The field of psychology has vast areas of interest, and Human being growth and development is one of the very most popular issues being studied by social employees today. The purpose of this statement is to show how essential it is good for a trainee cultural worker to realize a firm knowledge of human development and development, and finally achieve a foundation of knowledge in this area. This article will show that, with practice, preparation, assessment, reflection and finally application, this basis of knowledge can be effectively used in positive intervention methods. (Crawford 2006)
There have been many great theorists over the years, most of who got different ideas on individuals development and development. This statement will highlight and discuss 3 ideas based on the task of Erikson, Bowlby and Bronfenbrenner. Furthermore, the article will also toss light on the professionals and cons of these theories, identifying and talking about potential conditions that may arise from failing to mature, as defined in each theory.
Finally, the survey will identify the role of social workers with regards to their intervention with a customer or family.
The outcome of this report is a sum-up of the key identifying points of each of the 3 theories. Using practical illustrations, the report will explore the consequences of the ideas and outcomes which could arise from failing to mature.
The practical instances used will help, guide and form the debate by highlighting the life span of the average person issues or problems, and will provide an underpinning reason for using each of the theories. Each theory chosen in this report is taken from a different self-control of social knowledge; psychodynamic, sociological and psychosocial. These three disciplines all have another type of emphasis, but structured in all of them is the core principle of deciding what could impact life course development.
The first theory outlined in this article is Bowlby's 'attachment theory'. This theory fundamentally views the initial bonds made between children and their caregivers as a key factor in individual progress and development, having an huge impact on progression and continuing throughout life.
This theory will be reviewed, using communal work instances with infants. You will see a conclusion of the way the theory is vastly very important to attaining a firm understanding of the foundational interactions babies build for a wholesome development.
The second theory mentioned in this article is Bronfenbrenner's 'theory of ecological development'. Bronfenbrenner's theory details the affects of further environmental factors on children, and their positive or negative development.
For this theory, public work good examples will be chosen from elderly adults to be able to help attain an understanding of how environmental factors, at micro and macro levels, can impact social workers with regards to the stages of development.
The last theory reviewed in this report is Erik Erikson's 'model of life level development'. This theory addresses personality as an individual moves through the levels of life, and how they negotiate crisis points in a successful or unsuccessful progression, this effecting healthy development.
For this theory, types of middle-later levels of life will be reviewed, and how development through the life stages can efficiently or unsuccessfully result in a healthy or unhealthy development of the individual.
So, what can human progress and development be motivated as? Before we discuss in depth the main ideas, it would be appropriate to give a classification of human progress and development, and spotlight why it is so fundamentally important for communal workers to have a firm understanding of the various theories.
According to Baltes cited in Crawford (date), individual development is multi-dimensional; it is made up of natural, cognitive and public dimensions. Physically, from the moment we live conceived till the moment we die, we live developing biologically. Our anatomies are consistently moving from one biological change to some other. Subsequently, the progress of the intellectual and interpersonal development comes. This starts from very early stages in the course of life and remains across the course of each life. (Thompson)
Both Freud and Erikson agree that every individual exists with lots of basic instincts, that development occurs through stages, and that the order of the stages is influenced by natural and sociological maturation (Sigelman, and Shaffer 1992).
The Requirements for Sociable Work Training state that all public work programmes must: "Make sure that the teaching of theoretical knowledge, skills and values is dependant on their application to apply. " (Division of Health 2002)
Theorists, such as Bowlby, Bronbenfrener and Erikson, have different perspectives on life span development phases and the individual's evolved behavior as a result or a reply to developmental milestones crises. These ideas are rooted in the disciplines of sociology, biology and psychology. Each theory provides an explanation, in line with development, for arising problems and issues that folks face and are all relevant to a knowledge of the life span course development. (Thompson)
Social work practitioners have to have a variety of knowledge from a course of theoretical disciplines to ensure that aspects of a person's make-up are considered and appreciated whenever using them. (Crawford and walker) Using theory can give an explanation as to why an action led to a particular result. This can help us review and perhaps change our practice so that they can make the consequences more effective. (Beckett)
Developmental theory provides a framework for buying the lifecycle and accounts. For factors that may shape development at specific levels. It talks about the multiple. Bio-psycho-social factors impacting development, explores the responsibilities to be completed. At each level and considers successes and failures in light of other levels. Developmental theories also try to recognise individual dissimilarities in development. Journal
The span of life differs for each specific, and is influenced by the events and experiences that people proceed through throughout their lives. (Crawford and Walker, 2003) Understanding the impact of transitions within someone's span of life is very important to interpersonal work practice, as it assists the social worker in attaining a company understanding of other people's lives, so they can effectively intervene with appropriate measures. Using theory can help justify activities and explain practice to service users, carers and contemporary society in general. Desire to is for this to lead to social work becoming more widely accountable and finally more respected. (Beckett )
The use of ideas in cultural work practice underpins how interpersonal workers plan their tasks. As social individuals, we have to recognise the opportunities to utilize people through transitions as an opportunity to grow. We have to try to permit people to use these occasions to activate change, proceed and develop. (Crawford) When a social worker works together with a person, utilising theories which might relate to a particular situation, will give us more course in our work. It really is clear then that theory is important in practice - both for use service users and for sociable work to be more valued in contemporary society. (Beckett)
After this is of human progress and development and the brief discussion of why a theory is important in communal work practice, this statement will now discuss the connection theory and can explain why it could be positively used in methodology and effectively in practice. 4
So, what is the 'attachment theory'? To start with, let's define the word attachment; this means a strong mental bond between two different people.
