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Using Translation As A Means Of Interpretation English Language Essay

Translation is an activity composed of the interpretation of the meaning of a word in one language and the development, in another terms, of a new, equivalent text message, or translation. Its goal is to establish a relationship of equivalence of intent between your source and aim for texts, while considering a number of constraints. These constraints and differences between an SL and a TL and the deviation in their ethnicities make the procedure of translating a real challenge. Among the problematic factors involved in translation include framework, form, the guidelines of sentence structure of both dialects, signifying, style, their writing conventions, their figurative languages, such as proverbs, idioms, metaphors, euphemisms, and the like.

One of the grammar/vocabulary areas that cause most problems for students of British is euphemisms. Euphemisms are words or phrases that are being used to soften the truth of what exactly are being communicated to a given listener or audience. These are a widespread feature of terms use since all civilizations typically utilize them to discuss things they find terrifying, for example battle, sickness, and fatality.

Euphemisms are powerful linguistic tools that "are inlayed so deeply in our language that few of us, even those who take great pride in themselves on being 2

plainspoken, ever complete a day without needing them" (Rawson, 1981:1). The necessity for euphemism is both interpersonal and psychological, as it allows discussion of 'touchy' or taboo subject matter (such as gender, personal looks or religion) without enraging, outraging, or upsetting other people, and functions as a pressure valve whilst maintaining the appearance of civility.

Also, euphemisms are very important expressive means of any vocabulary and are frequently used in everyday living. They make the speech more expressive, vivid, and multi-colored. This makes the euphemisms adjust conversation to different situations. Thus euphemisms help people to fit to the proper context and also to express ideas plainly.

All these euphemisms appeared naturally in the process of everyday utilization. People instinctively stay away from the word never to offend or to hurt one's emotions. So euphemisms are synonyms that aim at producing a deliberately mild effect. When people use them in proper situations, it means that they value other people.

As Holder (2003) places it, "Euphemism is the terms of evasion, prudery and deceit", but euphemisms also help us to handle problematic situations, and most of them are a source of laughter. As euphemistic expressions advance eventually and new euphemisms emerge to displace the old ones, they also help with keeping the language variety alive.

Similarly, euphemisms are being used expressing taboos, as we feel, on some instinctual level, that the euphemism will keep us at safe distance from the taboo itself. Another use of euphemisms is to raise the position of something (e. g. , using 3

educator for educator, attorney for law firm); however in general, euphemisms are used to express what's socially difficult expressing in direct conditions.

Euphemisms are developed predicated on four devices, as proposed by Warren (1992). The first device is term formation, in which the words are developed by compounding, mixes, acronym, derivation, and onomatopoeia. The second device is phonemic modification. Below this term, the euphemisms are formed by changing their phonetics. The 3rd device is loan words, that are words from other languages. The past device is semantic technology. In this case, a phrase or a term can be consider as a euphemism when its interpretation no longer make reference to their literal interpretation, but the euphemism intended interpretation.

The fact that lots of euphemism words or phrases can't be predicted off their formations (specifically in the semantic development device) makes language more difficult for the learner of British. Such formations tend to be particularly difficult to understand because the learner hears a string of words, which they know perfectly, but which in formation do not make any sense.

It is common knowledge that to be able to offer an sufficient translation, the translator must be able to sense nuances in the semantics of both the source-language and target-language text messages. English euphemism words or phrases are of great interest to the researcher in this admiration because they have got quite a number of semantic, grammatical and stylistic peculiarities, sometimes making their exact translation into Indonesian difficult. Naturally, such semantic peculiarities of English euphemisms must have influenced the procedure of the translation into the Indonesian vocabulary. 4

Therefore, to have the ability to obtain valid data, the researcher used a book entitled The Sum of All Anxieties by Tom Clancy and its translated version, Puncak Ketakutan, as the foundation of data. It had been chosen because Tom Clancy is a novelist who always placed a thriller genre and put military services and politics circumstances where euphemistic expressions usually show up.

