The Types Of Anxiousness Disorders

Anxiety is an over-all term for a number of disorders that cause nervousness, apprehension and being concerned. These disorders have an impact on how we feel and react, and they can manifest physical symptoms. Mild panic is hazy and unsettling, while severe stress and anxiety can be extremely debilitating, which will result in a serious impact on lifestyle. (medicalnewstoday. com, 2010) It really is different as dread, once we only feel fear when the stimulus is present, and it fades off if we avoid the stimulus. (James W. Kalat, 1992). Alternatively, anxiety is the consequence of how people perceive threats, which appears to be uncontrollable and inescapable. In fact, anxiety may not always be a bad thing as they help us stay alert and targeted; it spurs us to action and motivates us to solve problems.

People often experience stress or fear when they confront something challenging such as examinations and interview, these minor anxiety are justified and considered as normal. It only becomes a disorder when it interferes with our ability to function and handle everyday activities (Adam W. Kalat, 1992). Panic, are thus the results from excessive anxiety and worries, in which occurred in a prolonged period of time to be classified as a type of disorder.

Research implies that almost twenty five percent of the adult people experienced symptoms characteristic of the many panic disorders (Kessler etal. , 1994). Because panic disorders are several related conditions somewhat than just a solo disorder, they vary from person to person. Different individuals may experience different kind of problems and symptoms. Despite of different forms in anxiety disorder, all stress disorders talk about one major warning sign: persistent or severe stress or dread in situations where most people wouldn't normally feel threatened (Melinda Smith, 2008). This demonstrates to be grouped in the different types of anxiety disorder, it will depend on which kind of anxiety is experienced, the degree of anxiousness experienced, and also the situation which stimulated the stress and anxiety.

There are several disorders that are categorized under panic, the five major categorize are namely Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Panic disorder, phobias, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders (Zimbardo & Gerrig, 1996)

Types of Stress Disorders

Generalized Nervousness Disorder

This disorder is diagnosed when a person have the anxious and worry sense in an extended time frame, at least six months, when they're not threatened by any specific threat. It usually centered on specific life circumstances (Zimbardo & Gerrig, 1996). Several illustrations forever circumstances are such as keeping their job, simple home things, well-being of loved ones etc. They do not have realistic reason to own such intense anxiousness and it may persist and interfere their normal performing in daily life for a prolonged period of time.

Physical symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder may include sweating, flushing, pounding heart, diarrhea, clammy hands, head pain, muscle stress and muscle pains. Whereas the mental health symptoms are frequently includes persistent nervousness, exhaustion, restlessness, irritability and insomnia (Fishing rod Plotnik, 1993). This disorder leads to impaired working because the person struggles to control his increased anxiety; hence the individual cannot sign up for sufficiently to his / her daily life obligations. It is further compounded by the physical symptoms from the disorder. For instance, when the individual has this disorder, he perhaps will have consistent insomnia, which contributes to deprivation of rest. This will then have an effect on his function ability the very next day as he's too exhausted or fatigue.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder is commonly treated with psychotherapy or with medications. Many studies show that remedy is the very best treatment for most people as it is side-effect free. Among the psychotherapy which is often used to take care of Generalized Anxiety Disorder is the Cognitive-Behavioral Remedy (CBT). It analyses the distortions in the manner the patient understand the planet and themselves (Robert Segal, 2008). As from the medication aspect, drugs which are generally prescribed are tranquilizers, such as Valium and Librium (Slazman, 1991). In average dozes, it is usually not in physical form addicting. However, when it's used in higher doses, the individual may suffer withdrawal symptoms when the drugs were halted. Based on studies, people who had been treated by these two ways were 68% retrieved or less impaired than neglected adjustments (Noyes et al. , 1980) Hence both drugs and psychotherapy tend to be used together to take care of patients with Generalized PANIC.

Panic Disorder

Research shows that panic disorder can be an emotional disruption which is situated in about 1-2% of most American Adults, women more than men and is rare among children (McNally, 1990; Myers et al. , 1984; Robins et al. , 1984). Based on the DSM-III-R, anxiety attacks are different from generalized panic and the various types of phobias. Patients of anxiety attacks usually experience surprising and severe anxiety attacks that may keep going for only a few minutes to a few hours.

Studies shows that individuals with this disorder have a fairly constant state of moderate panic and an over reactive sympathetic stressed system. When faced a gentle stressor, patients may act in response with a sudden increase in heartrate and bloodstream adrenaline (Liebowitz et al. , 1985; Nutt, 1989). Since it attacks abruptly, it can occur anytime, even though the individual are asleep. Although research could not find the specific cause of anxiety attacks, it is stated to be due to an inherited neurochemical abnormality that results the quick surges of physiological arousal and dread or it may be due to mental factors such as fitness and irrational values (McNally 1990).

