Part 1: Indicate two sociological theories you can use to help your knowledge of the service users' situation
In taking the time to see how sociological and emotional influences may effect on a service end user or customer group, the public worker can continue to be mindful of the wider framework of a situation and not only take what she recognizes at face value. This knowledge allows the public worker to remain objective and make educated decisions to be able to keep professionalism in her work. Through the use of Sociological and Psychological theory to the 'Bertram's' case study I try to explore the wider social context, outside influence and emotional implications from days gone by and present. Through this exploration I will uncover the differing viewpoints and sometimes contradictory dynamics of these theories. To gain a Sociological point of view on the case study I am making use of Functionalist and Feminist ideas. I am able to scrutinise the Bertram's current situation and apply the theory in order to gain a wider knowledge of the social context. In order to maintain a well-balanced point of view, Psychodynamic theory and Maslow's hierarchy will enable me to consider the psychological impact with a give attention to human and emotional development.
By examining a situation from a Sociological perspective we can take into consideration how various aspects such as course, social structure, faith, impairment can impact people from a wider public context. This is essential in getting a alternative picture the situation.
By applying a Macro theory to the situation scenario it allows us to look at the large scale top features of society and exactly how individual actions impact society all together and vice versa. Functionalism will enable me to contemplate the composition of society and how the Bertram's fit within that composition. Functionalist theorists regard society as something with interlocking parts. It is believed that each part needs to function effectively for society, as a system, to work as a whole. It is rationalised using biological analogy. The public role of individuals is an important area of the theory. Each individual is considered to have their individual role that can be played within modern culture. From a functionalist point of view it is very clear that Mrs Bertram is not satisfying her role as a partner. Because of her alzemers she actually is unable to perform the duties that would have been expected of her. Durkheim assumed that everyone experienced their place, and a woman's place was in the home. In the framework of the 40's, 50's when Functionalism was at its top, this viewpoint would not have been uncommon, if just a little out-dated by today's specifications. None the less, it isn't through choice that she's become dysfunctional within culture. She has genuine lay claim for not being able to carry out her societal role and Functionalism would automatically see her undertake the 'suffering role'. This might enable her to function again within the system under a different guise.
It could also be seen that Mr Bertram is a dysfunctional person in society. With his reckless behaviour, his outrageous spending, and the lack of care for his wife's basic needs he's no longer rewarding his role of partner. A primary proponent of Functionalism was Emile Durkheim (1858-1917). He saw marital vows as commitments. "AS I perform my obligations as a brother, a spouse or a citizen and carry out the commitments I've inserted into, I fulfil obligations which are identified in law and custom that happen to be exterior to myself and my actions" (Durkheim, 1982). He believed that if a member of contemporary society was considered as dysfunctional, then he was considered to be a deviant person in modern culture. Deviance occurs when people aren't functioning correctly, based on the 'norm'. This may be through crime, or anything which influences their ability to handle their societal role. Deviance must be manipulated or maintained. If it was proven that Mr Bertram was at truth deviant then he may need some persuading that by giving the attention and attention that his wife needs his better half would not be taken off the situation. Through this image resolution, therefore, they would both have the ability to function properly.
It could be viewed that Mr Bertram had an alcohol dependency. If this is founded then Mr Bertram too may take on the 'sick and tired role'. In which case a different method for resolving the issues within the house would have to be followed. Talcott Parsons (1902-1979) thought that sickness was a sociable concept rather than a biological strategy. So being ill supposed acting in different, deviant ways to the norm. Being suffering was therefore a kind of social role (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004). Parsons presumed the rights of an unwell person to be exemption from normal social obligations, the right to be taken care of and blamed because of their social deviance as long as they were genuinely sick. Obligations of the person playing the 'ill role' would be to understand that they need to 'get well' at the earliest opportunity in order to keep their normal function and to carry out this they must receive specialized help. Mr Bertram's condition would have to be cared for or managed in order to allow him to function again. In that case Mr and Mrs Bertram would be able to stay at home under treatment and the issues about good care could be dealt with accordingly. He'd no longer be looked at deviant person in population. A criticism of the 'tired role' would be that it's very difficult to use to long-term illness like that of Mrs Bertram. It really is built on the assumption that the person gain assist in order to gain function. This might not be easy for Mrs Bertram.
From a Radical Feminist perspective maybe it's noticed that Mrs Bertram has been oppressed by her man. Through her devotion and his dominance she's succumb to subordination. Radical Feminists use the patriarchal interpersonal system as a thought to clarify gender inequality. Patriarchy is the dominance of men over ladies in population. They view men as in charge of the exploitation of women from which they advantage greatly, through free home labour, sexual duties and so forth. The research study explains how Mrs Bertram was swept from her feet and totally specialized in Mr Bertram. In their current situation, Mrs Bertram reaches home in squalled conditions and desperately looking for help. Mr Bertram is avoiding the situation by using diversionary strategy, selfishly seeking public activity and pleasure through drink. This further raises her oppression as she is fully dependent on her partner to supply the care and attention which she is desperately looking for.
