The Related Literature And Studies British Language Essay

Communication is an vital part of real human lifestyle and development. Engaging in it is inevitable particularly in an enterprise setting as it is relative to promoting an idea, product, service, or firm to create value or make a sale (Khan). Successful businesses acknowledge the worthiness of communication at work which requires skills in oral and written communication skills. The latter is engineered to display information effectively on the page in order to get results, to inform, to ask for, to entertain, or even to persuade (Holloway). Actually, 90% of all business transactions entail written marketing communications (DePompa). Hence effective business communication needs ideas, thoughts, and principles to be portrayed and presented within an orderly, formal, and effective manner.

English as Second Terminology (ESL) learners understand business writing skill as far more challenging than that of oral business communication. The past requires the utilization of written English based on criteria place by prescriptive government bodies associated with posting houses and colleges (www. wikipedia. com).

Teachers, like the researcher, are faced with the task of responding to students' insufficient business writing skills which emanates from their distress and difficulty in understanding the concepts regulating business writing. Business writing is an extremely strenuous process that necessitates an organization in the development of thoughts, ideas, and accuracy and reliability in word options. The most frequent problem that confronts educators of the writing school does not lie so much on what things to ask students to write about; the difficulty is more about how to encourage the students to create interesting and effective materials. Writing because of its own sake is a drag, and produces monotonous productivity (Ikeguchi).

Writing only becomes an interesting activity when the tutor is aware of how to go about educating it. One very important point the teacher can consider to increase motivation is to actually become a very good supporter and facilitator in the complete writing process. In this regard, the use of publication articles as involvement in the improvement of business writing is can be considered.

The use of publication articles can be an effective intervention to use in the writing-learning process because it can certainly be adapted in Business Communication and Writing course. Magazine articles offer situations that students will probably encounter in real life. Through publication articles, they can use their experiences and previous knowledge to answer properly, and even creatively.

This involvement can also help students with low British proficiency to arouse interest so they can actively take part in the class activities. The usage of publication articles motivates students to create what they need, what they need, and what they feel. Because of the increased responsibility to get involved through a variety of writing exercises, students may gain self-assurance in using the target language in general. Students are usually more responsible managers of their own learning (Larsen - Freeman).

This newspaper intends to determine if the use of magazine articles as involvement in the improvement of business writing skills of iACADEMY students is effective.

Background of the Study

Having the mentality of directly addressing the necessity for ready-to-hire graduates/applicants of both it (IT) and business market sectors, Mr. Mitch Andaya, former Dean of the faculty of Computer Studies in DLSU and Vice-President of STI Colleges Head Office, together with the other founders, founded the Information and Communications Technology Academy, now better known as iACADEMY, in March of 2002. The school received the first and third floors of the PhilCare Building in Ayala Avenue place Dela Rosa Road in Makati City. At present, the school occupies the 3rd to the fifth floor of the building that has been renamed iACADEMY.

iACADEMY offers Bachelor of Knowledge in Computer Research (BSCS) with Expertise in Software Executive, Bachelor of Science in Information Technology (BSIT) with Specialty area in Digital Arts, and Bachelor of Research in Business Supervision (BSBA) with Specialization in Marketing and Advertising Management, Bachelor of Knowledge in Computer animation (BSA), Bachelor of Research in Game Development (BSGD), Bachelor of Arts in Multimedia system Arts and Design (Abs MMA), and Bachelor of Arts in Fashion Design (ABFD).

iACADEMY's library houses a good collection of hard-to-find and imported books, a generous range of local text literature and guide materials, and six desktop computers prepared with the internet, the latest software for IT-related courses and electronic literature (e-books) encompassing a number of subjects to handle the needs of its students across all certifications. It also has been on daily subscription with two of a lot more dominant Philippine broadsheets, the Manila Bulletin and the Philippine Superstar. Several copies of the daily issues of these broadsheets are accessible to everyone who works for or studies in the institution. However, based upon the school librarian's personal observation, only a handful of individuals, the majority of whom are faculty users, take time to read these papers. Students become interested with these learning materials only when the need occurs, like when tasks necessitate them to read and photocopy articles in these magazines. This study, which aspires to enhance the students' business writing skills, also desires to make students become lively newspaper readers once they discover the real-life learning opportunities it can offer.

The introduction of internet and computer technology may have asked visitors to forgo handwritten words, but definitely not letter writing itself. The existence of the internet and computer in reality has revolutionized letter writing, particularly its acceleration in creation, transmitting, and reviews. And, with the development of digital mailing system (e-mail), people probably write more than they actually used to. The internet may have decreased the interest of people to perform the task of palm writing but it has also increased people's choice for written communication (Bly).

Two decades or so ago, most professionals dictated characters which their secretaries typed. Today, more professionals personally transcribe their characters as computer literacy, including a working knowledge on MS Phrase and Excel has become a basic managerial necessity (Bly). This goes to show that there surely is an increase in the amount of people who are actively doing the skill of writing everyday; therefore, a call for more focus on teaching and learning writing skills can be an imperative.

