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Types Of Forward Error Correction

Error correcting codes are essential in protecting sent data. With this paper we add the forward error modification (FECs) about the backdrop than it -- INTRODUCTION, that they works, clarify the ideas of forward error correcting codes (FECs) - Key points of FECs. And we also create different types of FECs and exactly how they work in internet and cordless communications - TYPES of FECs.

Index Terms-forward error correction (FECs), Problem Modification Code, internet, cordless.


Forward Error Modification code is a data code which can be used in problem control for data transmitting. In FEC which using FECs, the recipient not only can catch transmission error, but also determine where the error happened by binary mark and right it.

Different from ARQ, FEC is put on the relatively costly retransmissions. What's more, in order to recover corrupted data, FEC information is usually added to mass safe-keeping devices. The advantage of forward error modification is that retransmission of data can frequently be averted. Digital communication systems also use FEC to least SNR. If the channel errors have a tendency to arise in bursts, FEC coded data can decrease the all or nothing properties of transmitted FEC codes. [1] But this edge is dependant on the price of higher bandwidth requirements normally, which means that FEC is applied in situations where retransmissions are relatively expensive or impossible.

2 Rules of FECs

Forward error correction code (FECs) is a data codes which can be used in FEC system for data transmission. Because of the FECs, the sender increases its information by utilizing a predetermined algorithm, the recipient can discover and correct problems without asking the sender for added data. Not absolutely all the errors can be corrected by the same design of the code, thus, various conditions need different FEC codes to complement. Furthermore, many FEC algorithms may take analog data in, and put digital data out.

There are two basic ways to code, linear block code and circuit code. However they reveal the similar concept.

When we send k bits night out and use linear stop codes to correct it, the transmitting system will reconstruct n parts code expression by multiplied n*k generator matrix such that we can tolerate k-n deficits. So when then receiver receive the n parts code term, and multiplied the n parts code by HT matrix - n*(n-k) matrix made up by the machine matrix and arbitrary matrix. It'll control the mistake and rectify the mistake utilizing the consequence of the last multiplied. Last, the decoder will reconstruct the night out - like the picture.

To check large data we are in need of plenty of work. And consider about the strength and exactness, the linear block codes aren't easy to execute in hardware.

The cycle rules are better to apply than linear stop code by using transfer registers. The sender multiplies the info by order of generator polynomial P(x) to produce code expression. And in receiver, it divides receive code by P(x) to get the syndrome and find where the problem is. Then the decoder will reconstruct the day.


Block rules and Convolution codes

The two main types of FECs are stop rules and convolution rules. In such a section, we will discuss the several bound of each of them and compare those advantages and drawback.

Block codes focus on fixed duration blocks of parts or symbols of predetermined size. It encode the info by multiple a complicated matrix and in device, the decoder will reconstruct the data and appropriate the errors. You will find various kinds of block codes such as BCH rules and Hamming rules.

Convolution codes focus on bit or image streams, which have arbitrary length. Generally, they are simply decoded with the Viterbi algorithm. While increasing constraint length of the convolution code, it allows asymptotically best decoding efficiency, it's still at the trouble of exponentially increasing intricacy. [2] It encodes k parts information into n pieces icons. Because k and n is small, it is easy to transmission. Different from Block code, the n parts code work not only be based upon the k bits time frame, but also rely upon the forward symbols. Convolution codes are being used in various applications such as digital video recording, radio, mobile communication, and dish communication. It is high speed and efficient.

In another expression, we can choose which types FECs can be used inside our system by we need. But Reed-Solomon coding (RS) is the most widely used because it odd ability in problem control. Now we introduce some types of FECs.


Cyclic Redundancy Check is the most important of linear group codes and the most commonly used error looking at code. Its information field and check the space of the field can be arbitrarily picked. A CRC is created by time and check code. The senders code the source data and send the check code behind the info. Plus the receivers yet code the data via the same way and compare the check code with the result. The advantage of CRC is that it is easy to use in computer and digital components because it is produced by binary code. However the codes' span is large and it takes more unwanted time and stations.

An exemplory case of using CRC code is the FPGAs (Field-Programmable Gate Array). During device operation, it can make continual confirmation of the CRAM material possible by using hard CRC checker. The CRC is guaranteed to identify multi-bit problems. Integrating CRC circuitry on-chip in hard gates has many benefits, for example, the circuitry is capable of performing without inability under an array of conditions and not susceptible to very soft problems. Furthermore, the CRC circuit is a self-contained block and is enabled simply. [3]

BCH code and R-S code:

BCH code can check and appropriate multiple random problems in model multi-level, pattern, error correction, variable-length digital code. It is a non-binary rules.

