Theories are of importance to counselling because they are the foundation of effective counselling. Within an article entitled Ideas of counselling: Why are they important. it shows the six purpose of theory in counselling by Youngster and Pine (1983). To start with theories in counselling facilitates counsellors to find contacts and the commonness among the variety of existence. Secondly, it can help counsellors to look at areas they could have overlooked out. Thirdly, it provides counsellors working rules, where it helps them to which area to focus on and later helps them to produce a professional evaluation with their progress. Fourthly, it helps counsellors centre on significant information and things to them what things to search for. Fifthly, it courses counsellors to aid clients in the successful change with their cognitions, interpersonal interactions, behaviour, and mental functioning. Last but not least, it courses counsellors on their evaluation of both prior and latest methods used in their counselling session.
One or more theoretical framework will be the foundations for every and every counselling solutions. A theory reveals or supplies the counsellor zoom lens to look through the whole counselling process, the signs or symptoms of concerns of the customers, and methods to work on completing clients improvement. There are lots of theories employed by counsellors, this essay will reviewed four major ideas approach by counsellors that are psychoanalytical theory, individual psychology, person centered, and behavioural theory.
Referring to Wikepedia. com, Sigmund Freud was a Viennese psychiatrist from 1856 till 1939. At get older 17, he joined the School of Vienna and became a student researcher in the institution of physiology and earned the title Doctor of Drugs at 1891. At age 30 he was hitched and acquired a daughter known as Anna Freud. He began his private practice, and became convinced that sexual turmoil is the foundation of neurosis during his work with patients. His understanding was critically criticized by specialists which pushes him to began the difficult and lonesome procedure for self-analysis and analysis of the unconscious where his effort was finally began to gain popularity by scholars in 1900. Thus resulting in studies such as William Adam, Alder, and Jung cooperating with him down the road. Lastly, Sigmund Freud perished from bone cancers at age 85.
Freud's psychoanalytic view of individuals nature talks of personality as a composition of three types of brain awareness (Tao, 2004). The conscious mind is the awareness of what is happening around us in today's. The preconscious head retain ordinary memories in other words will be the recent memories of individuals which aren't conscious but can be retrieved easily into awareness. While, the unconscious head stores repressed or neglected memories that are traumatic and could be of forget about importance. Freud stated that personality has three parts (Segrist, 2009). The first part called id is present from delivery and is one of the unconscious mind. Id is led by intuition and are of primitive behaviours. Furthermore, id is driven by the pleasure basic principle, and doesn't care much about certainty but only cares for do it yourself satisfaction. Lastly, it is the source for psychic energy which supposed that it arouses the infant to act to his or her goals. Another part is called the ego, which is guided by the reality principle, thus interacting with truth. The ego strives to fulfill id's needs rationally by using sensible and socially appropriate ways. Furthermore the ego understands that being selfish and impulsive can't improve or bond associations. The 3rd part is named the superego. The superego contains the internalized standard worth of bad and the good and ideals. Parental affect greatly impact on the standardizing of what exactly are wrong and what exactly are right.
In an article entitled "Psychosexual Phases" by Saul McLeod (2008), it described Freud's five psychosexual stages of development where each levels that will runs into frustration or excessiveness happens, will cause fixation.
This stage begins from birth to age of 1 year, during this time, the id is operating highly. This level is seen as a oral cavity orientated, as the newborns gains pleasure from the discovery of things using their mouths, involving activities such as biting and sucking. Oral fixation happens later in life when the newborn is constantly given inadequate food or over abnormal consumptions of food (Garcia, 1995). Adult individuals with oral fixation will continue looking the pleasure from oral cavity focused activities such as smoking, drinking alcohol which may lead to health issues.
This stage commences in one to 3 years old. Where parents tends to begin to regulate their children defecating activity, in other words toilet training starts (Garcia, 1995). The anus become the part of sex drive, where the child gains satisfaction in achieving bladder and bowler control. Anal fixation happens when children are given harsh or strict toilet training which results the individual gain an anal-retentive personality which tends to became to obsess of tidiness That could lead too careful and isolated themselves from the norms and developed negative mental health.