Majority of iACADEMY's student population comes from the upper-middle to the high-class members of the modern culture. Many of them are graduates of private or exclusive high classes. However, this alone cannot be taken as a warranty of their British proficiency, both in oral and written communication. Business Communication and Writing course falls under the umbrella of English for Specific Goal (ESP) course; therefore, it requires a higher level of English proficiency. This is why the course is defined as the 3rd English course to be studied by students while the first two English lessons are its prerequisites.

iACADEMY English faculty are alarmed with their students' poor writing performance. These students barely go away or even fail their English subjects because they display below average level of competency, particularly in writing; so when asked why they performed alternatively poorly, they blamed their very little exposure to the terminology and uninteresting English things as the culprits.

English language teachers have to say that ensuring the students' improvement on paper performance is in their hands. Writing only becomes an interesting activity when the dialect educator recognizes how to start educating it and by increasing students' inspiration in participating students in the writing process. In this respect, the utilization of newspapers articles as treatment in the improvement of business writing of iACADEMY students is recommended for account.

In the Philippines, there are incredibly limited studies related to the topic. The researcher would therefore try to make a humble contribution to this area by having a different approach through magazine articles as treatment in the improvement of business writing.

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Map of the positioning of Information and Marketing communications Technology Academy

Figure 1

Theoretical Framework

The framework of this research is anchored on two solutions. First is Communicative Vocabulary Teaching (CLT) or Communicative Procedure (CA) or in its earlier stage, Notional - Useful Approach; and second is the Workmanship approach in Business Communication.

The CLT strategy is the consequence of the works of educators and linguists known as the Council of Europe language experts (Bryam) in the early 1970s and was further produced by David Wilkins, a prominent linguist who used the word "communicative approach" in 1974 (Wilkins). It could be further followed to the task of Chomsky in the 1960s, when he advanced both notions of 'competence' and 'performance' as a reaction against the common audio-lingual approach to enough time.

The central theoretical concept and goal of the CLT methodology is "communicative competence, " a term unveiled into discussions of language use and second or spanish learning as well as communicative language teaching in the first 1970s (Savignon). Communicative competence can be defined in terms of the expression, interpretation, and negotiation of interpretation and appears to both psycholinguistic and socio-cultural perspectives in Second Terms Acquisition (SLA) research to take into account its development (Savignon).

Teaching writing in the SLA context is one of the main objectives of spanish teaching and learning. It requires a preparatory stage known as the decision-making stage. This phase includes defining the rhetorical problem: creating an objective for writing, determining the audience and a topic. Subsequently, the ensuing writing processes are then established and established. These procedures involve the look, transcribing, and critiquing of the made up work (Lee). The CLT approach to writing is a highly effective approach since it allows students to draw from their preceding knowledge, actively get around their way through the various writing procedures with the correct scaffolding, and lastly present their knowledge of this content.

One software of CLT procedure is the utilization of genuine materials. Proponents of CLT have advocated the use of "authentic" "real-life" materials in the class such as language-based such as papers, magazines, adverts, or graphic and visual options where communicative activities can be built (Jin, Software of Communicative Way in College English Teaching). The range of exercise types and activities appropriate for CLT is infinite. Moreover, it isn't assumed in this approach that the teacher is the guts of all class room activities (Al-Mutawa); therefore, the CLT is a learner-centered method of language learning; and that the teacher's and learner's inspiration and good attitude are necessary for effective coaching and learning. Finally, as each class room is different and is composed of different kinds of learners, several techniques and strategies may be used to address individual learner variations within the SLA environment (Lee).

The second theory that study use as framework is the Rhetorical Theory running a business Communication. This theory declares that the communication process is neither an individual nor a linear process; but is quite continuous making the complete communication process clear to all or any parties engaged.

One of the major strategies that the rhetorical theory offers to business communication is the Craftsmanship approach, which is situated upon the well-crafted sales notice. It posits that the purpose of the notice is to convince, inform, and arouse its reader's interest; therefore, it ought to be written with the "you attitude, " wherein the copy writer attempts to recognize with the reader's needs, perspective, terminology, and dreams. This then becomes the grasp technique for planning means of stimulating the reader's faculties in various letter situations (Brooks).

The "you attitude" is given credited attention and emphasis by George Burton Hotchkiss. He says that what's true of sales characters is similarly true of most other sorts of business characters. He further suggests that the initial thing the writer must do is to create the behavior of taking a look at the subject of his meaning from the reader's point of view and vocabulary; and moreover, he must get what is called the "you frame of mind. " The ideas and principles in a letter should be portrayed from the point of view of the reader. Whatever is said must be portrayed in language directed at the reader himself (Hotchkiss and Kilduff).

Aside from the "you attitude, " rule, Hotchkiss also adds five concepts which should always be discovered when writing a business notice - correctness, clearness, conciseness, courteousness, and character (Hotchkiss and Kilduff). These principles are known as the, "5 C's of business writing, " should be evident in any type of business letter.

Conceptual Framework

The researcher has come up with a conceptual platform (see Fig. 1) established after the theoretical platform of this analysis. Experimental (treatment) and control communities are included in the platform design.

The process to be used for the experimental (treatment) group will be from a pretest to the utilization of newspapers articles to the posttest that provides data for the validation of the hypotheses. The control group will undergo the process of the pretest to the traditional pedagogy to the posttest that will provide data for validation of hypotheses. The teaching methodology to be applied because of this group is "lecture-discussions. "

Experimental Group Control Group



Conventional Teaching

Conventional Teaching


Use of Publication Articles as Intervention


Improved Business Writing Skills

Research Paradigm

Figure 2

Statement of the Problem

The main purpose of the analysis was to look into the efficiency of using publication articles as intervention in the improvement of business writing performance available Communication and Writing school of iACADEMY during the third trimester of college calendar year 2011-2012.

