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Three Types Of IN DANGER Behavior Psychology Essay

Content
  1. Introduction (Background and literature review)
  2. Three types of vulnerable behavior:
  3. Aims and Objectives
  4. Short term goals:
  1. Long term goals:
  2. Methods
  3. Study Design:
  4. Sample Size:
  5. Data Collection:
  6. Questionnaire (Likert-type scale predicated on the Complacency Potential Rating Scale)
  7. Please choose among the options the one which resembles closest to your thoughts/feelings in each item.
  8. Q1. I wake up in the morning thinking that I am going to not be able to bring any significant change in my life pattern today.
  9. Q2. I feel paralyzed in the face of fear, struggling to react.
  10. Q3. I am satisfied to live on my life as one minute deviation of yesterday's routine.
  11. Q4. I am okay with being averagely successful in life.
  12. Q5. I am afraid of taking the risk of bringing changes into my life.
  13. Q6. I really do not question my beliefs, principles or ideas.
  14. Q7. Many times, I feel out of energy and passive about completing tasks.
  15. Q8. I am moderately satisfied however, not thrilled or fulfilled with life.
  16. Q9. I am still confused about this is and/or reason for my entire life.
  17. Q. 10 I feel numb and passive when I think about my job.
  18. Q12. Ending up in colleagues are incapable of solving anything or bringing significant changes to improve the workplace.
  19. Q14. Team conversations are totally inwardly focused, only discussing their own skills and successes.
  20. Q16. Personally i think like my past mistakes have proven my capacities and limitations.
  21. Q18. Dentists will be the least prone to error among a hospital staff.
  22. Q19. Patient history is much less important in many general cases which may be solved purely my experience.
  23. Q20. Neglecting small details on my part has lead to errors in my own field.
  24. Research Budget and its own justification
More...

Psychologists agree that "a working mind is the main element to a working body" and this factual statement has lead to many a study conducted in behavioral psychology and attitude studies. In neuro-scientific medicine, the state of mind of the practitioner is an integral factor in how a surgical procedure will grow to be - successful, or unsuccessful. In order for an on-field physician, or in cases like this, a dentist's mind to be focused, this attitude of 'complacency' can't be adopted. The attitude of complacency is potentially harmful to the results of the task, the health of both patient and the dentist and the dentist's validity as a professional practitioner. To be able to justify the necessity to take counter-complacency steps in dentistry, it is vital that we know whether or not complacency is a widespread phenomenon. For us to make such any claims in this regard with authenticity, a study to be done in this matter would be crucial. This research would provide the necessary information by way of a questionnaire data collection method concerning just how many practicing on-field dentists have the attributes of a complacent person and furthermore not only become a part of an overall behavioral study in neuro-scientific dentistry, but also help improve the guidelines how to mentally train future dentists, and so concentrate on what has been long regarded as one of the major causes of errors.

Research Question: Is complacent behavior a frequent attitude adopted by dentists?

Hypothesis (Null): Complacency is not a widespread phenomenon among dentists.

Introduction (Background and literature review)

Wiener (1981) defined complacency as "a psychological state characterized by a low index of suspicion. "

Billings, Lauber, Funkhouser, Lyman, and Huff (1976), in the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) coding manual, defined it as "self-satisfaction, which might lead to non vigilance predicated on an unjustified assumption of satisfactory system state, " in simpler words, a lot of people have their "head in the sand" and ignore what is happening around them, what's changed, what new hazards are there.

Complacency is seen in a number of professional individuals and it's been known to be induce by certain "in danger behaviors", which can be enlisted as:

Three types of vulnerable behavior:

1. Intentional - This is where the employee knows full well that the activities they are really doing aren't safe and that there surely is a substantial amount of risk from the activity. The experience is usually against a policy or procedure. Often this type of activity is supported by a thought called "Positive Reinforcement of a Negative Act". The employee knows both the risks and great things about performing a task vulnerable however the benefits, in his or her mind, outweigh the risks. Now every time they successfully perform the task "in danger" there is a little more "Positive Reinforcement of a Negative Act". A lot more reinforcement the greater they will perform the duty at risk. For instance: a worker may own an assignment that will require the use of a step ladder. The duty requires at least a twelve foot step ladder. The twelve foot step ladder the employee is by using is very heavy and stored definately not the point useful. The employee has found a light fiberglass step ladder stored nearby the point of use but that ladder is merely seven foot tall, however by standing on the top of the ladder, where there is a sign stating "not really a step or no step" he can perform the task required. Using the incorrect ladder has increased the risk of the task but the increased risk does not mean injury is emanate. When he first starts to use the improper ladder he's very aware of the added risk and exercises extra caution. When the positive reinforcement to the negative act is strong enough he'll even share his "success" with others (use this ladder it is quicker and easier) in case not checked this activity soon becomes the new standard and everyone will be doing the experience at risk. Note that even if people are deliberately willing to increase the risk of a situation, hardly any of these are deliberately looking to get hurt. The interesting thing about intentional in danger behavior is that if the intentional risk continues to be accompanied with high awareness and alertness the injuries are infrequent.

2. Unintentional - That's where the employee is unacquainted with the risks. There's a flaw in working out and their personal experience has not yet swept up with the chance. They are simply not aware of the potential risks or the methods they need to use to protect themselves. This is often a case of no training, under training or employee inattention to the training.

3. Habitual - Like the intentional at risk behavior we covered above, the employee knows the potential risks but is doing the activity such a long time that they are no longer as aware of the risks. When the employee inside our example above first began to use the improper ladder he was very aware of the added risk and exercised extra caution but over time the activity has migrated from intentional with a high degree of caution to habitual with limited caution. Once a high risk task moves to habitual complacency has set in.

As an over-all attitude towards any profession, complacency has been studied to be non-beneficial, and some extent, destructive, as complacency sets us up for eyes and mind not on task, which can result in type of fire and balance/traction/grip issues.

1. Eyes not on task - Not taking a look at what we are doing or not looking before we move our hands, feet or body. Without looking we lose the ability to respond to events as they occur and have lost our best defense against injury.

2. Mind not on task - Not taking into consideration the task we have been doing. We are driving on the interstate not thinking about where we could and miss our exit.

3. Being in or getting into the "Line-of-Fire" - Placing ourselves in the type of fire like reaching in to the car while another person shuts the door or the wind blows it shut.

4. Losing our balance traction or grip - Slipping or tripping that triggers us to reduce our balance and fall, or something as easy as losing our grip leading to a fall or dropping something.

In the vast field of medicine, a complacent behavior has shown to lead to a number of critical errors, according to a certain number of studies by many organizations and universities throughout the world. Such for example the "Medication errors, routine and differences between peri-operative and non peri-operative nurses" study done by Kennesaw State University, G. A, U. S. A in September 2012, which proved a major reason behind incidences of peri-operative medication errors is complacency. Similarly, the research by the University of Aviero, Portugal - "Attitudes of Portuguese medical researchers toward adverse drug reaction reporting" - indicates that complacency was a major attitude flaw of health professionals while reporting dangerous side effects or allergies of drugs, and so data collected by the self incident reports went underreported.

It is safely assumable that this widespread attitude in addition has affected dentists, and could very well be a cause of errors committed in dentist, as it was a reason behind the already above mentioned error cases. These errors in clinical practice may include errors like sinus perforations, broken dental roots, misdiagnosis, mistreatment planning etc. However, little has been done to determine if this attitude is adopted in a substantial amount by dentists, and to what extent it is present. Without knowing whether or not this flawed attitude is adopted by dentists on a significant scale, it would be practically useless to recommend counter-complacency steps. Complacency can be detected and if it is became a widespread phenomenon, essential steps can be studied to enhance the behavioral outlook of dentists such as those that have been taken by professionals in other fields, like surgery, pharmacy, nursing, law enforcement and aviation. Therefore, for any further research to be conducted on this matter, the amount to which dentists demonstrate complacency must be determined and so the purpose of this research is always to conduct a survey among dentists, (House Officers as well as Postgraduates) to bring to light precisely how frequent complacent behavior is espoused by dentists.

Aims and Objectives

As explained in the last section, complacency hinders a professional's ability to operate therefore it's vital that if professionals in a certain field are susceptible to this behavior it be detected immediately so that further steps can be taken against such an attitude.

On a brief term, this research would determine the presence of complacency in dentistry as an overall process of an extended study to eliminate complacent behavior in dentistry.