"Shulamith Firestone, an early radical feminist article writer argues that men control women's jobs in re-production and child bearing. Because women are biologically able to give delivery to children, they are more dependent materially on men for safeguard and livelihood" (Giddens, 2006). Feminists could dispute that for this reason Mrs Bertram is becoming susceptible within her setting and just accepts this life-style. Jessie Bernard argued that "Men need matrimony more than women" (pg 208 Gender). Perhaps this reliance on the local labour, comfort and erotic duties of any wife, which includes been lost my Mr Bertram through his wife's condition is attributing to his behavior. Mrs Bertram is no longer fulfilling her obligations as a better half which could be disrupting his regimen. It would appear that Mr Bertram has never had to control the household, manage his wife or finances, and may lack the power or may simply contemplate it beneath him. It could have an effect on his masculinity to acquire to carry out such chores and duties believed to be part of the woman's role. This may also be the reason why he is reluctant to accept assist with the situation. He may feel he's being barraged and dictated to by his step daughters which may be producing a greater defiance. It isn't clear from the case study, the nature of the relationship either. He may believe that family and experts are undermining his expert as mind of family members. Mr Bertram may be compensating for his lack of masculinity at home, by using his sociable appearance, bravado, drinking alcohol and defiance. This time away from the home for him may reaffirm his role as a prominent male within contemporary society whilst his prominent role as a guy disappears at home. He no longer has control over his better half, no longer gets value, adoration that he was once used to. Men are considered to have more influence within culture; Mr Bertram has no influence over this example or over his wife.
Part 2: While using scenario illustrate two psychological ideas that can be used to help your understanding of the service users' situation
Humanistic psychologist Abraham Maslow (1908 - 1970) argued that humans throughout life not only want to have their basic success needs achieved they shoot for more in conditions of personal expansion. He presumed that once basic needs for success had been fulfilled that human being development advanced toward higher psychological needs. He argued that "people are encouraged by the conscious desire to have personal growth" (Rathus, 2004). Maslow assumed what segregated us from our so-called lower animals was our convenience of self-actualisation (Rathus, 2004). He thought that this self applied- actualisation was as important as basic needs but could not be achieved unless other phases of individual needs were completed. He organised these levels in to the hierarchy of needs, often provided in pyramid format. Each stage must be satisfied in order to progress to another. In the bottom of the hierarchy are physiological needs. They are the basic individual needs we all have in order to survive, like food, drinking water, shelter, oxygen. Once the first basic need has been satisfied, the following stage is basic safety needs, the necessity for security. The next level in the hierarchy is love and belonging; the necessity to give and get love, to overcome loneliness and achieve a feeling of belonging in life. The fourth level is 'Esteem needs'; to feel self-confident, well known and not to feel poor. Self-actualisation is the final stage in the hierarchy and can only be come to when all foregoing needs are satisfied and the individual seems he has achieved everything he needs to in life and it is the best that he can be.
In the truth of the Bertram's it is clear that Mrs Bertram happens to be not even achieving underneath of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. It is mentioned that their chiseled is within an appalling state, she is unable to feed herself and kept on her own for most of the day. You would expect almost all of her needs to be achieved within the context of her matrimony to Mr Bertram; however, since he has neglected his role as a man, he has placed her ready of significant danger. Since not even her basic physiological needs are being met in the current situation then at the moment there wouldn't normally be an chance to improve through the hierarchy of needs.
If Mrs Bertram was located in residential attention then her physiological needs would be satisfied. She'd have food, water and health care of her basic needs. She could then perhaps progress to the next stage of safety. She would no longer be vulnerable to hurting herself and she would be in a far more secure environment. Though it could be argued that for an progress Alzheimer's sufferer, the unfamiliar setting up would disorientate her and she might not feel secure there. Due to her analysis, Mrs Bertram is unlikely to meet the third stage of 'love and belongingness'. Her advanced Alzheimer's may imply that she does not recognise her hubby, family members and have a declining capacity to communicate. Mrs Bertram could not reach self-actualisation. The very best that may be achieved would be basic survival and basic safety needs, whether this is achieved aware of the conformity of her hubby, or in home care. Though it could be debated that home care wouldn't normally be the best option. As the GP state governments in the event scenario, "a proceed to residential care may wipe out Mrs Bertram".
It would appear from the truth scenario that Mr Bertram's basic needs are being satisfied. Nonetheless it is uncertain concerning whether his s security and safety needs are being achieved. He certainly wouldn't normally get a sense of love and owed from his partner, in the latter phases of sever dementia. I would observe, however, there is certainly some attempt from Mr Bertram to achieve a feeling of self-esteem, since he spends nearly all his time along with his compatriots at the golf club. It really is clear that in this romance and the existing situation confronted by the Bertram's that he too has no way of attaining self-actualisation. Maslow observes that it is mainly interpersonal factors that prevent the personal development of humans. Possibly at least the first two phases of Maslow's hierarchy could be reached within the context of their relationship, with the right services set up.