More specifically, the study targeted to answer the following sub-problems:

Based on the 5 C's of writing, what were the writing performances of the experimental and control groups in the next:



Was there any factor between your pretest and the posttest writing performance of the two groups:

Experimental group

Control group

Was there any significant difference in the pretest writing performance of the two groups:

Experimental group

Control group

Was there any factor in the posttest writing performance of both groups:

Experimental group

Control group


There is no significant difference between your pretest and the posttest writing performance of the experimental group.

There is no significant difference between your pretest and the posttest writing performance of the control group.

There is no significant difference in the pretest writing performance of the experimental and control groups.

There is not a significant difference in the posttest writing performance of the experimental and control organizations.

Scopes and Limitations

This study focused on determining the consequences of using magazine articles as involvement in the improvement of business writing performance of iACADEMY students. The research subjects were extracted from two heterogeneous sets of students enrolled at the info and Marketing communications Technology Academy (iACADEMY) in Makati City during the third semester of school season 2011-2012 and who have been officially signed up for ENG103 Business Communication and Writing course.

The lecture-discussions because of this study were predicated on the ENG103 (Business Communication and Writing) syllabus designed by the researcher three weeks prior to the start of the third trimester. The institution where he instructs allows people of the faculty to change the course syllabus provided that such adjustments are intended for better delivery of the much needed learning of the students.

Both experimental and control group were given the same lectures but with variations in the pedagogical approach. The control group was given only the lecture presentations and practice drills while the experimental group acquired newspapers articles integrated in the class activities as well as the normal lecture presentations and practice drills.

The publication articles chosen by the researcher typified the next principles of CLT procedure (Jin, Software of Communicative Approach in College English Coaching): (1) Communicative Concept; (2) Task Process; and (3) Meaningfulness Rule.

Significance of the Study

The individuals, who is able to benefit from this study, are the students, the language and the books teachers, the curriculum designers, and future analysts.

Students. The implementation of the study will benefit college students since papers can help them develop not only their reading and speaking skills, sentence structure, and vocabulary, but also their writing skill. Magazine articles are believed to be traditional learning materials that provide real-life learning that motivates students to work with previous life experience and prior understanding of a given topic. Additionally, it may serve as a model for proper execution of the writing responsibilities.

Language Arts Trainers. The usage of papers articles as intervention in the improvement of the business writing skills of students offers English instructors more up-to-date coaching materials that are quickly accessible to them and their students. Magazine articles can also serve as good samples for students to boost their writing skills.

Curriculum Designers. Inevitably, academicians who focus on innovating designs of the British curriculum would need to find better if not pioneering approaches to teaching British as a second language. It is in this light that such pros might want to consider including and utilizing magazine articles in producing curricula that would concentrate on both terminology and books.

Other analysts. This research can start new entry doors for researchers to investigate the effects of the utilization of papers articles in the improvement of the writing performance of students in the British classes, and probably in other disciplines as well, such as in science, history, and values education.

Definition of Terms

The following conditions are identified operationally and conceptually in the study:

Authentic Materials. They are materials which entail language naturally taking place as communication in native-speaker contexts of use, or those preferred contexts where Standard British is the norm.

Business Communication. This is writing of information between people in a enterprise that is conducted for the commercial advantage of the organization. In addition, business communication can also make reference to what sort of company stocks information to promote its product or services to potential consumers.

Business Communication Skill. This is actually the ability to convey information to some other effectively and effectively. Business managers with good verbal, non-verbal and written communication skills help aid the sharing of information between people inside a company for its commercial advantage.

Character. This is both an intellectual and mental quality of the business letter that expresses the writer's unique personality in an exceedingly natural way, with anticipated respect for his subject matter and his audience, making the letter a more sufficient replacement for personal rep.

Clearness. This is an intellectual quality of the business enterprise letter that presents its quality of impression and is also therefore always to be judged from the reader's point of view. The article writer always has learned what he means if he means some thing. If the audience, however, does not know what a declaration means, such a affirmation lacks this quality of clearness.

Communication. This is actually the two-way process where information has been conveyed between two individuals, a sender and a recipient, through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior in order to reach common understanding and create a shared interpretation.

Communicative Competence. It is a situational capacity to set natural and appropriate goals and to maximize their achievements by using understanding of self, other, context, and thereby to generate adaptive communication shows.

Communicative Principle. This concept uses activities that require real communication situations that promote learning.

Conciseness. This is an intellectual quality of the business letter that requirements less than possible of the reader's time and provides the kind of service that develops goodwill.

Control group. That is several students to be used as standard evaluation in a control experiment.

Conventional Pedagogy. This is actually the standard way of providing learning to the students at iACADEMY, which has PowerPoint presentations with lecture-discussions.

Correctness. This is both an intellectual and mental quality of the business enterprise letter. It really is an intellectual quality because what, spelling, grammar, and punctuation must all maintain conformity with proven usage. Additionally it is an psychological quality because incorrectness distracts and irritates, and arouses contempt since it gives a bad suggestion of ignorance, carelessness, or haste on the part of the article writer.

