The Structure and Function of Cells

EUKARYOTIC CELL

DESCRIPTION/FUNCTION:

A. CELL MEMBRANE AND THE FUNCTIONS:

    1. CELL MEMBRANE
  • Also known as the plasma membrane gives mechanical strength to the cell.
  • Its unique structure allows itself to serve as molecular traffic regulator.
  • It really is 5 up to 10 um thick. In addition, it exhibits fluid mosaic nature, seal itsef if broken.

B. THE CYTOPLASM AND ITS OWN ORGANELLES

    1. CYTOPLASM
  • Scores of jelly-like material that is somewhat grayish or colorless, translucent and viscous
  • It can change from semi solid to semi liquid.

C. CELL ORGANELLES

  1. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
  • (ER) is the transport network for molecules targeted for certain modifications and specific destinations, as compared to molecules that will float freely in the cytoplasm.
  • ER has two forms: the rough ER and the smooth ER.
  • RIBOSOMES
    • The ribosome is a large complex composed of many molecules, including RNAs and proteins, and it is responsible for processing the genetic instructions carried by an mRNA.
    • Ribosomes float freely in the cytoplasm or sometimes bind to some other organelle called the endoplasmic reticulum
  • MITOCHONDRIA
    • are self-replicating organelles that occur in various numbers, shapes, and sizes in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells.
    • Mitochondria have two functionally distinct membrane systems separated by an area: the outer membrane, which surrounds the whole organelle; and the inner membrane, which is thrown into folds or shelves that project inward. These inward folds are called cristae.
    • Mitochondria play a crucial role in producing energy in the eukaryotic cell, and this process involves a number of complex pathways
  • GOLGI BODIES OR GOLGI APPARATUS
    • (also known as the golgi apparatus or golgi complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like organelle that looks like a collection of pancakes and is located near to the nucleus. The golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell.
  • LYSOSOMES
    • tend to be referred to as the garbage disposal system of a cell.
    • digest foreign bacteria that invade a cell.
    • assisting to recycle receptor proteins and other membrane components and degrading worn out organelles such as mitochondria. Lysosomes may also help repair damage to the plasma membrane by serving as a membrane patch, sealing the wound.
  • MICROBODIES
    • Variety of organelles a lot like lysosome but contains different enzymes. One of these is the glyxoxysomes within some plant, another is peroxisomes that have powerful oxidative enzymes.
  • CYTOSKELETON
    • Microtubules that provide support to the internal system of cell thus, it provides support and shape.
    • Also provides pathways for certain cellular molecules to move.
  • VACUOLES
    • Membrane- bound, fluid- filled spaces found in both animal and plant cell but bigger in plant cell.
    • The vacuolar membrane is also called tonoplast and they contain liquid cell sap.
  • MICROFILAMENTS
    • Are long thread like extremely thin filaments first seen in skeletal muscle cells that gives the cell a striped appearance.
  • CENTRIOLES
    • Small dark bodies located just beyond your nucleus of most animal cells.
    • They are cylindrical structures and two of them lie close together.
    • Associated in the spindle fibers of dividing animal cells.
  • PLASTIDS
    • Are cytoplasmic orhanelles within cells of all plants.
  • NUCLEUS
    • It houses the cell's chromosomes which is the place where almost all DNA replication and RNA synthesis occur.
    • The nucleus is spheroid in form and separated from the cytoplasm by a membrane called the nuclear envelope.
  • CELL WALL
    • a thick, rigid membrane that surrounds a plant cell.
    • This layer of cellulose fiber gives the cell the majority of its support and structure.
    • cell wall also bonds with other cell walls to create the structure of the plant.
  • CHLOROPLASTS
    • act like mitochondria but are found only in plants.
    • Chloroplasts convert light energy from sunlight into ATP through a process called photosynthesis.
  • CENTROSOME
    • (also called the "microtubule organizing center") a small body located nearby the nucleus - it has a dense center and radiating tubules.
    • The centrosomes is where microtubules are made. During cell division (mitosis), the centrosome divides and both parts proceed to opposite sides of the dividing cell.
  • GRANUM
    • (plural grana) A stack of thylakoid disks within the chloroplast is named a granum.
  • NUCLEOLUS
    • an organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is produced.

    DIFFERENCE BETWEEN YOUR PLANT CELL AND ANIMAL CELL

    Basis of Comparison Plant cells Animal cells 1. plasma membrane present Present 2. Cell wall present Absent 3. Lysosome Absent Present 4. Plastids Present Absent 5. Vacuoles Small but many Large but fewer 6. Chloroplast present Absent

    PROKARYOTIC CELL

    A TYPICAL BACTERIAL CELL

    DESCRIPTION/FUNCTION:

    1. NUCLEOID

    • a nuclear region where in fact the chromosomal matter is available. DNA in the bacterial cell is normally confined to the central region. Though it isn't bounded by a membrane, it is visibly distinct from the rest of the cell interior. Prokaryotic cells' genome usually contains a single, large, circular DNA molecule

    2. RIBOSOMES

    • give the cytoplasm of bacteria a granular appearance in electron micrographs. Though smaller than the ribosomes in eukaryotic cells, these inclusions have a similar function in translating the genetic message in messenger RNA into the production of peptide sequences.

    3. VESICLES

    • relatively small and enclosed compartments, separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer. If indeed they have only 1 lipid bilayer, these are called unilamellar vesicles; otherwise they are called multilamellar.

    4. CAPSULE

    • a layer of polysaccharide (sometimes proteins) that protects the bacterial cell and is often associated with pathogenic bacteria because it serves as a barrier against phagocytosis by white blood cells.

    5. CELL WALL

    • comprises peptidoglycan (polysaccharides + protein), the cell wall maintains the overall shape of any bacterial cell. The three primary shapes in bacteria are coccus (spherical), bacillus (rod-shaped) and spirillum (spiral). Mycoplasma are bacteria which have no cell wall and for that reason haven't any definite shape.

    6. PLASMA MEMBRANE

    • is a lipid bilayer much like the cytoplasmic (plasma) membrane of other cells. There are numerous proteins moving within or upon this layer that are mostly responsible for transport of ions, nutrients and waste across the membrane.

    7. PILI

    • are hollow, hairlike structures made of protein allow bacteria to add to other cells. A specialized pilus, the sex pilus, allows the transfer from one bacterial cell to another. Pili (sing. , pilus) are also known as fimbriae (sing. , fimbria).

    8. FLAGELLA

    • The purpose of flagella (sing. , flagellum) is motility. Flagella are long appendages which rotate through a "motor" located just under the cytoplasmic membrane.

    DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELL

    Basis of Comparison Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic Cell 1. Nuclear Membrane Absent Present 2. Chromosomes Single Multiple 3. ER Absent Present 4. Golgi apparatus Absent Present 5. Lysosomes Absent Present 6. Mitochondria Absent Present 7. Ribosome Small Large

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