Forming an attachment is based on a two-way discussion. The behaviours from a child, such as crying, achieving, grasping and making eye contact, and the response of the caregiver both work as a reciprocal process to build up and strengthen connection. (Woods) Relating to (Crawford), children use the folks they are mounted on as a safe base to explore, a source of comfort and a source of encouragement and assistance.
According to (Fahlberg, 1991, cited in Howe), connection products children in attaining their full intellectual probable, types out what children perceives, assists them in rational thinking, helps them develop a conscience, educates them to become more self-reliant, assists them in dealing with stress and frustration, helps them take care of fear and be concerned, assists them in producing future human relationships and helps reduce jealousy.
In 1953, a psychoanalyst called John Bowlby wrote the reserve Child Health care and the Expansion of Love. In this particular book, Bowlby put forward his theory that the relationship between a mother and her child, during the child's first season, is of essential importance and can greatly affect the development of the child in later life.
This theory is recognized as the attachment theory, and it is still being utilized and mentioned today, although it has been changed and adapted to suit the modern day financial environment and the change in the family device within the last 50+ years. (Jeremy Holmes, 1993)
Bowlby thinks that attachment commences at infancy and advances throughout a person's life, and that there are many distinctive behavioural control systems necessary for continued life and proliferation. The connection and exploration systems are the main central items in Bowlby's connection theory. (Elliot & Reis, 2003)
(Crawford) Bowlby's "Maternal deprivation Hypostasis", the forerunner of the attachment theory, believes that if a child was struggling to develop a warm, personal and continuous romantic relationship along with his or her mother or permanent mother substitute, then the child would have difficulty forming interactions with other people, and would be at the risk of behavioural disorders. Bowlby says: "Mother's love in infancy and youth is as important for mental health as supplements and protein are for physical health. " (Cardwell)
(Bowlby 1988) continues on to state that without a secure platform of first attachment relationships, children will never be able to manage separations of normal life. For Bowlby, the impact of prolonged separation on children can be regarded as maternal deprivation. Bowlby describes this being the temporary or everlasting damage to children of these mothers' care and attention. Bowlby believes that continuous separation of children from their mothers, especially during the first five years of their lives, is a significant reason behind delinquent behaviours and mental medical issues. (Crawford)
Mary Ainsworth developed a method, whereby a child's behavior is seen when reunited with his or her mom after a brief separation. That is known as the 'strange situation', and it has become widely used to determine whether the connection was secure or insecure. Ainsworth's peculiar situation is employed to evaluate Bowlby's hypotheses that early on relationship experiences affect later adult functioning. The peculiar situation procedure consists of eight three-minute shows that contain been arranged so as to create increasing levels of stress for a kid that will switch on connection behaviours that experts can then observe.