Courteousness. That is an emotional quality of the business enterprise letter that is based upon account for the reader's thoughts and personality by the studious avoidance of any proven fact that would offend. A writer must have no difficulty in protecting this quality if he has an authentic popularity of the reader's equality with himself.

ENG 103. This is actually the course code of Business Communication and Writing, which is the third English subject needed to be considered by the students after accomplishing the prerequisite British programs Communication Arts 101 and Dental Communications with PRESENTING AND PUBLIC SPEAKING.

Experimental group. This is several students that will under review to look for the ramifications of using papers articles as involvement in business writing performance

Learner-centered Approach. That is an approach to education concentrating on the needs, capabilities, passions, and learning varieties of the students with the tutor as a facilitator of learning, rather than those of others involved in the educational process, such as professors and administrators.

Lecture-Discussion. That is a teaching model that uses what students know because they build their own backdrop; presents information in a organized manner; and uses educator questioning to entail students positively in the learning process.

Meaningfulness Principle. This calls for words that is meaningful to the learner supports the training process.

Newspaper Article. This is a written work released in print for the purpose of propagating the news, research results, academics analysis, or question in a scheduled publication like the broadsheets.

Posttest. This is an success test that'll be used to identify the students' degree of improvement in their writing skills upon attainment of learning in the given lecture-discussions and activities performed in category.

Pretest. This is a diagnostic test which seeks to look for the students' preparedness in starting a new span of analysis. The test helps in the diagnosis of the scholar needs in learning the matters to be covered in the instructional design.

Proficiency. It is mastery of a specific action or skill shown by regularly superior performance, measured against set up or popular criteria.

Second Vocabulary Acquisition (SLA). This is actually the process where people of an initial language learn a second vocabulary in addition with their native dialect.

Task theory. This principle consists of activities where language is utilized to handle meaningful tasks to market learning.

Writing rubric. This is an diagnosis tool that makes an attempt to communicate particular level of expected qualities on paper performance areas specifically established upon the "5 C's of Business Writing. "

Chapter 2


Presented in this chapter are the overseas and local literatures and studies which can be relevant to today's review because such contain written reviews or commentaries of other research workers, theorists, and professionals with regard to the utilization of publication articles as intervention in the improvement of business writing.

As a result of some limitations, the researcher acknowledges the actual fact that there surely is a likelihood that other relevant literatures are still unread, either scheduled to time constraint or distance issues of the location of the source of information materials. Despite this discrepancy, the researcher attempts to exhaust, to its fullest features, the internet that appears to augment and offer sufficient information to supplement the library materials available.

Foreign Literature

J. C. Richards (2006) claims that the ever-growing demand once and for all communication skills in the British language has generated an enormous demand for coaching English and a massive demand for quality words teaching materials and resources. Learners today place themselves the demanding goal to be able to excel at English on a higher effectiveness level. Even employers demand that customers of the labor force exhibit good English vocabulary skills, both dental and written. The demand for an appropriate teaching strategy is therefore an crucial (J. C. Richards).

According to Carol Rzadkiewicz, communication is vital in an organization because it not only connects members within a particular office but also connects those to those from other departments, from other branches, and, in the current global economy, from across the world. Moreover, communication can make the difference between success and failing for a firm.

Good communication helps to ensure the efficient operation of all levels of an organization, from the lowest to the highest, whereas poor communication often ends up with inefficiency; and since successful business leaders know, inefficiency equals a lack of productivity and, consequently, a lack of earnings (Rzadkiewicz).

Lee believes that writing must first get a clear meaning so a philosophy or an approach to teaching writing in SLA classroom maybe employed. Writing as communication may be thought as "how learners put thoughts down in writing and develop them into some kind of coherent words" (p. 245) (Lee).

Writing skill is a difficult task for it requires prior understanding of the language components such as morphology, phonology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. These components provide as broader aspects of dialect for the actual foundation of dialect skills like vocabulary, capitalization, syllabification, punctuation, sentence structure, sequential order, and initiation and maintenance of thoughts (Brice).

Beare (2012) unveiled that for many ESL learners, learning to write fluently in British is much more challenging than understanding how to speak fluently. Even for advanced learners, written communications can come much more slowly in English than spoken marketing communications because written communication is more formal; spoken communication allows for more blunders; less reflection goes into spoken British than written English; and targets are higher for formal written British.

It is important when coaching written English skills - especially for business British - to understand the difficulties that learners face when understanding how to function in a written British environment and concerns should be given to achieve this. One such concern is the fact that acquiring speech can be an unconscious function, whereas understanding how to write takes a conscious effort for the learner. Another is the fact written words must be filtered through a system, which can be phonemic, structural or representative, etc. The average person should never only learn to recognize the meaning of words orally, but also go through a process of transcribing these does sound. Lastly, the procedure of transcribing requires the training of other rules and structures thereby cognizing a recently unconscious process (Beare).

Widdowson˜ 1978˜enumenrates two aspects in terminology; one is guidelines, such as grammar, that determine correctness, and the other is the performative capacity that allows people to undertake meaningful communication. He brands the correctness as usage and the performance as use. Since the dialect functions systematically and communicatively, both spoken and written modes of terms cannot omit either the grammatical and communicative aspects (Widdowson).