Reed-Solomon is encompassed from BCH. It really is consisting of n symbols, and each one of the symbols is m bits long. [4] After coding, it adds t check symbols to the data, and the decoder can use an R-S code to discover any errors as high as t icons, and correct up to t/2 problems. It is more complex then simple of CRC and has strong problem correction ability. It really is trusted in mass data storage area system such as Dvd and blu-ray, e-Reader and some game systems to improve the burst mistakes. And the R-S code also can be use to conquer the unreliable condition of data transmissions. A credit card applicatoin of R-S codes was to correct the data sent back by Voyager. It really is significant that R-S code is utilized in satellite transmitting. Because R-S code benefits much bandwidth need to world wide web transition, so we can't put it to use in internet.

Turbo Code:

Turbo codes result from serial concatenated rules which based on an external Reed-Solomon error modification code. Turbo Codes are well- performance FECs, which is the first practical code to carefully approach the channel capacity. They combine a variety of means of encoding and decoding. The encoders reconstruct the data into three parts -one m pieces data and two n/2 bits code. And in recipient, two interconnected decoders are used to avoid mistake bursts.

There are two different type of Turbo Code -- Turbo Convolution Code (TCC) and Block Turbo Code (BTC) [5]. You are bottom on Convolution code and the other is Block code.

The Turbo Convolution Code has higher correction ability than BTC which is widely used in cellular communication while Block Turbo Code shows better performance at high code rate and suits for optical communication systems.

4. FECs in Mobile and INTERNET

FECs in wireless

High-speed media data transmission is vulnerable to burst errors generally because of the structure. The quality of service (QoS) of a wireless network is largely dependent on the link stability and supply and the mistake probability. FECs lessen the effects of multipart fading to enhance the QoS with the addition of check code in the transmitted data.

And in all kinks of FECs, the R-S code gets the most strong problem correction capacity. And R-S codes are effective in reducing the irrecoverable system problems which are aroused by burst errors in high speed data traffic and minimizing the bit problem rate [6]. Because of this, the wireless hyperlink is higher supply and E/N is dropped. So both in industry wireless online and wireless transmitting, it is at widespread. And now in BWA, an R-S (204, 188) has been submit. It can diffuse a number of errors in a single indicate some small problem. And the problem will been corrected in decoder.

FECs in internet

FECs is applied in internet is a fresh development research problem in lately decennium. In internet, FECs adapt to complete more address transmitting. First, people take into account the R-S code because it trustworthiness. And R-S code is simple to be decoded. But R-S code needs a complex math procedure. In long data transmission, it will require too long time and it may tribute network traffic jam by using R-S code. So R-S code simply using in short period date transmission. And today most use the Tornado code in internet.

Tornado code is a Low-density parity rules and produced in a kind of non-formula picture. Spielman supply the Expander code in 1995 on the base of Low-density parity rules. [7] And in 1998, Byers J W, and Luby M put out the Tornado code on the bottom from it. [8] Tornado code can be coded in a linearity time. And it has a quickly disperse swiftness than R-S code. This is actually the structure of Tornado code.

By using FECs, the rate of transmitting in internet will be lowered with less retransmission. And FECs also can avoid the blocking and ensuring internet reliability when we transfer data in internet.

Comparing the use of FECs between in internet and wireless, we can get the conclusion. The cellular need higher QoS and provides more bandwidth to transfer data. So we use R-S code or Turbo Convolution Code to improve the option of links to get high QoS. While in internet, R-S code will need more time in encoding and decoding and in internet retransmit isn't cost a lot so we use Tornado instead or just use ARQ only.

5. Final result and REFLECTION

As FEC uses unwanted information to find the problems and perfect them without further communication with the sender, it is generally effective when there's a high degree of corre- lation in the error.

We can easily see that there are many advantages of FEC: it sometimes has no feedback route necessary; it includes long delay way; it is one-way transmission; it is useful for multi- cast, etc. Despite of the, FEC also fits some problems: it needs high bandwidth, thus it is computationally expensive; it needs over-transmission, etc. Therefore, FEC is not thoroughly used at the packet level.

So within the next step, we need build new protocol and revise our modern FECs to get higher QoS and speed of encoding and decoding such as Tornado code and RS (204, 188). And we also have to revise our FEC to get new way to create FECs.


After this task, we have a further step in learning FECs. We become a lot more clearly about the different types of FECs, including their strengths and weaknesses and exactly how they work. At first, we just surfed on the internet and accumulated any useful information about FECs we're able to find. Nevertheless, we found that the resources were limited and decentralized. In order to explain the fundamental of FECs plainly, we borrowed some books from library and then solved the problems we attained. Although the process of doing research and selecting useful information is simple and monotonous, we gain a great deal from it. We not only learn about the knowledge, but also received some researching experience.

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