It is also believed that anxiety attacks is cause by stress, dread, or even physical activities. When people discover that by doing this physical activity will cause a panic and anxiety attack, they tend to avoid the activity completely, causing those to be more delicate towards the result of that particular physical activity. Hence, for example, they tend to suffer from anxiety attacks due to the slightest exertion that may cause their heart rate to increase, where they will commence to perceive as an anxiety attck because of their persistent worry of having this attack again. Therefore, professionals usually suggest the individual to have regular exercise as a treatment for panic disorder (Ledwidge, 1980)

Base on preceding studies, anxiety attacks are usually treated with a blend of benzodiazepines or antidepressants and psychotherapy. With this mixture, it could be usually treated successfully in an interval of 3 to 8 weeks (Ballenger 1991).


According to Zimbardo & Gerrig in their publication Mindset and Life, they stated that a person suffers from phobia when he suffers from a prolonged and irrational fear of a specific subject, activity or situation that is extreme and unreasonable given the reality of the danger. Which means that see your face may show intense concern with something, where normal people may not have such powerful concern with it. This demonstrates phobias have a definite different from the meaning of fear. Fear, on the other hand, is a rational a reaction to an objectively identified external threat that may cause the person to flee or harm in self-defense. What it means by objectively identified external hazard are such as rapid natural disaster or there is hearth at ones home. These stimuli are regarded as dangerous which is rational to have dread against it.

Phobias triggers significant stress and it interferes with the adjustment in life of that that each (Zimbardo & Gerrig, 1996). James W. Kalat even identify phobia as a fear so extreme that this inhibits normal living. For example, normal people may have fear against some insect such as bees or even spiders. But these concerns did not hinder their function of living and it did not stop them from obtaining their goal. It is merely diagnosed as phobia if this fear interferes with the standard functionality of these life.

The DSM-IV divides phobia into two categories, specifically communal phobias and specific phobias. Pole Plotnik define public phobia as phobias which are brought on by the existence of other folks. This further means that see your face seems uneasy in a public location because they're concern with the presence of others around them. People suffering from communal phobia may have level fright and always fear that they can act something disturbing in public. Studies show that approximately 13. 3 percent of U. S. individuals have experienced sociable phobia (Kessler et al. , 1994).

On the other side, specific phobias take place when a patient produces response towards a number of different types of items or situations (Zimbardo & Gerrig, 1996). Some people may have strong fear of height, while some towards snake which may due to prior conditioning. Different people with specific phobias may have different thing or stimulus which they fear so much.

Phobias can keep going an eternity as people tend to all the stimulus that they are afraid of. Hence it is very problematic for a phobia to extinguish itself. Hence the therapies that happen to be usually used to treat phobias are systematic desensitization and flooding. Systematic desensitization is recognized as the most typical and successful remedy to treat phobias. It is a method of reducing fear by gradually exposing the individual to the thing which they fear (Wolpe, 1961). For example, if a person is afraid of snakes, they are simply asked to slowly address a snake through phases. For the first stage they may just need to imagine about an image of an snake, as the individual is ready, they are then subjected to the true stimulus. However, the individual can stop the procedure whenever they feel distress about it. This demonstrates the procedure resembles Skinner's shaping technique.

Flooding, also known as implosion is cure in which change from systematic desensitization. Platform on Hogan and Kirchner, this treatment is conducted by exposing the object of the phobia all of a sudden, rather than eventually. This approach is actually treating phobia by thinking that the individuals sympathetic stressed system is unable to maintain an extreme arousal for a very long period of time, where the body will commence to adapt and the fear will start to subside.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders

According to Jeanne Segal, Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by uncontrollable, unwanted thoughts and repetitive, ritualized manners in which the individual feel compelled to execute.

As the name suggests, this disorder involves obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are involuntary, uncontrollable thoughts, images or impulses that tend to occur over and over again in the mind unconsciously. For instance, the person may repetitively think that they might not lock the entranceway yet, although they already do. These thinking are usually disturbing and may cause stress to the person. On the other hand, compulsions are recurring behaviors or rituals in which the person is powered to handle over and over (Melinda Smith, 2008). Which means that the action is used again and again to lessen the irritation of the previously repeating obsessions. For example, the patient may repetitively verifying whether he previously turn off the range even though he had checked it again and again for the past few hours. This may then interfere with the normal program of the individuals daily life especially their communal and occupational performing.

