creating building misuse in Malaysian Construction Industry.

According to Teoh (2009) said that the construction industry has evolved considerably in recent years, influencing creation rates, structure techniques and the full total quantity of materials used each year. The more difficult the project, the larger volume of materials is being used. Because of this, Material Safe-keeping Management is definitely deeded in structure industries as shown in the following:

Low profitability

The construction waste materials in the building site will lead to low profitability of the task. The issue of the business losses or face low success is mainly because of the unused material on site turn to waste. Therefore, in every construction company shall take into consideration regarding the subject stated to be able to reduce the construction waste products and to prevent low success of the business.

Construction time delay

The hold off of construction work might occur due to incorrect characteristics and types of materials are used. In addition, as well as the time spent for the reconstruction and replacement for the products is one of the problem in delaying development time (Teoh Su Ping, 2009). The another problem of causing wait can be known as damage, it is took place during the delivering of materials to the site, material deliver to the site too early, and improper storage of materials, etc. The main problem of delay in development period is principally due to lack of planning in Material Management, the job isn't only delayed but will cause a great deal of misuse being produced on site.

Low productivity

One of the reason why that lead to low efficiency in the business which is have an effect on by poor management in material storage such as inappropriate storages for materials, hold off materials delivery on site, etc. For instance, the material without proper storage in a congested site that can lead to problems of obstructing the operation works. This may affect the low production of the building improvement on site.

High degree of materials wastage

This is principally credited to poor materials storage space management. A lot of the materials are being wasted due to poor material handling that will probably to be destroyed if place on the expose area. This can be took place because of over-ordering of materials supply. Other than that, this will also cause higher lever of materials damage, vandalism and so forth.

Poor materials storage

The materials without proper planning of the spot to store the materials, the materials will be finished up disregard on site and make the availability of site congested. The positioning of the materials storage area should be plan wisely to be able to store the material in the right condition or destination to prevent from thief and also employees who focus on site. For example, if the valuable materials stored in an open up store such as door closet, tiles, etc which will normally being stolen by foreign individuals. Therefore, the materials should be maintained in the safe location to prevent lost.

Materials shortage or excesses on site

This is principally cause by poor planning of ordering and providing of materials goods, there's a high tendency of facing the materials scarcity on site. More than materials sent to the site gets the high probable on creating whole lot storage space problems. Besides that, if the structure materials are delivered on site prematurily. , this can be a high percentage of risk that materials being damaged on site (Teoh Su Ping, 2009).

2. 7 The development waste material minimization measures

Construction waste minimization procedures should be putting into action to provide minimal waste products on site. There are many measures have to be taken in order to reduce the waste products on site. The methods such as:

Standardisation of design to improve buildability and decrease the level of off-cuts

Standardisation gets the potential to considerably reduce the current production of construction waste materials. By building room areas and roof heights in multiples of standard materials sizes a considerable reduction in off-cuts had been achieved (Andrew R. J. Dainty, 2004).

Stock control methods to all the over purchasing of materials

Over-ordering of materials emerged as a particularly significant part of site management control resulting in materials wastage. Tighter stock control methods combined to the careful monitoring of on-site improvement had helped to reduce the amount of unnecessary waste. Basically raising knowing of this issue amidst site managers got demonstrably shown to reduce waste materials levels in a number of of the research study jobs (Andrew R. J. Dainty, 2004).

Improved education of the workforce

All of the informants agreed that the attitudes of operatives accounted for a significant percentage of on-site wastage. "Toolbox discussions" were a strategy used on almost all of the research study projects to teach operatives in the benefits of waste materials minimisation (Andrew R. J. Dainty, 2004).

Supply string alliances with suppliers/recycling companies

This measure aimed at dealing with waste materials in the most effective manner to reduce the impact produced. Partnerships with suppliers got led to excessive materials being removed, reprocessed and in some cases, reused. Such routines were supported with financial incentives for waste material minimisation (Andrew R. J. Dainty, 2004).

Provision of waste skips for specific materials

Centrally managing skips for materials got helped to promote a culture of materials segregation and recycling. Retaining responsibility for misuse management also allowed the main contractor to keep up control over removal of waste materials and recovering costs through recycling. (Andrew R. J. Dainty, 2004).

Just-in-time delivery strategy

Reducing enough time that materials were stored on site reduced the potential for destruction from poor handling and elements. Adopting a just-in-time delivery strategy had taken away long-term site safe-keeping as well as reducing the potential for over-ordering materials on several jobs (Andrew R. J. Dainty, 2004).