Communicative writing can be described as the function of corresponding. Of course, as Widdowson˜ 1978˜acknowledges, the socially reciprocal environment of the written mode differs from that of the spoken method because, unlike listeners, viewers are not always designed for immediate reactions or, a whole lot worse, for just about any form of relationships whatsoever. However, communicative writing includes the existence of visitors as market. Quite point is that one can write following grammatical rules, and you can compose to be able to communicate with others through writing, yet, if the one does not write with the mark audience at heart, composition can't be an function of communication.

According to Richards and Rodgers (1986), the theory of CLT way is holistic somewhat than behavioristic. It begins with a theory of terminology as communication which indicates knowledge of the grammatical system as well as performance (Richards and Rodgers). Widdowson (1984) stated that in other words, such competence includes both consumption and use of the terms (Widdowson).

Richards, J. C. (2006) explains that communicative competence embraces three important dimensions: first, the ability to use linguistic methods to realize a variety of words functions; second, the capability to use language correctly with due concern of the public context where communication takes place; and third is the ability to develop strategies to manage the negotiation of interpretation. This standards of communicative competence is the hallmark of the CLT way because it can't be founding the theoretical platform of any approach to or method of language teaching (J. C. Richards).

The CLT approach to teaching writing in the second dialect acquisition (SLA) context introduces two essential stages: first, a decision-making stage and a second period whereby the ensuing writing techniques are decided and established (Lee).

The decision-making stage includes "defining the rhetorical problem. " It consists of establishing a purpose for writing, deciding an audience and a topic, accessing and growing students' prior understanding of the given theme, and placing goals for the student-learner (Lee). Once the rhetorical problem has been defined, students are then prepared to attack the ensuing writing techniques.

Secondly, the ensuing writing processes are then identified and established. These processes involve the planning, transcribing, and reviewing of the composed work. Planning might entail producing or brainstorming possible ideas about a chosen subject. After creating the ideas, students may choose to organize their words in a specific way. After the physical procedure for transcribing has been completed and rough draft designed, the students can begin to examine their work. This entails assessing and revising, or reorganizing, their ideas until the right or final draft has been completed (Lee).

A personal diary, for example, is not communicative writing. It really is a simply composition because of its absence from the socially reciprocal environment with a market. Hence, communicative writing can be defined as writing activity looking to correspond with a market. The reason why the presence of the target audience is at vital communicative activity is the fact that it offers not only the socially reciprocal setting, but also a particular purpose, format, and style for communicating. Aristotle considers in these elements of communication the wonder of terminology and the distinctiveness of humans, saying ˜it is absurd to carry that a man ought to be ashamed of being unable to defend himself with his limbs, but not of being struggling to defend himself along with his conversation and reason˜˜ trans. 1954, p. 23˜. It is worthy of noting that the translator, Roberts, decides ˜speech and reason˜ to provide an insightful knowledge of the Greek term logos, which is often translated into languages˜. To some extent, logos moves visitors to communicate with one another. A method which humans should acquire to converse effectively at any given second, for a certain audience, and with a certain style is, of course, rhetoric.

Savignon enumerates the next the different parts of communicative curriculum:

Language Arts or language evaluation includes program that focuses on types of the dialect such as syntax, morphology and phonology.

Language for an objective or terminology experience uses words for real and immediate communicative goals and compensates heed to opportunities for meaningful language use, focuses on interpretation as well as form.

"My Words is me, " takes into account the affective as well as the cognitive areas of words learning and looks for to require learners psychologically as well as intellectually. Most importantly, this components esteem learners as they use their new terms for self-expression.

Theater arts offers a level or an avenue for learners to play different jobs from real-life situations that embrace certain ways of behaving and using the vocabulary.

Language use beyond the classroom prepares learners to utilize the second dialect in the world beyond the class room. This commences with finding of learners' passions, needs, and opportunities not only to respond to but, more important, to explore those passions and needs through second dialect use beyond the class room itself.

Local Literature

There are extremely limited articles on the utilization of papers articles as involvement for the improvement of writing skills of students in the British classes. Nevertheless, offered in this research are the ones that are related to the utilization of paper articles in the class setting.

Creativity in coaching provides effective and gratifying learning experience. Imagination as described by Kalinzaygan (10), is the "collection of activities that a instructor has in her repertoire in order to achieve performance". The teacher's creativity is one of the main factors in the teaching/learning experience which is manifested in creating an appealing local climate in the class.

Writing is supposedly the natural shop of the students' reflections on their speaking, listening, and reading encounters. Teaching writing shouldn't mean only making students do grammar exercises on paper or manipulate wording which have no meaning on their behalf, but having them write what needs them, what they are proficient in and almost all of all what they want to tell others (Cabrera 26).

Writing experiences should be significant and purposeful if each learner is to succeed in the writing world. Thus, professors need to induce and motivate students to write (Ediger15).

Foreign Studies

Rhoades and Rhoades (1985) provide ways in which teachers may use newspapers to teach comprehension and critical thinking also to help students develop level of sensitivity and knowing of the self, the community, the nation, and the world (Rhoades and Rhoades).