Finally, in this research, the study is meant to show to the reader that euphemisms within the Sum of All Concerns are translated into euphemisms, non-euphemisms, or they are not translated into both forms, in the sense that they are deleted or are retained in their original forms. To do as a result, the researcher also identified several types of strategy applied in translating them. Then, it could be concluded that the consequence of this research will show whether the translations of euphemisms change the meanings or not.

1. 2 Range of the study

This study is concentrating on two significant focuses. The foremost is English euphemisms, in this framework, the words and phrases. The second reason is the Indonesian exact carbon copy of translated form. The area in which the problem will target is in the novel The Sum of All Fears, written by Tom Clancy.

1. 3 Research Questions

There are one main research question and two sub-problems when producing this study. The main research question is how the euphemisms in The Sum of most Anxieties are translated. The sub-problems following the key research

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questions are "What types of strategies do the translator utilization in translating euphemisms in the novel?" and "Does the translation of euphemisms affect the meanings?"

1. 4 Reason for the Study

The target in this analysis is to answer the main problem, just how euphemisms in The Sum of most Fears are translated. Also, the sub-purposes of the study are to identify the strategies took place in the translation of euphemisms in the book and to find out whether or not the translated euphemisms impact the meanings.

1. 5 Time and Host to the Study

The research was held within five a few months, that was from March 2007 to July 2007. The study is a written-data research that is not tied to a certain place.

1. 6 Significance of the Study

By undertaking this research, the results of this research are expected to enrich the study of translation and to be helpful for the writer to secure a deeper understanding about translation area. Furthermore, this research will possibly put in a valuable input regarding the translation of euphemism. Not only that, this research is also meant to expand the horizon for British Department students who wish for a more understanding about the region.

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CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2. 1. Studies on Translation

Translation typically has been used to transfer written or spoken SL text messages to similar written or spoken TL texts. In general, the purpose of translation is to replicate various sorts of texts-including spiritual, literary, technological, and philosophical texts-in another terms and therefore making them open to wider visitors.

If words were simply a classification for a couple of general or widespread concepts, it would be easy to translate from an SL to a TL. Furthermore, under the circumstances the process of learning another dialect would be easier than it actually is. In this respect, Culler (1976) feels that languages aren't nomenclatures and the principles of one terms varies radically from those of another, since each words articulates or organizes the earth differently, and languages do not only name categories; they articulate their own (p. 21-2).

Translation can be an activity comprising the interpretation of this is of a wording in one dialect - the foundation text - and the production, in another dialect, of a fresh, equivalent text message - the target text, or translation. Traditionally, translation is a human being activity, although attempts have been made to automate and computerize the translation of natural-language texts - machine 7

translation - or even to use pcs as an aid to translation - computer-assisted translation.

The goal of translation is to determine a connection of equivalence of purpose between your source and concentrate on texts (in other words, to ensure that both text messages speak the same message), while considering a number of constraints. These constraints include framework, the rules of grammar of both dialects, their writing conventions, their idioms, and the like.

In the procedure of translating, there are a few principles that must be attained by translators. Duff (1989) summarizes them as meaning, form, register, source terms affect, style and clearness, and idioms. These concepts of translation keep hang on the most essential part along the way of translation, which is the meaning. As formulated above, the purpose of translation is to link the same meaning in, yet, different form. Therefore, it will reflect accurately the meaning of the initial text. The proper execution is also significant following the meaning due to aspect of the buying of words and ideas. Register, in the other hands, indicates the levels of formality in a given context (say, the business notice). Register the follows by source vocabulary influence, which involve the translator's thoughts and selection of words. Same with the others, the style and clearness and idioms aspects can't be left behind since they also promote the same significance part with the other through the translation process.

The translation process, whether it's for translation or interpreting, can be explained simply as decoding this is of the foundation words, and re-encoding this so this means in the mark dialect. To decode the meaning of a wording the translator 8

must first identify its element "translation items", in other words the sections of the text to be cured as a cognitive device. A translation unit may be a word, a saying or even one or more sentences.