The resulting behavior was used to classify the kid into one of three categories. These categories are insecure avoidant connection, secure attachment and insecure protected attachment. Securely attached children could actually balance their need to explore the surroundings with their dependence on comfort and support from their caregiver in relation to their feelings of stress. Insecure avoidant fastened children, when stressed, extended to explore the environment, showing minimal dependence on comfort and support. The kids who were labeled as having insecure resistant parts stop their exploration and return to their treatment giver show the maximum amount of attachment behaviours. Main (1991) has since identified a fourth category that of the disorganised/ disorientated child. (Cardwell)
According to Bowlby a central tenet of attachment is the fact that:
People developmental representations,
Or internal working models, that
Consist of goals about the self, significant
Others and the relationship between your two. (Bowlby, 1969, 1973)
The main criticism of Bowlby's connection theory came from J. R. Harris. It is assumed that hard working, kind, genuine and well-respected parents will have children who will grow to be like them. Alternatively, in the case of parents who are bad role models, rude, and disrespectful, the kids will conclude the same when they become individuals. Relating to Harris, this may be far from the truth.
Harris (2008), feels that a parent does not determine a child's personality or figure, and a child's external communal factors have significantly more influence than anything else. Among this taken from Harris is a kid from an immigrant family. But the parents may well pick up a new language, they will still have an accent using their company native language. The kid, on the other palm, will learn the new terminology, and can speak it lacking any accent. Children are more influenced by their peers than their parents. (Harris, 1998).
Criticisms were also levelled at Bowlby's ideas because of his ideas that he concluded from work he previously performed with juvenile delinquents who was simply separated early on in their lives of their moms. The criticism is that the ideas are unrepresentative of the overall population, and involved too small a sample.
It was also argued that not all maternally deprived children became juvenile delinquents. But in arrangement with Bowlby, Stroufe (1979) explained: "We cannot assume that early on activities will somehow be terminated out by later activities. Lasting effects of early inadequate activities may be understated and intricate. " (Cardwell)
Research shows that, contrary to Bowlby's notion of monotropy (one major caregiver), children can develop more than one significant attachment, and these do not need to be towards the biological parents, and can be of either sex, although there is often a particular hierarchy. An infant's connection to his or her father is really as strong as the mother's in the first few days of life. Then your attachment changes as a result of different timeframe available for the parents to connect to the newborn, given the work commitments. Both the mother and the father are important attachment figures because of their infants, however the circumstances that lead to selecting the mom or the father may differ. For instance, the father is usually picked for participating in. (Schaffer & Emerson 1964)
According to Parke (1981), "Both the mother and the daddy are important connection figures, the father is not just a poor substitute for the mother. " (Cardwell)
When considering how attachment theory is put on cultural work practice, Coulshed (1988) proposed that "psychology has been useful in the amount to which you are able to apply some of the theories, if you are prepared to see theoretical contributions as ways of enriching your thinking and understanding. You are going to gain a broad platform of information through which you will recognise the complexities and possible factors behind human hurting. "
The connection theory provides a valuable model in understanding associations of families in need and promoting new and healthy parts (Daniel et al 1999). The attachment theory has had an impact on many areas relating to how children are cared for, like the legal construction it functions under and exactly how services for children are suffering from. Some of the areas, where clear links can be made to apply being underpinned by the connection theory has effected changes, are;
When negotiating contact between children and their own families it is performed from a child centre perspective alternatively from the men and women involved. This might include having closer links with grandparents, relatives and some other persons who the kid considers significantly important to them. (Howe)
Attachment theories underpin the regulations that are relevant to the introduction of children in public health care, and form the foundation for examining their needs, such as pre-placement and post-placement support systems. The consequences of separation and reduction that children have observed can be studied into consideration when examining their needs. (O'loughlin)
Social Work as an occupation can promote the needs of children through influencing insurance plan and practice e. g. acknowledgement that delays in placing children may be harmful with their wellbeing should ensure that the adoption and fostering processes is often as speedy and reliable as possible. Similarly, it is clear from research that children are adversely afflicted by the loss of familiar peers. Children who maintain friendships over time are seen to possess greater interpersonal skills and better communal adjustment. This will also be marketed. (Aldegate et al)
The connection theory has allowed optimism to build up towards looking after children, as a less distorted and baffled picture of child development has surfaced. It really is now apparent that a healthy development may appear in many different family environments. There are several 'right' ways of reaching children's needs. (O'Loughlin)
The second theory talked about in this article comes from the willpower of sociology. Sociological theoretical perspectives describe individuals development by evaluating the relationships between people and the culture where they live. Sociologist theorists research this by looking at influencing factors at different levels of society. (Crawford)
Unlike other disciplines of human being development theories where service user's problems are conceptualized on specific conditions, sociological perspectives on human being development seek to gain a full understanding by locating the person's problems within his or her activities in a broader picture of public and historical circumstances. Quite simply, rather than directly focusing on the condition and the person's inability to deal, the situation would be evaluated in terms of the impact of the economical and politics conditions of the day. (Cunningham and Cunningham).