Hamrick (1981) designed a 60-page activity booklet that is organized by parts of the magazine and can be designed to most level levels. It could be used to teach basic skills in a number of subject areas, including dialect arts, reading, mathematics, communal studies, and technology. The activity linens allow students to use the various newspaper sections to locate, categorize, and collection details, and distinguish reality from opinion. The activity sheet also helps the students to locate main ideas, to form phrases, to find facts, to apply critical thinking skills, to resolve math problems, to create creatively, and to understand better (Hamrick).

Yeaton and Braeckel (1986) created a series of model lessons for grades 4-6 that illustrate the utilization of the newspaper to study the United States Constitution and the Charge of Rights. First, the lessons contain step-by-step strategies and sample questions showing how each specific area of the news-paper can be used in a lesson. Then, test lessons take children on the journey back to the historical time when the Constitution was written. Numerous interesting, sensible activities are recommended within the lessons ideas (Yeaton and Braeckel)


Another specialised newspaper-based course originated by Diamond and Riekes (1981) for students in grades 10-12. This program employs the papers as a foundation for law-related programs. Model lessons are delineated for every single area of the magazine, as well as in five law-related areas: legal law, consumer regulation, family law, enclosure law, and individual rights law. An example lessons in the Gem and Riekes course deals with growing critical thinking skills by resolving problems described in newspapers columns--a "Dear Abby" column, in a single case. After every student has browse the column involved, the educator divides the class into communities, and each group discusses the challenge and establishes some resolution carrying out a decision-making procedure previously specified in the school. After every group presents the reason why because of its decision to the whole class, an over-all discussion is organised on the challenge and a variety of possible solutions are believed (Gem and Riekes).

Schwartz and Bromberg (1984) have devised a publication course for older students that helps put together them for effective citizenship within an interdependent world, providing education in global ideas such as economic interdependence, the migrations of people, environmental independence, cultural diffusion, the communication revolution, and cultural variety. The emphasis of the course is on reading, writing, and reasoning capability; and it requires students to classify and coordinate materials, to recognize cause-and-effect, and to make judgments using acoustics reasoning (Schwartz and Bromberg).

A course designed for intermediate and junior students reveals 11 lessons using paper materials to teach consumer education. The sensible class room activities help students 1) define consumer education conditions and distinguish between wants and needs; 2) explain why laws are necessary for consumer and vendor cover and understand the idea of consumer responsibility; 3) define consumer-related terms; 4) generate a classroom newsletter to indicate consumer knowledge; 5) recognize and clarify different advertising appeals; and 6) explain the objective of the Pure Food and Drug Act and the task of the Government Trade Commission payment (Greenup).

A group of instructional ideas developed by Dianna (1983) also focus on instructing intermediate and junior high students to respond critically to advertising. An overview defines 16 advertising techniques (including eyeball appeal, youth charm, snob appeal, superstar endorsement, and expert endorsement); and a list of activities which help students realize the consequences of advertising, create their own advertisements, and evaluate tv and radio advertisements as well as those in print (Dianna).

Synthesis of the Related Books and Studies

Chapter 3


This chapter talks about the research method, society and sampling techniques, explanation of respondents, research tool, data gathering techniques, and statistical treatment of data.

Research Method Used

This study utilised the quasi-experimental approach to research, particularly the nonequivalent group design (NEGD). This design takes a pretest and posttest for a treated and assessment group except that the communities aren't created through random project (Trochim). This design was used since it is not feasible for the researcher to utilize random task.

The reason for using the quasi-experimental method is to learn the influence of 1 or even more factors upon an ailment, group, or situation, and this the goal of which is to discover "exactly what will be, " (Calderon and Gonzales, 83). The word "quasi" means as though or almost, therefore, a quasi-experiment is almost a true experiment. Since the study is concerned with the effectiveness of the use of magazine articles as treatment in the business writing performance of iACADEMY students, the experimental method is the best choice.

Population, Test Size, and Sampling Technique

The subjects for this review were two Business Communication and Writing (ENG 103) classes from Information and Communications Technology Academy (iACADEMY) in metropolis of Makati, third trimester of SY 2011-2012. All students in these classes got transferred the prerequisite training British Communication Arts (ENG 101) and Conversation & PRESENTING AND PUBLIC SPEAKING (ENG102) prior to their being accepted to Business Communication and Writing (ENG 103). One of the classes acquired 33 students; the other category had only 14 students.

This study had two group categories: the control group and the experimental group. Both communities were given a pretest and a posttest. All students in a class of 13 were included in the review; however, for the school with 33 students, only 13 of these were included in the experiment so the number of subject matter from both classes was equal. The pretest credit score of the 33 students were compared with the pretest scores of the other school to find out who one of the 33 would participate the study. This of course didn't imply that those students who weren't contained in the analysis would also be excluded in the school lecture-discussions. The students involved with this analysis were within this range of 16 - 25 years old.

The pretest and posttest were assessed using an modified set of standards, a revised rubric (see Appendix 1: Business Writing Rubric).

Description of Respondents

The researcher looked for the agreement of the College Dean for the execution of the quasi-experiment (see Appendix 2: Request Letter. )

The subjects of the analysis were the students of iACADEMY who were signed up for Business Communication and Writing classes being managed by the researcher. The classes BA-11 and FD-11 were ideal research things since both classes experienced the same time schedule each day but on different category days. Class BA-11 whose program was from nine o'clock in the morning to noon time (9:00am -1 2:00nn) Wednesday, formed the experimental group, as the class FD-11 whose program was from nine o'clock in the morning to noon (9:00am -1 2:00nn) Thursday, composed the control group.