Behind this relatively simple procedure lays a complicated cognitive operation. To decode the complete interpretation of the foundation word, the translator must consciously and methodically interpret and analyse all its features. This technique requires thorough understanding of the sentence structure, semantics, syntax, idioms and so on of the source dialect, as well as the culture of its audio system.

The translator needs the same in-depth knowledge to re-encode this is in the target language. In fact, often translators' understanding of the target language is more important, and needs to be deeper, than their understanding of the source dialect. For this reason, most translators result in a language of which they are indigenous speakers. Furthermore, knowledge of the topic matter being mentioned is essential. In recent years studies in cognitive linguistics have had the opportunity to provide valuable insights in to the cognitive procedure for translation.

2. 1. 1 Translation strategies, methods and procedures

The translation strategy as defines by Loescher (1991:8) is a probably conscious procedure for solving a challenge confronted in translating a text, or any segment of it. As explained in this definition, the idea of awareness is significant in distinguishing strategies which are used by the learners or translators.

Taking into account the procedure and product of translation, Jaaskelainen (2005) divides strategies into two major categories; some strategies relate to 9

what happens to text messages and other strategies relate with what happens along the way. Product-related strategies, as Jaaskelainen (2005:15) creates, involves the basic tasks of choosing the SL word and developing a method to convert it. However, she preserves that process-related strategies "are a couple of (loosely created) guidelines or guidelines which a translator uses to reach the goals dependant on the translating situation" (p. 16).

Meanwhile, Newmark (1988) mentions the difference between translation methods and translation methods. He writes that, "while translation methods relate with whole texts, translation procedures are being used for phrases and the smaller units of words" (1998: 81). He continues on to refer to the following methods of translation: (1) word-for-word translation, in which the SL term order is maintained and the words translated singly by their most popular meanings and out of framework, (2) literal translation, where the SL grammatical constructions are changed into their nearest TL equivalents, but the lexical words are again translated singly and out of framework, (3) faithful translation, which tries to produce the complete contextual meaning of the original within the constraints of the TL grammatical set ups, (4) semantic translation, which varies from faithful translation only in so far as it must take more bill of the cosmetic value of the SL words, (5) version, which is the freest form of translation and is utilized mainly for plays (comedies) and poetry; in the declare that the themes, character types, plots are usually conserved. Here, the SL culture is converted to the TL culture and the text is rewritten, (6) free translation, which produces the TL word without the style, form, or content of the 10

original, (7) idiomatic translation, which reproduces the communication of the original but tends to distort nuances of so this means by preferring colloquialisms and idioms where these do not can be found in the initial, and (8) communicative translation, which makes an attempt to render the exact contextual interpretation of the original so that both content and terminology are readily suitable and comprehensible to the readership.

Thoroughly, Newmark sets forward the next translation strategies that he proposes. They are simply: (1) transference, which is the process of moving an SL expression to a TL text. It includes transliteration and is the same as what Harvey (2000:5) known as "transcription", (2) naturalization, which adapts the SL expression first to the standard pronunciation, then to the normal morphology of the TL, (3) ethnic equivalent, which means replacing a cultural expression in the SL with a TL one. Remember that Newmark mentioned that "they are not exact" (1988:83), (4) functional comparative, which requires the utilization of an culture-neutral expression, (5) descriptive equal, (6) componential examination, where the translator compares an SL phrase with a TL word which has a similar meaning but is not an obvious one-to-one comparative, by demonstrating first their common and then their differing sense components, (7) synonymy, which includes the sense that the form is a near to TL equal, (8) through-translation, which is the literal translation of common collocations, titles of organizations and the different parts of compounds. It can even be called calque or loan translation, (9) shifts or transpositions, that involves a big change in the grammar from SL to TL, for occasion, the change from singular to plural, the change required when a specific 11

SL structure does not exist in the TL, the change of the SL verb to a TL phrase, the change associated with an SL noun group to a TL noun etc, (10) modulation, which occurs when the translator reproduces the meaning of the initial content material in the TL wording in conformity with the existing norms of the TL, because the SL and the TL can happen dissimilar in terms of point of view, (11) known translation, which occurs when the translator normally uses the state or the generally accepted translation of any institutional term, (12) payment, which occurs when lack of meaning in a single part of any sentence is paid out in another part, (13) paraphrase, (14) couplets, which occurs when the translator combines two different types of procedures, (15) notes, that are more information in a translation. Records can appear in the form of footnotes.