Implementation of your waste reduction platform plan

The Hong Kong Authorities launched a Waste materials Reduction Construction Plan (WRFP) in 1998 (WDO, 2003). The plan aims to improve public consciousness on waste decrease. The WRFP sets out programs to avoid and minimise waste materials; promote recovery, recycling and reuse of waste materials; prolong the life of existing landfills and decrease the increasing costs of waste material transportation, treatment and removal. The WRFP also provides suggestions about how different economic industries can incorporate various waste lowering measures to their business practices. The plan is expected to bring a differ from the traditional attitude of collecting and carrying waste products to the elimination and reuse of waste materials (Vivian W. Y. Tam, 2007). WRFP specifies six aims (WRFP, 1998):

Extending the useful life of the proper landfills;

Minimising the quantity of waste materials to be disposed;

Helping conserve the earth's non-renewable resources;

Increasing the misuse recycling rate;

Minimising the expenses of collection, treatment and disposal of waste products; and

Improving institutional agreements (WRFP, 1998).

Implementing recycling scheme

Whilst misuse recycling has been adopted in Hong Kong, the practice is mainly advertised among commercial and professional sectors. Recycling has not been effectively advertised among construction practitioners (EPD, 2001). To promote recycling in the private building sector, a Demo Design (DEMOS) has been launched to encourage the adoption of new technology in misuse minimisation and recycling. In order to further improve recycling understanding, the government intends to provide bonuses for people to set up recycling crops. Intermediate sorting plants for construction throw away are being provided as a way of ensuring that the minimum amount ends up in landfills and that almost all is recycled or reused for land reclamation sites (Vivian W. Y. Tam, 2007).

The solution to minimize the construction waste

The 4Rs Concept

The description of "4R" principle can be referring to reduce, reuse, recycle and replace which is well-known and common using in the majority of the developed countries. This is of 4Rs Principle is that minimizing the use of materials and goods so that the potential of waste material on site will be reduce. The next solution will be using the reuse and recycle of the raw materials and recyclable materials become useful materials that may be continue use within construction site. Other than that, replace such as replacing of another material that has a longer life-span. For examples, changing timber formworks as IBS system formworks that cannot be easily arrive to waste.

The 4Rs Concept can be categorise as:


Reduce can be defined as decrease the use of the development materials and goods in order to reduce or reduce waste materials. This will ensure that less use of engineering materials and therefore ensure less squander being produce on site. (Alam, 2012).


Reuse can be explained as use engineering materials that may be reuse as much time to preventing the use of disposable goods that only used once. Use of materials that may be reuse which can hopefully pro-long the utilization of materials and goods before they degradation into throw away (Alam, 2012).


Recycle can be explained as recycle the recyclable materials into goods that can be found in the building industry. Unfortunately, not all construction waste may be used to recycle but the many of the engineering industry has began to practice in USA. When waste materials are recycled, these provide industry with an alternative solution source of recycleables. This results less demand for virgin materials whose removal, transport and handling are major sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Recycling not only reduces greenhouse gas emissions but also minimizing the construction waste as well (Alam, 2012).


Replace can be defined as replacement of an alternative solution material which has a long lifespan which may be used for an extended period and hardly become waste. For examples, upgrading timber formworks as IBS system formworks that is durable enough to are a symbol of longer period.

The types of recycling development materials

Bricks and blocks

The life expectancy of the Bricks and blocks can be previous for almost over century. The bricks and blocks that have been previously used in the construction industries may be used to reuse and recycle.

Most of the sources of brick and block turned up to squander mainly cause by damage during on and off loading, abnormal of over ordering and so forth. The throw away of brick and stop are mostly come from wall space, column, existing building which include of common clay bricks, aerated blocks and precast concrete.

The undamaged brick and stop can be reused in the other new task. Apart from reusing the brick and block, the brick and block that is harm can be used to recycle as (Business Gateway, n. d. ):

To make aggregate for the utilization of general fill up or highway sub-base in landscaping.

To created new bricks and blocks

To make such surface as rugby courts and athletics monitors as plant substrate


The glasses that contain been used in the development sectors can be process into a useable materials. A lot of the glass waste are available in the demolition jobs including the broken Fluorescent lighting, windows and mirror and also the Structural glasses such as the modern office buildings with top quality glasses around the building.

The main causes of a glass wastage are over buying of materials, breakages during installation and damage during safe-keeping (Business Gateway, n. d. ). The wine glass is a very fragile material which required careful handling. Therefore, the storage area for cup materials should plan smartly and wisely in order to minimize or hopefully to avoid it from shattered.

The glass waste materials in the construction industry can be used to reuse and recycle by entering an activity of crushing, screening to remove contamination, air classification, and size classification, washing and drying of the wine glass waste. After the cup has been all the process stages, the a glass can be known as recovered goblet. The recovered glass can be utilized as attractive materials, filtration medium, insulation, storage containers and so on.


Most of the woods that have been previously used in the structure industries may be used to recycle. A lot of the wood waste can be found in all of the forms in the assignments due to the used of lumber as timber formwork is common found in Malaysian construction Companies.