The students enrolled in the Business Communication and Writing course were used as topics because they already had passed the prerequisite classes, namely English Communication Arts (ENG 101) and Conversation & PRESENTING AND PUBLIC SPEAKING (ENG102). More importantly, this indicates that the students already had at the minimum the same track record in the building blocks of vocabulary skills, specifically, reading and writing.

Students of iACADEMY, given how old they are range, are fascinated by overwhelming technological developments, since almost all of them are able to possess the latest devices and computer accessories. They have therefore been deprived of the chance to enjoy authentic learning materials, specially the newspapers. The study, apart from going to increase their level of writing performance, would also attempt to reintroduce to them the pleasure of reading the papers for learning and leisure purposes.

Assessment of Scholar Performance

Prior to the execution of the analysis, the students from both BA-11 and FD -11 classes were evaluated through their writing of any letter of request for internship. This evaluation dished up as the pretest. The scores of BA-11 students were compared to the ratings of FD-1 so an identical volume of subjects was established. The researcher/trainer provided lecture-discussions and facilitated classroom activities.

The students were asked to write a notice of appreciation dished up as the posttest. Both pretest and posttest were examined by the researcher and obtained using a altered business writing rubric. The results were then submitted to the statistician for research.

It was compulsory for everyone students included in the study to actively participate in all the writing activities. They were advised that written works would be evaluated and graded. Students who overlooked an activity due to attendance concerns were given a failing quality for the experience missed.

Data-Gathering Procedure

This is a quasi-experimental research that used two Business Communication and Writing classes of the researcher/teacher. This analysis explored the likelihood of utilizing publication articles as treatment in the improvement of the business writing performance of iACADEMY students. The researcher had to go through different procedures. Each process was grouped whether it is one of the experimental group or the control group, or both experimental and control organizations.

Experimental Group

The following procedures were used for the experimental group:

Collection of Paper Articles

The researcher collected newspaper articles from the Manila Bulletin and the Philippine Legend. These papers articles were from the business enterprise, career manuals, and classified ads sections of both broadsheets which were regularly subscribed by the institution.

The newspapers articles contained matters that are relevant to the study of Business British, such as: (1) preparations for resume; (2) using of technology for business purposes; (3) obtain performance and salary appraisal; (4) entrepreneurship issues; (5) work-related concerns; and (6) issues related to resignation from one's job.

Identification and Selection of Newspaper Articles

The following standards were used by the researcher in choosing the newspaper articles: (1) it met the objective of the lecture-discussions because it contained information relevant to the subject topics to be talked about; (2) it provided the learners with sources relevant to the business enterprise English students' needs; (3) it depicted real-life situations that have a tendency to stimulate and stimulate students to produce written works; (4) it used vocabulary, set ups, shade, and functions in the business environment; (5) it brought the students into immediate contact with a real possibility level of Business British; (6) it was attracted from broadsheets that have been printed only five years ago and still presents up-to-date information; and (7) such real materials have been regular in using English as its words of choice for publication.


The students in the experimental group were evaluated of these writing skill and competency. They were asked to create a notice of software for internship. These were instructed to remember any prior learning about letter writing, specifically about writing a letter of request, and then use this prior knowledge to produce the requirement. The diagnosis was limited to a thirty-minute time limit to create a letter with at least 150 to 200 words. This offered as their pretest.

Pre-Lecture-Discussion Activity

Prior to the lecture-discussion of the first subject matter which is Effective Notice Writing, students were asked to remember any prior studying writing an enterprise letter. They will be asked questions such as: What forms of business letter do you know? Why should you write a business notice? What difficulties is it possible to come across when writing a business letter? Have you ever written a small business notice of any type? Have you have any difficulty writing your business notice? Why does you come across such difficulties? What were the details of your business notice? Did your letter receive any reviews from its receiver? These questions were offered to the students to inspire them to actively participate in the lecture-discussion and class activities.

For the next subject material, Writing Memos and Electronic Mails, the researcher/trainer offered, via PowerPoint, test memos dispatched via email. After exhibiting the memos, the researcher asked questions to inspire the students like: What is your explanation of a memo? Why do we write memos? Established after your observation of the memos shown, what do you think are the elements of a memo? Why were the memos delivered via electronic mail?

Writing Business Proposals and Information is the last lesson because of this study. Ahead of providing the lecture-discussion for this subject matter, students were given a bit of paper and will be instructed to write their ultimate dream business. These were then asked of the next motivational questions such as: What is your ultimate desire business? How do you think is it possible to achieve this aspiration business? Who will be your clients? How do you want to convince prospective companions to become listed on your business? Exactly what will you do to request clients to try the product or service of your business?

Presentation of Lecture-Discussion

The researcher/teacher provided lecture-discussions on the following subject material: (1) Effective Notice Writing; (2) Writing Memos and Electronic Mails; and (3) Writing Business Proposals and Studies. All lecture-discussions were divided into two parts: the first part was theoretical and the second part was the use of learning through cases. It was through the second part of the lecture-discussion that the researcher/instructor demonstrated the students a papers article related to the topic matter being mentioned. Students were given photocopies and were asked to read the papers article. Students possessed at least 15 to 20 minutes to learn the newspapers article allocated for discussion. After the students were done reading, the researcher/trainer facilitated the experience of relating and integrating the subject matter, the business enterprise notice samples, and the publication article.