One theorist whose theory has being especially influential in the study of individual development is Uri Bronfenbrenner 1917 - 2005.
Bronfenbrenner developed a theory to make clear how everything in a child and the child's environment impacts how a child grows up and evolves. His theory is recognized as the ecological systems theory, and it approaches a child's development by looking at different levels of conversation, from family, local communities and institutions to monetary and politics conditions that are all influential to the introduction of the individual in his / her course of life. He uses the terms Microsystems, exosystem and macrosystem. He suggests that there's a reciprocal process of interaction, for the reason that the child is both inspired by and influences his / her environment at each of the levels. (Crawford)
The ecological environment is thought of as:
"Nested buildings encircled within and inside the other just like a group of Russian dolls. You start with the most inside to the exterior, these networks are referred to as micro systems, meso systems and macro systems" (Brunfenbrenner, 1994).
The work of Bronfenbrenner has been particularly influential in social work practice which is the model that underpins the framework for the assessment of children in need and their families (office of health, 2000 cited in Crawford). The idea also encourages sociable workers to grasp the idea and knowledge of the sociological creativity, and develop this in relation to service users' own lives and practice. As communal work intervenes at the tips where people connect to their environments (NOSS), this process, therefore, helps social employees to locate service users within an understanding of the bigger picture that underlies their lives. (NOSS)
Applying an ecological way can be best understood as looking at persons, families, cultures, communities and guidelines, and discovering and intervening upon talents and weaknesses in the transactional techniques between these systems. A practical example of this used would be the use of the ecological perspective when undertaking assessment and then for planning intervention for older adults in the community. Although it is theoretical, it's very practical, as it offers some sort of a map to guide us through very confusing surfaces Stevenson 1998 cited in aldegate)
The society of the united kingdom is ageing. Over the last 25 years, the ratio of the population aged 65 and over increased from 15 per cent in 1984 to 16 per cent in 2009 2009, a rise of just one 1. 7 million people. (Gov statistics)
Elderly individuals are vulnerable and looking for sociable services because they often live alone, and can be at the mercy of numerous health problems, such as complications in functional capability.
As senior parents experience an elevated need for attention, it is predicted that, oftentimes, family caregivers will start to truly have a higher level of physical, mental and financial burden. All of these issues combined warrant a rise in research related to interacting with the needs of older people and their own families surviving in our neighborhoods (Crawford).
EST is a perfect approach for examining the needs of seniors adults surviving in communities. Given the speedily increasing numbers of baby boomers attaining retirement and starting to require expanded support, it's important for communities and families to handle the best fit for the mature adult later in life. EST addresses the micro, meso and macro systems that are an expansion of the average person, and works to obtain resources in order to improve support and grow networks essential to maintain good standard of living for senior men and women. (Journal)
The ecological point of view analyzes how well the average person or family works with using their environment, and is dependant on the assumption that when a person or group is linked and engaged inside a supportive environment, functioning improves. In order to determine the best fit, usually for a person, there is an study of the difference between the amount of interpersonal support needed by the person and the amount of cultural support available in the prevailing environment. Once this evaluation has taken place, the social staff member engages with the individual and works together with him or her to offer the support needed. One unique feature of the ecological model is its recognized concept of individuals development within an environmental perspective. (Bekett)
Social work practice comes with an overarching meta-paradigm that stresses the individual in the environment. This meta-paradigm is associated with an ecological systems point of view as a target of attention. EST works with with this belief system and helps support a theoretical strategy for practice at the micro, meso and macro levels with individuals, families and communities.
Social workers need to be aware of the way the changing needs of individuals will have an effect on psychosocial and psychological factors for older people individuals and their family caregivers. Examples of such issues include physical location of family when the mature adult is looking for attention, role reversal when there's a move in the family system and a parent becomes more centered upon a grown-up child, and the anticipated grief and bereavement as spouses and adult children look after elderly family members over a protracted time frame.
The last theory of conversation is Erick Erikson's eight periods of man. Erikson's theory is an extension and adjustment to Freud's psychoanalytical theory on describing the introduction of the personality through childhood phases of psychosexual development. Erikson, however, offers a more comprehensive construction for human lifespan through a series of genetically influenced series of psychosocial periods. "The term psychosocial describes a strategy that considers the impact of both individual mindset and the communal context of people's lives on their individual development. "(Crawford) Each stage involves a battle between contradictory resultant personalities, and each stage has either adaptive or maladaptive qualities. To develop into a healthy, mature adult, the adaptive must outweigh the maladaptive. (Richard Gross, 2005). In other words, he suggests that people confront some developmental problems or conflicts, each occurring at particular and predictable times or stages in their lives.