Other different translating types of procedures are depicted by Nida (1964: 241-47). They are simply as follow: (1) technological strategies, which is the examination of the source and target dialects and a through research of the foundation language text before making attempts translate it, and making judgments of the semantic and syntactic approximations, and (2) organizational techniques, when a constant reevaluation of the look at made; contrasting it with the existing available translations of the same word done by other translators, and verifying the text's communicative success by asking the target language readers to evaluate its correctness and success and learning their reactions.

2. 1. 2 Equivalence in Translation

The comparability of texts in several languages inevitably requires a theory of equivalence. Equivalence can be reported to be the central concern in translation 12

although its explanation, relevance, and applicability within the field of translation theory have brought on warmed controversy, and various theories of the concept of equivalence have been elaborated within this field in the past fifty years. On the list of theorists who mentioned their ideas of equivalence are Nida, Catford, and Baker.

Nida argued that we now have two different kinds of equivalence, particularly formal equivalence-which in the next model by Nida and Taber (1982) is known as formal correspondence-and dynamic equivalence. Formal correspondence 'concentrates attention on the concept itself, in both form and content', unlike vibrant equivalence which is situated upon 'the theory of equivalent result' (1964: 159). In the second release (1982) or their work, the two theorists give a more detailed reason of each type of equivalence.

One can simply see that Nida is in favour of the application of energetic equivalence, as a more effective translation technique. This is perfectly understandable if we look at the context of the problem in which Nida was dealing with the translation happening, that is to say, his translation of the Bible. Thus, the merchandise of the translation process, this is the content material in the TL, will need to have the same impact on the different readers it was responding to. Only in Nida and Taber's release is it obviously explained that 'vibrant equivalence in translation is a lot more than mere correct communication of information' (ibid. : 25). Despite utilizing a linguistic approach to translation, Nida is a lot more enthusiastic about the message of the text or, in other words, in its semantic quality. 13

He therefore strives to make certain that this communication remains clear in the mark text.

While, Catford's method of translation equivalence clearly differs from that adopted by Nida since Catford possessed a preference for a more linguistic-based method of translation and this approach is dependant on the linguistic work of Firth and Halliday. His main contribution in neuro-scientific translation theory is the benefits of the principles of types and shifts of translation. Catford proposed very extensive types of translation in conditions of three standards, which will be the degree of translation (full translation vs incomplete translation), the grammatical rank at which the translation equivalence is established (rank-bound translation vs. unbounded translation), and the degrees of language involved in translation (total translation vs. restricted translation).

However, Catford's meaning of textual equivalence is rather circular and his theory's reliance on bilingual informants is hopelessly limited. It can be said that the translation process cannot simply be reduced to a linguistic exercise, as stated by Catford, since there are also other factors, such as textual, social and situational aspects, which should be taken into consideration when translating. Quite simply, linguistics is not the only real discipline which allows people to carry out a translation, since translating entails different cultures and various situations at exactly the same time and they do not always match from one language to another.

In another viewpoint, new adjectives have been designated to the notion of equivalence (grammatical, textual, pragmatic equivalence, and many 14

others) and made the look of them in the variety of recent works in this field. An exceptionally interesting talk of the idea of equivalence are available in Baker (1992) who seems to offer a more descriptive set of conditions upon which the idea of equivalence can be defined. She explores the notion of equivalence at different levels, in relation to the translation process, including all different aspects of translation and hence putting together the linguistic and the communicative approach.