Post-Lecture-Discussion Activity

After the lecture-discussion, the researcher/instructor instructed the students to create business letters founded upon the subject matters discussed.

For the first subject matter Effective Letter Writing, students were tasked to get a partner and then to create a notice of request for internship dealt with to the partner. After writing, the letter of program for internship was given to the partner who subsequently wrote a reply letter of: (a) invitation for a short interview, if the notice of request appealed the getting spouse; or (b) appreciation for interest to use, if the notice of application didn't appeal to the getting partner.

For the next subject matter, Writing Memos and Electronic Mails, the category was split into two organizations. All customers were told to create a requisition memo for performance and salary appraisal from one of the associates of the other group. No one was permitted to reveal his/her receiver. After writing the memo, each college student provided the memo to the chosen recipient. The student with number of memo received got to write a letter of response to one of the senders.

For the previous subject material, Writing Business Proposals and Reports, students were instructed to think about something, service, or business that is related to his/her degree. The challenge was to produce a business proposal notice addresses to the researcher/teacher with due concern to his occupation.


After delivering all the lecture-presentations, students in the experimental group were again evaluated of the writing skill and competency. These were instructed to create a letter of gratitude for a successful internship addressed with their partner during the first activity. This disclosed whether there was improvement in the writing performance of iACADEMY students after using publication articles as treatment. The assessment was restricted to a thirty-minute time limit to write a notice with at least 150 to 200 words. This served as their posttest.

Control Group

The following methods were used for the experimental group:


The students in the control group were evaluated of their writing skill and competency. These were asked to write a notice of program for internship. These were told to remember any prior learning about letter writing, specifically about writing a notice of request, and then use this prior knowledge to produce the requirement. The analysis was limited to thirty-minute time limit to create a notice with at least 150 to 200 words. This served as their pretest.

Pre-Lecture-Discussion Activity

Prior to the lecture-discussion of the first subject matter which is Effective Letter Writing, students of the control group, like that of the experimental group, were also instructed to recall any prior studying writing a small business notice and were asked motivational questions like: What types of business letter have you any idea? Why should you write a business notice? What difficulties can you face when writing a small business letter? Perhaps you have ever written an enterprise letter of any type? Did you have any difficulty writing your business letter? Why does you face such troubles? What were the items of your business notice? Did your notice receive any feedback from its recipient?

For the second subject matter, Writing Memos and Electronic Mails, the researcher/teacher experienced a PowerPoint display of sample memos delivered via email. After exhibiting the memos, the researcher asked questions to inspire the students like: What is your description of a memo? Why do we write memos? Structured after your observation of the memos shown, what do you consider are the elements of a memo? Why were the memos sent via electronic mail?

For the previous subject matter, Writing Business Proposals and Reviews, students were each given a bit of paper on which to write their ultimate dream business. They will then be asked the next motivational questions: What's your ultimate fantasy business? How can you achieve this desire business? Who'll be your clients? How will you convince prospective partners to join your business? What will you do to request clients to try the product or service of your business?

Presentation of Lecture-Discussion

The researcher/trainer sent lecture-discussions on the next subject matter: (1) Effective Letter Writing; (2) Writing Memos and Electronic Mails; and (3) Writing Business Proposals and Accounts. Since the students belonged to the control group, conventional pedagogy was applied in course by the researcher/instructor. The display of lecture-discussions didn't use newspapers articles as intervention in the improvement of writing performance of the students.

Post-Lecture-Discussion Activity

After the lecture-discussion, the researcher/trainer instructed the students to write business letters established upon the subject matters discussed.

For the first subject material Effective Letter Writing, students were made to write a letter of program for internship.

For the next subject matter, Writing Memos and Electronic Mails, students were advised to write a requisition memo for performance and salary appraisal.

For the last subject material, Writing Business Proposals and Information, students wrote a business proposal notice.


Again, the student of the control groupings will be assessed of their writing skill and competency. After delivering all the lecture-presentations, students will write a notice of appreciation for an effective internship. This discovered whether there was improvement in the writing performance of iACADEMY students through the institution's standard pedagogy. The assessment was limited to a thirty-minute time period limit to write a letter with at least 150 to 200 words. This offered as their posttest. This also unveiled whether there was significant difference between your posttests of the experimental and control categories.

Both Experimental and Control Groups

The experimental and control groupings received similar pretest, pre-lecture motivational activities, lecture-discussions, and posttest.

After verifying the pretest and posttest of both teams, they were graded using the improved business writing rubric. The writing rubric was improved in order showing adherence with the 5 C's of Business Writing.

Once all test results were ready, we were holding collected and prepared for validation through statistical analysis and interpretation.

Statistical Treatment of Data

Upon the completion of the assessment exercises, the written outputs of all the students were examined and noted for statistical research. The fresh data will be interpreted using the mean and standard deviation. The Software Statistical Program for Friendly Sciences (SPSS) was found in the research to look for the standard problem of difference of the pretests and posttests. The independent sample t-test will be utilized to compare both means that will be repeated steps of the same participant.

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