One of the main components of Erikson's psychosocial stage theory is the development of ego identity. Ego personality is the conscious sense of do it yourself that we develop through interpersonal interaction. Corresponding to Erikson, our ego individuality is constantly changing due to new experience and information we acquire inside our daily interactions with others. In addition to ego identification (Price), Erikson believes that a sense of competence also motivates behaviours and activities. Each level in Erikson's theory can be involved with becoming qualified in an region of life. When the stage is dealt with well, the individual will feel a feeling of mastery, which he sometimes refers to as ego durability or ego quality. In the event the stage is supervised poorly, the individual will emerge with a sense of inadequacy. (Estimate)
In each stage, Erikson feels people experience a turmoil that serves as a turning point in development. In Erikson's view, these conflicts are centred on either creating a subconscious quality or failing woefully to develop that quality. Of these times, the prospect of personal progress is high, but so is the prospect of failure.
Erikson's eight life periods:
1. Basic trust versus mistrust
2. Self-control versus shame and doubt
3. Initiative versus guilt
4. Competence versus inferiority
5. Individuality versus role confusion
6. Intimacy versus isolation
7. Generativity versus stagnation
8. Ego-integrity versus despair
Erikson suggests that whereas the outcome of moving by using a life level is unfavourable, the individual will find it more difficult to meet up with the trials of another level. Erikson further shows that if individuals neglect to develop through a stage, they could go back to unsettled earlier tips in their lives. (Crawford)
Stage five is commonly associated with adolescence Erickson 1995 accepted this as the critical problems of adolescence in the eight stages of development - personal information versus role confusion. He is convinced a successful transition through child years would lead to a intensifying success to resolve this level (Crawford). Erikson considers the fifth level, that of adolescence, in the developmental process to be of particular importance. He considers that by the finish of this period of psychosocial moratorium, adolescents should have achieved ego identity, that is the integration of their own 'self applied' perceptions to their core identification which is both emotional and interpersonal. But he records that some young people experience difficulty or think it is impossible to commit themselves to adult jobs, thus characterizing this as an interval of identity turmoil. When adolescents fail to achieve ego individuality, it is known as to be personal information role diffusion.
Applying Erikson's model to sociable work can help identify with individuals whether or not they have progressed efficiently at prior life stages. Additionally, it may help individuals clarify and treat their strengths, targets and constraints, a responsibility expected of the public worker corresponding to NOSS Key role 1(Crawford).
The psychosocial point of view enables social workers to consider the influences of the relationship between the interior world of the service users and the cultural environment in which they live. (Howe 1987 cited in Crawford)
However, Erikson's levels are criticised alongside other psychosocial stage approaches to individuals development because they do not incorporate difference and variety. These are culturally specific and variations between sexuality and gender aren't easily discussed, because the theory was developed from a male point of view. Crawford
Being too fixed and deterministic in true to life, it isn't possible to split one's life into neat phases. The idea also does not consider the significance of social change in various societies and across different cultures. The model advises there are widespread experiences that all people come across. Anthony Giddens 1991 cited in Crawford argues that society is continuously changing, and that folks pursue a variety of paths through their lives.
Erikson describes the idea of a life circuit as implying some type of self completion (Erikson, 1982 p. 9 cited in Crawford). This use of the term circuit can be criticised for implying a circular process whereby, in the old age of life, there is a go back to the dependency of years as a child. (Crawford)
In finish this assignment has viewed at
Social employees need to develop a knowledge of ideas from a range of disciplines to be able to take a holistic approach to their practice. (Crawford)
Whilst it is important for social employees to know about these theories, none of them of the theories can be easily applied to explain a person's course of life. One theory may be highly relevant to a person at a specific moment in time. For example, one theory may be helpful for child development, but not so useful in explaining the issues of life happenings that influence progress and development in later life. (Crawford and Walker, 2003) All people are individuals and have earned the right to be treated as a result. To do anything less would be observed as an action of oppressive practice. Public staff need to bring on many different resources and ideas available to them in order to seriously meet service user's needs. (Beckett 2007)