She distinguishes between four equivalences. First is equivalence that can appear at expression level and above phrase level, when translating in one language into another. Second is grammatical equivalence, when referring to the variety of grammatical categories across dialects. She notes that grammatical rules may vary across languages and this may cause some problems in terms of finding a direct correspondence in the TL. Third is textual equivalence, when discussing the equivalence between a SL word and a TL wording in terms of information and cohesion. Structure is a very important feature in translation since it provides useful rules for the understanding and evaluation of the ST which can help the translator in his or her attempt to create a cohesive and coherent text for the TC audience in a particular context. It is up to the translator to choose if to maintain the cohesive ties as well as the coherence of the SL text message. His or her decision will be led by three main factors, that is, the target audience, the purpose of the translation and the written text type. The final is pragmatic equivalence, when discussing implicatures and strategies of avoidance during the translation process. Implicature is not about 15

what is explicitly said but what's implied. Therefore, the translator needs to workout implied meanings in translation to be able to obtain the ST concept across. The role of the translator is to recreate the author's objective in another culture so that enables the TC reader to comprehend it obviously.

The notion of equivalence is without a doubt one of the most problematic and questionable areas in neuro-scientific translation theory. The word has caused, and it seems quite possible that it'll continue steadily to cause, heated debates within the field of translation studies. This term has been analyzed, evaluated and extensively discussed from different things of view and has been approached from many different perspectives. The first conversations of the idea of equivalence in translation initiated the further elaboration of the word by contemporary theorists. Even the simple outline of the problem given above signifies its importance within the framework of the theoretical representation on translation. The difficulty in determining equivalence seems to cause the impossibility of having a universal method of this idea.

2. 2. Studies on Euphemisms

These terms give us ways of talking about the evaluative content of words, which is that part which doesn't express a thing in the world, but instead expresses the speaker's attitude towards it. As said by Blackaby (2002), a euphemism is a phrase or phrase that replaces another which is considered less offensive or less vulgar than the term or key phrase it replaces. The theory comes from a Greek term, euphemismos, which fundamentally means "good speech". 16

Euphemisms, as described by Holder (2003), require the use of light or vague expressions to replacement for blunt perfection or disagreeable truths or principles. They sometimes involve substituting an inoffensive, or even a pleasant term, for just one more explicit, thus veneering the truth by using kind words in order to avoid particular humiliation or obscure negative connotation.

According to Allan & Burridge, a euphemism is utilized as an alternative to a dispreferred manifestation, in order to avoid possible lack of face; either one's own face or, through giving offence, that of the audience, or of some alternative party. In fact, many euphemisms are alternatives for expressions the loudspeaker or writer would simply favor not to utilization in executing a specific communicative purpose on confirmed occasion.

There are at least three areas, as said by Blackaby, in which to be careful about using euphemisms. First is the area where the vocabulary related to sexuality and what might be called lavatory (potty) discussion. Second is the area in which the language which involves softer words substituted for swearing or cursing. The final is the area in which the language that substitutes for profanity - profaning God's name, because the very first area that is known as in using euphemistic expressions was certainly spiritual.

Almost every culture produces its way of declaring certain things in a 'better' way. Every generation and every culture develop their own euphemisms. It is believed that the utilization of euphemisms echo people's internal world. Predicated on this profile, Huang (2005) declares four main causes from the origin of euphemisms. The foremost is taboo subject matter. Because euphemisms originated from 17

primitive population, people thought that language was not merely a icon but also with special power. It might bring them misfortunes as well as fortunes, mentioning a certain names ran the risk of being punished, so they often prevented these taboos. The second reason is the elegancy. To get beauty is one of human's natures, as a result whenever they package with some inelegant physiological phenomena in communication, people have a tendency to avoid vulgarism so as to achieve elegance. These euphemisms are usually pertaining to part of body, copulation, pregnancy, menstruation, and excretions. The 3rd thing is politeness. In communication, people usually implemented such guidelines as appropriateness, generosity, praise, modesty, similarity and sympathy, so people often use indirect expressions to attain politeness. Such euphemisms are usually relating to job, appearance, or character. And the previous cause is disguise. People often use euphemisms to disguise something in the other areas of life. Such euphemisms are usually used in politics, economy, or conflict.