According to Rapoport, obsessive-compulsive disorder can be treated by exposing the person to the situation or object where the individual is attempting to avoid. He further shows that if this treatment can not work, clomipramine can be utilized as medication. This antidepressant drug is usually used simultaneously with exposure remedy for a competent result. Furthermore, analysts also discovered that about 80% of the patients had maintained their improved status of minimizing their rituals from 5 hours to 1 one hour every day (O'Sullivan et al. , 1991).

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

PTSD is a disorder in which it develops carrying out a distressing event that threatens one's safe practices or build a helpless feeling towards that each (Robert Segal, 2008). Distressing occasions are such as motor vehicle accident, kidnapping, natural disasters, rape case, conflict etc. These occurrences somehow create fear towards the individual in which it evolves into PTSD. Studies implies that rape sufferer are on the list of group are likely to build up this disorder (Green, 1994). Following the individual experience a traumatic event, the body will maintain circumstances of shock. If the average person make sense of what had happened, they have a tendency to emerge from it. But if the individual remain in psychological impact, PTSD will then develop. Zimbardo & Gerrig identifies this disorder as an anxiety disorder that is seen as a continual re-experience of traumatic incidents through dreams, hallucinations or flashbacks.

The symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder usually occurs suddenly, gradually or continuously as time passes (Melinda Smith, 2008). Sometimes it could also be triggered by way of a stimulus that is related to the distressing event. For instance, victims who are raped in a car tend to have PTSD when they visit a car.

PTSD can be treated by encouraging the victim to face the trauma they have experienced alternatively than to prevent them. You can find four programs for PTSD, namely Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral remedy, Eye Activity Desensitization and Reprocessing, Family therapy and medications (Robert Segal, 2008). The Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral remedy involves revealing the sufferer towards thoughts, thoughts and situations that will remind the sufferer about the stress. This remedy also encourages the victim to recognize upsetting thoughts of the event and updating them with a far more balanced picture. THE ATTENTION Activity Desensitization and Reprocessing comes with the elements of cognitive-behavioral remedy with eye motions or other varieties of rhythmic stimulations. For instance, palm taps or sounds. This remedy is thought to 'unfreeze' the brain's information handling system which is interrupted in times of extreme stress. Additionally it is used to free the iced emotional fragments which retained their original depth; they could be integrated into a cohesive memory space. Family therapy is a therapy in which family around the victim help the family members to comprehend and support what they go through. Lastly, medication can be approved to relive supplementary symptoms such as depression or stress and anxiety, but it will not cure the sources of PTSD.

General Symptoms of Nervousness Disorder

According to Jeanne Segal, anxiety disorders talk about one major symptom, which is continual or severe dread or be anxious in situations in which normal people wouldn't normally feel threatened.

In addition to the principal symptoms of irrational and excessive worry and dread, emotional symptoms of panic includes: having trouble concentrating, anxiety, irritability, restlessness, anticipating the most detrimental, apprehension feelings and also have the tendency to target more on signs of threat.

On the other side, physical symptoms are involved because anxiousness makes the body to produce a fight-or-flight response. Common physical medical indications include pounding center, sweating, muscle tensions, tiredness, insomnia, shortness of breath, abdominal upset, and etc. Nervousness sufferers often mistook these physical symptoms as symptoms of medical disease, causing them to visit the hospital numerous times before obtaining their disorder.

Causes of Anxiety Disorder

Many psychologists suggest that the introduction of anxiety disorder with the four etiological strategies, namely natural, psychodynamic, behavioral and cognitive (Zimbardo & Gerrig, 1996).


Seligman proposed a hypothesis called as the preparedness hypothesis. This hypothesis suggests that human carry around an evolutionary propensity to answer quickly and 'thoughtlessly' to once-feared stimuli. This hypothesis endeavors to clarify why only certain phobias are more common than concerns of other dangers. For example, worries of snakes and level are more common than worries of electricity. He further proposed that at onetime in the evolutionary recent, certain fear improved our ancestors' likelihood of survival. Besides that, he also considers that there is a probability where individuals are created with a predisposition to fear whatever is related to resources of serious risk in the evolutionary past. However, this hypothesis didn't explain the other types of phobias which develop in response to things or situations that could not have possessed survival so this means over evolutionary theory, such as the fear of travelling or elevators.

A research conducted with indistinguishable and fraternal twins shows another proof a natural role in anxiety disorders. This research suggests a hereditary basis for the predisposition to see four of the five types of anxiety disorders (Skre et al. , 1993). It suggest that the likelihood of a set of identical twins both suffered with a anxiety attacks is twice the probability of both fraternal twins were sufferers. However, phobia shows no genetic evidence because it is develop more simply environmental roots for those disorders.