Phallic stage occurs throughout three to six years. Genitals became the foundation of pleasure where each goes through exploration of their genitals. The kid becomes conscious of the various body structures of the opposite sex and themselves, making the occurrence of Oedipus complicated for kids and the Electra organic for girls characterised by negative behaviours over looking at of self body parts with others such as jealousy. A person who fixate in this level tend to choose compulsive sexual behaviour and individuals tends to have high tastes for the contrary making love organ and generally have high sexual intercourse and continuously changed of sex spouse (Jerkovic et. al, 2012). Thus will result a high-risk sex activity which might lead to 1 gaining sexually sent diseases and harmful marriage as they tend not to be committed.
Latency happens at years 6 till puberty. This stage proclaimed as a "paused" of psychosexual activity. The kid at this stage tends to curb the intimate urgency and put forward its creative instincts and energy to outdoor activities such as their pastimes and playing with individuals from the same preferences (Garcia, 1995).
Hence, fixations may impacts on mental, mental and physical health, not excluding the best impact on an individual's healthy lifestyle and connections.
Id, Ego and Superego tends to be in disagreement with each other as Id requirements to fulfill its desire without considering the reality, where ego tends to delay the process as in search for social appropriate ways to fulfill Identification demand and lastly superego aim is to make certain the action is relative to the moral value. The issues between these three pats of personality derived actions that triggers problems and stress which cause abnormality. Based on the notes produced from 311 psychology, when a child is disciplined or scolded, the child have a tendency to feel threatened by the decreased of love from his / her parents, and the activities will tends to associate with nervousness. Due to the fact that anxiety isn't pleasant, the child will tend to eliminate it by operating away or suppress the cause of the anxiety, which in turn tends to develop the defence device.
The counselling process is seen as a collaborative change process, facilitating the customers to undergo the periods of psychosexual development (Garcia, 1995). The procedure of counselling will have a tendency to be unsuccessful when clients have a tendency to be over-frustrated or develop self reliance credited to an extremely comfortable supporting environment distributed by the counsellors. In the counselling process, counsellor encourages clients to talk about their life story and counsellors responds in ways which is suitable for the client. It is very important that responds are appropriate as it motivates client to explore further while incorrect responds can have a tendency to result level of resistance and stress from your client. As the counselling process go much deeper, where it reach to a certain phase that the client will reveal painful materials, hence counsellors have to be open and induces them to express them and not by force or in challenging ways. Besides that, counsellors should not over interpret or make confronting provocations which may tend to let clients feel exposure and ashamed. Finally, it's important that counsellors bring their unconsciousness to consciousness, where it can help the clients exploration. Extensive intimate desires produced from fixation which results in fantasy, raping and intensive masturbation etc is in critical have to be aided by counsellors. Where counsellors should escort the energy from the really wants to activities that can developed their personal uniqueness.
In 1870, Alfred Adler was born in Vienna and unfortunately he experienced rickets in his early years which disallowed him from walking till age group four. Although quite unlucky, but it became the drive for him to become a medical professional. A biography on Adler from mindset. com state that Adler's theory emphasized that each and every person has a feeling of inferiority where every individuals work toward resolving this inferiority and affirm their superiority over others from child. Between 1928 till he perished in 1937, he written twenty one papers that have been then come up with and shared (Toal, 1966). Furthermore, Adler's view of treatment, was largely on the emphasis of exact examination of the patient's cooperative collaboration, it's of important the patient to produce the greater capability to handle others. Lastly, Adler's thought that social interest can be educate to children in their early on years in the educational adjustments.
Adler proposed an individual's personality and lifestyle can be understand by discussing their delivery order as each individuals beginning order affects just how siblings seek out solutions to be of value and belong to the family. Hence, affecting their personality. Adler posted personalities for four birth-order related siblings positions (Stewart, 2012).