Short term goals:

Presence of complacent behavior among dentists (if proven) highlights a dependence on active steps to be taken against complacency.

A major cause of errors being committed may be identified.

A non-complacent part of dentists used will be confirmed for even more statistical and research value.

It will emphasize the need of adopting a good attitude by becoming more professionally involved at work by reading up-to-date materials to level up one's own knowledge.

If complacency is shown to be present, this research will raise alertness especially among those who are unaware of their own complacent behavior.

It will encourage constructive criticism of past practices by striving for the perfect way to do things.

Complacent behavior that triggers small details to be neglected will be brought to light and so these issues will not go ignored.

Long term goals:

This research will provide a standard insight to behavioral studies among dentists and aid future researchers on this topic.

It may open a fresh dependence on behavioral training of dentists and also possibly present a need for mentally preparing dentists in the areas of foresight regarding unforeseen incidents.

Keeping up to date with the situations and surroundings and all the related incidents and reports can provide you a concept on how to avoid future mistakes.

If complacency is detected, an overall dependence on the mental and physical preparation of dentists is necessary in order that they build up the required endurance to protect themselves against stress/fatigue induced complacency.

Methods

For studying the existence of complacency, a complex attitude, in a certain individual, conservative ways of measurement by observation, administrative records and interviews will be inconclusive.

Observational studies are designed to observe an organization of individuals from a particular point in time and report on what happens to them, which method is not capable of reading an individual's attitudes accurately and may miss everything together, unless one is a trained psychiatrist, which adds an additional component to the study.

Dentists unacquainted with their own complacent behavior may struggle to report it to administration, even though their errors can be put to record. However, their overall issue of complacency will go undetected.

Study Design:

Based on the null hypothesis, the technique chosen for this study is dependant on the Complacency Potential Rating Scale (CPRS) developed to detect automation-induced complacency provided by the National Aeronautic Space Agency of the U. S. This survey method uses a rating scale which really is a Likert-type scale consisting of 20 items, including 4 filler items. Each item has a scale which range from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). The range of scores on the CPRS may differ from 16 (low complacency potential) to 80 (high complacency potential). Out of these statements and their forms, sixteen (16) are complacent related items and four (4) of them are "bogus fillers" used as a check on the readers' consistency in taking items conscientiously. The response score is calculated by adding the score of all items except for the bogus fillers. Therefore, the minimum score could be the perfect non-complacent response of a total of sixteen (16) points, whereas a perfect complacent response would be of a complete of eighty (80) points. Whereas they would progress from 1-5 through options of Strongly disagree, Disagree, Neither disagree nor agree, Agree and Strongly agree.

Sample Size:

For the CPRS to give a validated response, some 139 subjects and/or several small groups may be studied into study. The subjects must be active clinical practitioners of dentistry including House Officers and other Postgraduates, so the frequency of on-field complacency by dentists who deal with hundreds of patients can be detected.

Data Collection:

To collect the info from the subjects, a questionnaire is passed out to individuals and they are assured that their responses will be kept anonymous and are only for the sake of a scientific research without intention of public display or commercial advertising. The questionnaire predicated on the CPRS system is given below.

Questionnaire (Likert-type scale predicated on the Complacency Potential Rating Scale)

Please choose among the options the one which resembles closest to your thoughts/feelings in each item.

Q1. I wake up in the morning thinking that I am going to not be able to bring any significant change in my life pattern today.

Strongly Disagree (If selected, add 1)

Disagree (If selected, add 2)

Neither disagree nor agree (If selected, add 3)

Agree (If selected, add 4)

Strongly agree (If selected, add 5)

Q2. I feel paralyzed in the face of fear, struggling to react.

Strongly Disagree (If selected, add 1)

Disagree (If selected, add 2)

Neither disagree nor agree (If selected, add 3)

Agree (If selected, add 4)

Strongly agree (If selected, add 5)

Q3. I am satisfied to live on my life as one minute deviation of yesterday's routine.

Strongly Disagree (If selected, add 1)

Disagree (If selected, add 2)

Neither disagree nor agree (If selected, add 3)

Agree (If selected, add 4)

Strongly agree (If selected, add 5)

Q4. I am okay with being averagely successful in life.