According to Zimbardo & Gerrig, this model is based on the assumption that the symptoms of stress and anxiety disorders actually comes from an underlying psychic issues or doubts. These symptoms are actually attempts to protect the average person from mental pain. For instance, in obsessive-compulsive disorders, the obsessive habit seems to be an attempt to replace anxiety created with a related but far more feared conflict or desire. Hence, to be able to gain some relief, the average person then replace an obsession towards something that symbolically catches the forbidden impulse. Another example is like a child with an archive of childhood maltreatment builds up the obsessive-compulsive disorder. The child may have different kinds of compulsion so that she'll feel being in charge rather than bullied by someone else and this soothes anxiety of getting rid of control or doing something wrong that may cause her family to beat her up. The bottom line is, the average person actually perform minor activity repetitively to avoid the original concern that is creating unconscious issue.


This factor concentrate on the way symptoms of stress and anxiety disorders are conditioned or strengthened. The Classical conditioning theory proposed by Ivan Pavlov is often used to explain the development of phobias, which are seen as classically conditioned concerns. Which means that the object in which the specific phobia of may be a neutral stimulus but became something a phobia stimulus after it is combined with a scary experience. For example, an individual might not be afraid of a puppy before the event in which he is bitten by the dog. From that incident, the individual is conditioned that all pups will bite and therefore cause him to have a fear of puppies.

As what the obsessive-compulsive example above implies, the compulsive actions tend to reduce the unconscious anxiety from the obsessive thoughts. This is explained from the behavioral aspect. As the individual decrease the unconscious stress through his compulsive manners, it reinforces the compulsive conducts as it triggers a sense of non permanent relieve.


Sufferers of panic tend to understand their distress as an indicator of impending catastrophe. Their reaction may tripped a vicious cycle in which the person fears disaster, which in turn leads to an increase of the panic level even more, which cause the stress sensation to get worse and confirms the persons dread (Beck & Emery, 1985). Research also discovered that stressed patients maintain their anxiousness by using cognitive biases that point out the threatening of the stimuli (MacLeod et al. , 1986). The result of this study suggest that restless patients may have bias in attending or encoding that makes them more likely to notice a threatening stimuli.


Studies show that levels of some neurotransmitter in the torso contributes to panic. For example, low degrees of GABA, which reduces the activity in the central stressed system, will contribute to stress and anxiety (Lydiard RB, Nemeroff CB, 2003). Recent studies also claim that the result of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) in alleviating stress may result from a primary action on GABA neurons (Taylor M, 2004).

Effect of Stress and anxiety Disorder

According to Kendall Genre, an anxiety disorder can affect ones family and friends in several ways. When one has anxiety disorder, the symptoms which they experience, such as insomnia, irritability, anxiety can affect his or her interpersonal relationships along with his or her family and friends.

Besides that, the symptoms of panic may abrupt the normal function of this individual in his daily life (Kendall Genre, 2008). The individual may not be able to do his or her work efficiently which may be related to the symptoms one experienced due to anxiety disorder. For example, if the average person is suffering from insomnia, he'll be fatigue the very next day and causing lack of concentration in gratifying his activity properly. Symptoms may go on for days, creating the sufferer having difficulty to cope it, which in turn cause them to efficiently (Judith Boucher, 2007)

Furthermore, some anxiety disorder such as panic disorder and Post-traumatic stress disorder could cause the given individual to avoid things that will result in the disorder (Kendall Genre, 2008). Avoidance then triggers the given individual to struggling to function ones daily life normally. For example, if one is scared of car credited to an occurrence which she was rape in a car, she will avoid going on cars and so circumscribed her ability to work together socially in such a way that her family, friends and coworkers are damaged. She can't drive out to have tea with her friends because she wants to avoid being in a car.

Better Daoust claim that anxiety disorder especially panic disorder can cause your body to take a lot of abuse because of its broad symptoms. Panic attack can generate permanent stress related issues that are quite serious. To begin with, the heart will suffer first from a panic attack. If it is not completed properly, it will have an effect on the functions of other organs in the torso too. Throughout a anxiety attack, the lungs will work harder and the heart and soul pumps faster because there is a lack of cellular support, the brain dedicates energy to somewhere else. Hence, she shows that anxiety attack is a multi-system attacker.

Anxiety disorders are often comorbid with other serious psychiatric disorders, especially common, depression and substance abuse (Kendall Genre, 2008). This means that an individual of anxiety disorder has a very high opportunity to suffer from depression or drug abuse.

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