A first-born child tend to be of authoritative and on a respected role in the family and when it comes to that they have a tendency to be sensitive to issues such as hierarchy and process. First-born are very particular with the agreements, the constructions and tends to be following firmly to sociable norms and guidelines thus their characters tend to be associate with themes from success. Last but not least, they actually have fears of experiencing their privilege as the eldest child bought out by their younger siblings.
The siblings of the youngest child tends to be advanced sooner than the youngest child, The youngest child being seen as less capable resulting in being spoiled by parents as parents over provide them things or helps. The individuals from this birth order will get good at their coaxing or lovely skills to get the help or things they needs. Hence, resulted in them being popular and outgoing.
Middle child tend to believe that they aren't participate in their family as attentions received to the youngest child which expert has been the oldest child. They developed low self esteem as they do not see their value or contributions in their family plus they felt less beloved. Thus, they tend to associate with styles under rejection.
The only child will over safeguarded by their parents, their parents will over require themselves in really the only child's matter, may lead to the only real child increasing negative experiences. Really the only child tends to desire greatly for self-reliance as they believed that their lives are being so manipulated and often only being able to be closed using their family. Besides that, the only child characteristics can be mixed.
Adler believes that individual's one-sided conception mould the individual's personality and behaviour. People with physical deformities will build up notion system on solutions to become dominating such to be strong and superior. Thus we can conclude that a person use their inferiorities as drive to go towards to emotional health insurance and a practical design of life. But there are others who overcompensate and have a tendency to isolate themselves from the culture causing an unsafe lifestyle. Adler thought that it greatly depends on the amount of sociable interest a person developed during their early years that influence the individual's behaviour which establishes their healthy lifestyle.
Neurotics is one of the maladjustment for Alder's theory. Neurotics often arranged their goals too high as they try to shake of their inferiorities. They also have a tendency to isolate themselves and live life styles that are fixed and not adaptable. Another maladjustment will be exaggerated physical deficiencies that causes the individuals highly worried for themselves and scarcely care about others. Besides that, individuals which reside in a pampered lifestyle is commonly lacking on public interest due to their high reliance on their number which over pampered them till the average person lack of ability to be independent or do not see freedom as a major issue.
Counsellors may use the problem handling method which has four phases (Nystul, 1995). The first stage will be problem identification. The counsellors in this first period will give attention to the current behavior of their client and counsellors should identifies the current problems with their client. In the process of the first stage counsellors will need to facilitate their customer to be aware of how control all they over the situation and guide them the need to be responsible if possible. The second phase counsellors need to recognizes your client problem behaviour in terms of the utilization to which the client places it. This is done through the use of the Adlerian approach of getting early recollections. Counsellors can asks questions related to the starting point of the situation behaviour and the usefulness of the behaviours to recognize if your client has any purpose to meet any needs in Maslow's Hierarchy of needs. The 3rd stage is modifying determination, where in fact the counsellor targets elevating the client's desire for change. With this phase, clients is required to make self-evaluation where they determine whether their behavior is correlated with their needs and isn't messing with the privileges of others. In this process, clients should examine whether their habit is getting together with their needs without interfering with the protection under the law of others. Your client will gain motivation when they know that their behavior isn't appropriate to meet their needs and can tend to walk into issue with others. The final phase involves clients to understand how to make effective techniques. Methods may sometimes need behaviour substitution while sometimes it may not be necessary, such as someone who is a medication addict might need to replace the craving with healthy craving such as athletics. When approaches is determined, counsellors need to build up practice opportunities by giving out responsibilities and constantly following up with the client's progress and if necessary make amendments.
Carl Rogers is a man who put his love on studying and dealing with humanistic beliefs and strongly advocate to his believe of this human exists good. Rogers involved in quite a lot of areas such as international diplomacy plus some of his works has been translate up to twelve languages. He has written more than two hundred articles and shared fifteen books. He is constantly exploring, testing implementing, and writing as new ideas and questions comes up. He was an educator and a counsellor once before, he was seen as processing a flexibility giving ambiance by his students. Rogers are a guy who have guts to adopt different solutions and expanding new methods for conducting research and remedy which lead him to get many accolades (Heppner, et. al, 1984).