The main causes of wood waste are pallets, crates, beams, screen and door frames, doors, floor boards, shuttering, fencing and panels, such as chipboard (Business Gateway, n. d. ).

The wood waste material that obtained in development industry may be used to recycle by manufacturing real wood wastes, reclaimable and recyclable solid wood materials from demolition and development, including pallets, the hardwood is chipped for other uses.


Most of the plastic which may have been found in the construction industries are mainly pipework, windows frames, interior accessories and so on.

The main causes of plastic waste products are over-estimated of buying and disposal of off-cuts and unused materials, over-specified task design, poor safe-keeping and handling and so on.

The selection of plastic waste that obtained in construction industry may be used to recycle as polyethylene terephthalate (Dog or cat), high density polyethylene (HDPE), low thickness polyethylene (LDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and also ABS (a copolymer of acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene) polymers.

Gypsum plasterboard

Most of the gypsum plasterboard is produced into plasterboard, plaster and other specialist planks for fire safety.

The causes of gypsum plasterboard waste material are damaged scheduled to poor design, poor storage space and handling, over buying, removal of unused materials and off-site clipping (Business Gateway, n. d. ). The plasterboard wastage can be generated in the development industry during the installation.

The options for recycling waste plasterboard produced on your construction site include (Business Gateway, n. d. ):

Sending waste material to impartial plasterboard recyclers to make into new plasterboard and cement

Sending waste material to household waste materials recycling centres

Using gypsum as a soil conditioner

Using gypsum to make bathroom furniture mouldings


The insulation that is previously used in the development industries can be used to recycle as well. Most of the insulation wastes are available in the demolition and refurbishment assignments. Insulation materials such as fibreglass, mineral wool, polystyrene, squirt foam, polyurethane, fibreboard and so on. These insulation materials are incredibly delicate which required careful unit installation.

The causes of insulation waste mainly due to over-estimate of purchasing and harm of unused materials, buying the wrong features or types of insulation, over-designed tasks, poor pre-formed design, poor safe-keeping and handling. These are the main causes of wastage for insulation that Malaysian engineering industry commonly experienced.

The options for recycling waste insulation produced on your engineering site include (Business Gateway, n. d. ):

Direct reuse of off-cuts

Returning materials through take-back strategies provided by manufacturers

Compressed rock and roll wool ceiling tile manufacture

Reclamation and reprocessing after getting rid of pollutants such as screws and nails

3. 0 The benefits associated with minimizing the structure waste

According to El-Haggar (2007), proper construction waste management provides economical benefits by lowering the price of the job through proper implementation of a waste management plan. Aside from economic benefits, misuse management may positively contribute to the next aspects (Bon-Gang Hwang, 2010):

Cost saving and revenue maximization

An increased emphasis on waste reduction, reuse and recycling may produce favourable effects such as cost cutting down. Pointless purchase of new structure materials which may be substituted by reused or recycled ones results in additional costs. Furthermore, generating less misuse from construction projects results in decrease in disposal costs and landfill charges; eventually cutting down the total job costs. Furthermore, the price saving, in turn, can maximize earnings (Bon-Gang Hwang, 2010).

Reduced demand for landfill spaces

Minimizing the quantity of waste delivered to landfills for removal can lead to less demand for landfill and reduced amount of negative environmental effects such as noise, pollution ramifications of landfill as well as emission and residues from incinerators (Bon-Gang Hwang, 2010).

Improved resource management

Waste management also requires planning and control of resources committed to projects to be able to control the amount of waste made. Therefore, better control of resources may be achieved with reduction in throw away as well as improvement of whole resource management performance (Bon-Gang Hwang, 2010).

Image improvement

Implementing waste materials management as a business coverage may allow companies to enhance their general population images as "environmental-friendly companies" enhancing their impression on clients (Bon-Gang Hwang, 2010).

Productivity and quality improvement

Productivity can be upgraded by keeping away from delays caused by reordering and repurchasing of materials that contain been thrown away once. By selecting material of good quality and sturdiness, significant amount of waste material generation induced by alternative of low quality material during the life circuit of facilities can be prevented (Bon-Gang Hwang, 2010).

3. 1 Summary

In this section, the complexities and impact of the structure waste has been completed study to understand what is the causes and impact that the construction waste materials in the Malaysian building industry. Therefore, there are several measures has been put in place to minimize the construction waste products. In this section, the 4Rs Concept has been executed whether it gets the potential of to reduce the misuse in the Malaysian engineering industry. Other than that, the types of materials that can be used to reuse and recycle were identified in this chapter. Lastly, the benefits associated with minimizing the structure waste which also been discussed. The study of the research subject is to discuss whether Malaysian structure industry did practise of the 4Rs Concept or not.

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Identify and finalise the research topic














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Background of Study














Scope of Research and Limitation














Research Methodology














Summaries of Chapters














Submit first draft of section 1 for checking














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