Strongly Disagree (If selected, add 1)

Disagree (If selected, add 2)

Neither disagree nor agree (If selected, add 3)

Agree (If selected, add 4)

Strongly agree (If selected, add 5)

Q5. I am afraid of taking the risk of bringing changes into my life.

Strongly Disagree (If selected, add 1)

Disagree (If selected, add 2)

Neither disagree nor agree (If selected, add 3)

Agree (If selected, add 4)

Strongly agree (If selected, add 5)

Q6. I really do not question my beliefs, principles or ideas.

Strongly Disagree (If selected, add 1)

Disagree (If selected, add 2)

Neither disagree nor agree (If selected, add 3)

Agree (If selected, add 4)

Strongly agree (If selected, add 5)

Q7. Many times, I feel out of energy and passive about completing tasks.

Strongly Disagree (If selected, add 1)

Disagree (If selected, add 2)

Neither disagree nor agree (If selected, add 3)

Agree (If selected, add 4)

Strongly agree (If selected, add 5)

Q8. I am moderately satisfied however, not thrilled or fulfilled with life.

Strongly Disagree (If selected, add 1)

Disagree (If selected, add 2)

Neither disagree nor agree (If selected, add 3)

Agree (If selected, add 4)

Strongly agree (If selected, add 5)

Q9. I am still confused about this is and/or reason for my entire life.

Strongly Disagree (If selected, add 1)

Disagree (If selected, add 2)

Neither disagree nor agree (If selected, add 3)

Agree (If selected, add 4)

Strongly agree (If selected, add 5)

Q. 10 I feel numb and passive when I think about my job.

Strongly Disagree (If selected, add 1)

Disagree (If selected, add 2)

Neither disagree nor agree (If selected, add 3)

Agree (If selected, add 4)

Strongly agree (If selected, add 5)

Q. 11. I believe dentists can't ever be as successful as other doctors. (Bogus filler, no addition)

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither disagree nor agree

Agree

Strongly agree

Q12. Ending up in colleagues are incapable of solving anything or bringing significant changes to improve the workplace.

Strongly Disagree (If selected, add 1)

Disagree (If selected, add 2)

Neither disagree nor agree (If selected, add 3)

Agree (If selected, add 4)

Strongly agree (If selected, add 5)

Q13. My colleagues are incompetent people. (Bogus filler, no addition)

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither disagree nor agree

Agree Strongly agree

Q14. Team conversations are totally inwardly focused, only discussing their own skills and successes.

Strongly Disagree (If selected, add 1)

Disagree (If selected, add 2)

Neither disagree nor agree (If selected, add 3)

Agree (If selected, add 4)

Strongly agree (If selected, add 5)

Q15. My participation in team conversations is minimal. (Bogus filler, no addition)

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither disagree nor agree

Agree Strongly agree

Q16. Personally i think like my past mistakes have proven my capacities and limitations.

Strongly Disagree (If selected, add 1)

Disagree (If selected, add 2)

Neither disagree nor agree (If selected, add 3)

Agree (If selected, add 4)

Strongly agree (If selected, add 5)

Q17. I need to focus on my bedside manner while communicating with patients. (Bogus filler, no addition)

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neither disagree nor agree

Agree Strongly agree

Q18. Dentists will be the least prone to error among a hospital staff.

Strongly Disagree (If selected, add 1)

Disagree (If selected, add 2)

Neither disagree nor agree (If selected, add 3)

Agree (If selected, add 4)

Strongly agree (If selected, add 5)

Q19. Patient history is much less important in many general cases which may be solved purely my experience.

Strongly Disagree (If selected, add 1)

Disagree (If selected, add 2)

Neither disagree nor agree (If selected, add 3)

Agree (If selected, add 4)

Strongly agree (If selected, add 5)

Q20. Neglecting small details on my part has lead to errors in my own field.

Strongly Disagree (If selected, add 1)

Disagree (If selected, add 2)

Neither disagree nor agree (If selected, add 3)

Agree (If selected, add 4)

Strongly agree (If selected, add 5)

Research Budget and its own justification

This research will be funded by the city Dentistry Department or the Department of Dental Public Health of Islamic International Dental College and supervised by the head of the department, Dr. Muhammad Hamza Bin Saeed (Assistant Professor at Riphah University). This research has been conducted so to gain an improved insight into the overall behavioral studies of dentists.

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