Rogers declare that the basic buildings of personality are organismic experiencing and self which may be mindful or unconscious process and include all sensory experiences. Next, Rogers state that the actualizing inclination which is the human being organism central source of energy motivates and energizes behavior of people (Fernald, 2000). He believed a child's self-concept developed through interaction with folks of relevance, where these relationships impact the organismic experiencing and form the child's positive or negative principles. Personality dysfunction happens when the individual experience incongruence between conditions of worthy of and organismic experiencing.
If there aren't organismic experience which is negative, it's regarded as a great situation where all the individual's self-concept from young made-up of most organismic experiencing resulting in a healthy and fully functioning specific (Fernald, 2000). Roger believes that a person needs to be positively reared, meaning that an individual must be unconditionally showered with love, esteem, warmth, care and present acceptance of their parents while others to develop the individual to a healthy person. Feelings of self value can be formed if the average person behaves in particular ways as conditional popularity let the specific realizes that only when conforming to others' hopes they could feel respected.
There are conflicts between the individual ideal do it yourself and real personal as they shoot for acceptance in the culture. The greater the disharmony between the real self applied and the perfect self, a lot more abnormal the average person became, and is commonly isolated by the norm or isolated themselves from the norm.
Rogers advocate on the non directivity of counsellors in theraphy established fact. This approach is also called the client centered theraphy (Bozarth, 2012). Techniques uses in the communication of the conditions of clients such as fantasy analysis, free relationship can be used in the therapy session in accordance to the customers situation. Could it be important that counsellor or therapists creates an atmosphere that is comfortable for the client to express and discover themselves along the way and through the process be aware of verbal and non behaviours from your client. Of many of the goals in the treatment, the counsellor need to aid the congruence of the client's idea do it yourself and real personal. Rogers state that empathy, positive respect, acceptance and congruence are crucial conditions to fulfil in the counselling process.
B. F Skinner is known for advocating behaviourism as a psychology of learning. B. F. Skinner blessed 1904 and passed on at 1990. He went through a stable and caring life during his early years in Pennsylvania. He was excited in inventing new things which lead him to the studies in later life. He was once a writer but shifted his profession after meeting the works of Watson and Pavlov, leading him to become a major contributor to behaviourism. One of his well known technology is the skinner container.
In articles entitled behaviourist ideas of personality, it hook up spots of B. F. Skinner and personality, where B. F. Skinner mentioned that behaviours ranges as learning encounters varies. Intervention such as rewards and punishments are to steer desire behaviours in individuals. Besides that its imperative to make changes in the surroundings for reliable personalities changes to take place. A result of switch to positive personality attributes must happens for reinforcement to be point out as successful. Reinforcements strategies tend to be supported of usage than punishments, Skinner also believe the world can also impacts one individual personality and behaviour from that personality qualities and behaviour is able to be manipulated and designed by the world.
Behavior modification works very well with children and is used on many mental health problems such as addictions, autism, even schizophrenia. Referring to articles on B. F. Skinner on http://www. psychologistanywhereanytime. com, the token market strategy is frequently applied in organizations such as juvenile halls, psychiatric hospitals and prisons. Hence, behaviour adjustment can use to guide individuals with health problems or people who have negative behavior problems to transfer their behavior to positive ones.
According to the records produced from 311 mindset, a reinforce stimulus can lead to an abnormal behaviour where an individual will do it again the behavior through the determination from the stimulus reinforcer, thus, unusual behaviour increases. . For instance, if the child throws toys across the room and was punished by the parent or guardian. Instead of the expected response, the child throws even more toys across the room. Apart from that, generalization is gained if similar responses are reinforced
Counsellors may use techniques such as negative or positive reinforces, shaping, behavioural rehearsal and punishment to help the customers achieve advisable personality traits
Using theories in counselling makes counselling more valid, reliable and professional, . The application of using theories in counselling need to be choose wisely to be able to correctly analyse clients situations and provide ways that is appropriate to resolve clients concerns or issues.