Through the Psychodynamic theory of personality we're able to speculate about Mr Bertram's history and exactly how that has influence on his behaviour in the present. It would be difficult to achieve a comprehensive bring about respect to Mrs Bertram because of her Alzheimer's. Since her behaviour is wholly related to her condition.
Studying Sigmund Freud's (1856 - 1939) theories, with a concentrate on psychosexual development, could be the most highly relevant to apply to the situation circumstance. Psychodynamic theory have been developed and developed over the years. Freud's notion of Psychodynamic theory depicted humans as typically motivated by unconscious motives and desires. He proclaimed that humans come into issue when their basic intuition come up against cultural pressure to follow, regulations or moral codes. "At first this turmoil is external, but as we develop it becomes internalised" (Rathus, 2004). Freud clarifies the discord of personality using psychic set ups. The identification, which Freud believed is present at labor and birth and situated in the unconscious brain, and revolves around our basic natural drives and instincts. It operates on what Freud called the 'pleasure concept'. It demands instant gratification regardless of laws and regulations or moral rules. Another feature in the structure of personality is the ego. Developed from the id, developed through learning and experience. This is actually the part where mindful thought takes place (Beckett and Taylor, 2010). The ego performs on the 'simple fact concept'. This can take into consideration what is useful and possible in gratifying needs (Rathus, 2004). If the ego senses poor impulses arsing it will often deploy a number of defence mechanisms. The third psychic composition is the superego. This is formed throughout early childhood which is developed through specifications, values, parenting and moral expectations. "Psychodynamic theory emphasises the way in which the mind stimulates habit, and both brain and behavior affect and are inspired by the person's social environment" (Payne, 2005)
Freud believed there were four levels in psychosexual development. The first level took place through the first year of any child's life. This is known as the 'oral' stage. Much of the child's development is explored by putting things into the oral cavity and sucking, biting chewing. Freud thought it was possible to own arrested development through stress. And become fixated using one of the stages. From the case study we could surmise that Mr Bertram is fixated on the dental level of psychosexual development through his 'taking in'. We could speculate that he may have had a substantial injury at that stage which has kept him with a possible alcohol dependency, thus fixated on the oral stage.
It could quite possibly be determined that Mr Bertram is using psychological defence mechanisms to avoid the situation that he's presently facing.
Part 3: Think about your own backdrop illustrate it and suggest 1 sociological and 1 mental health theory that can be applied to you, offering examples
The relationship I've with my dad has often been fraught, difficult and anxious. As a sufferer of the severe mental disorder, my dad has often shown irrational, delusional, paranoid and sometimes violent behaviour. Throughout his life he has already established frequent hospitalisation. For me personally this is something I've grown up with and am used to interacting with over a day to day basis. I am acutely aware of how our relationship differs compared to that of my friends for example. I've as close a marriage as it can be with him, and also to that end I bear the brunt of his paranoia and hostility when he's unwell. I've observed first-hand the stigma attached to mental health issues. I think it is extremely difficult to trust anyone enough to tell them about the problem, and I strongly feel I shouldn't have to tell everyone that fulfills him, this only causes labelling him as mentally sick, thus changing how they treat him; which only chemical substances his paranoia.
Some Sociological theorists believe mental illness is a social construction to be able to rationalise bizarre or irrational behaviour that cannot be in any other way described. This is known as labelling theory. Scheff (1966) argued that people are labelled as psychologically sick because their behavior does not make sense to others. "Scheff highlights that labelling of an person as mentally ill is facilitated by stereotyped imagery discovered in early child years and continually reaffirmed, inadvertently, in regular social connection and through the mass media. Thus, when a person's violation of sociable norms or deviance becomes a open public issue, the traditional stereotype of "crazy person" is quickly used both by those reacting to the deviant person and, often, by the deviant person as well" (Lamb. 2002). Erving Goffman suggests that when someone is labelled as emotionally ill then they are cured differently. When an relationship occurs with see your face it is with this understanding of the mental illness, therefore creating what Goffman called a spurious interaction (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004).
From a behaviourist view, Schizophrenia could be looked at as a kind of learned behavior. "Out of this perspective, people engage in schizophrenic behaviour when it is much more likely to be reinforced than normal behavior (Rathus, 2004). This could be the result of being raised in an unrewarding or punitive situation. It might also be observed that kind of behavior is strengthened within a healthcare facility setting, where the schizophrenic behavior is strengthened through attention from pros within that setting. Cognitive theory argues that action is afflicted by conception or interpretation of the environment during the process of learning. "Apparently improper behavior must therefore arise from misinterpretation. Remedy tries to correct the misunderstanding, so that our behavior reacts appropriately to the surroundings" (Payne, 2006)
I believe the experiences I've had with my dad give me the capability to understand mental disorder without stigmatising. In addition, it helps me empathise with the patient and the family. An empathetic approach to somebody who was hearing voices for example, is always to understand that to the person affect, they are very real. I grasp the importance of having the right services set up for that person to prosper. My experience allows me to observe the wider context of a situation and realise that it is not only the principal sufferer of the condition that is influenced. The wider family needs to be considered as they may have an enormous role to experience in the well-being of the person concerned.