As being mentioned above, one of the sources of euphemistic expressions is the offer with taboos. Taboos exist in every known cultures and they change in the course of time. Hundreds of euphemisms have surfaced to displace pejorative and objectionable words. However, euphemisms don't automatically suffer from taboos. In modern utilization euphemisms tend to be mainly worried about politeness. In certain situations using euphemisms instead of saying things straight is known as more tactful. For example, employees can be hired and fired, but perhaps it would be more tactful to talk about dehiring instead of firing them. Furthermore, Euphemisms are trusted in the terms of commerce and 18

industry. Military services jargon also contains euphemistic expressions. We might find these euphemisms are created to make the military activities less guilty for the military. Of course, there are some euphemisms described gender, because verbal taboos are generally related to e. g. making love, fatality and basic biological functions.

The function of euphemism is to safeguard the speaker/writer, hearer/audience, or every one of the above from possible effrontery and offence. This offence may occur in the broaching of an religion or death subject matter or by mentioning subject material to which party involved may be delicate. In order for communication to progress properly and without conflict, accommodations are constantly, and often subconsciously, made. Euphemism is the words that might be misleading, but euphemisms also may help people to offer with troublesome, embarrassing and uncomfortable situations. It helps people to turn their face away from direct reference to those things that are morally barred. Euphemisms can also make the dialogue audio more poetic, of higher category, or even more proper. Needless to say, in contemporary literature, many words or phrases once referred to by euphemistic expressions are actually described in a far more straightforward manner.

Interpretation varies regarding to context, i. e. whether the speaker means the term to be euphemistic, and the hearer interprets it in that light (Warren, 1992). With euphemism being so entwined with context, however, classification of a term as 'euphemistic' becomes quite difficult. For this reason, Allen and Burridge (1991:21) suggest the hypothetical framework to be "polite to a everyday acquaintance of the opposite gender in a formal situation in a middle class environment" as you when a euphemism may very well be used in host to a 19

'dispreferred' alternative. To keep a regular standard in defining terms as euphemistic during the current analysis, this pragmatic context will be utilized. It ought to be remembered, however, that even within this 'context' target euphemism classification is a gray area, and judgements may differ from person to person.

2. 2. 1. Classification of Euphemisms

According to Cumming (2003), euphemistic expressions can be categorized predicated on phonological (audio) and semantic (so this means). The phonological area have seven sub-categories: (1) remodellings, (2) clippings and abbreviations, (3) international words, (4) abstractions, (5) indirections, (6) longer words, (7) complex terms. Within the other side, the semantic area has five sub-categories: (1) metaphor, this means a word or a word to make reference to something that it isn't, implying a similarity between the word or expression used and the thing described, (2) metonymy, which really is a word or phrase that replaces another and uses of a single characteristic to identify a far more complex entity, (3) circumlocution, which identifies a roundabout way of talking, (4) hyperbole, which is a word or phrase that replaces another that always extremely exaggerated or extravagant, and (5) understatement, which really is a word or phrase that replaces another where a lesser expression is utilized than what would be expected.

These categories from Cumming derive from standard euphemistic expressions. The traditional euphemistic expressions will be the words which single purpose is to reference a taboo issue in a polite way. This category has more regarding politeness and public norms than the speaker's actual 20

feelings. That is completely different with the overall euphemistic expressions, which will be the ways of talking about a situation, event or thing which express an frame of mind towards it.

Meanwhile, Joseph M. Williams as mentioned in Neaman & Silver (1983) advises five basic semantic processes by means of which euphemisms are created. First is by borrowing words from other terminology in which the conditions are less freighted with negative associations. Second is by widening. When a specific term becomes too agonizing or vivid, the words are changed up in the ladder of abstraction. Sometimes, in addition to widening, the words are divided to the negative connotations of a single direct term between several words. Third is by semantic switch. This is actually the substitution of the complete, or an identical generality, for the specific part we do not choose to discuss. Fourth is by metaphorical copy, the comparability of things of one order to things of another. The very last is by phonetic distortion, which is split into other nine sub-categories: (1) abbreviation, (2) apocopation (shortening or omitting the previous syllable), (3) initialing, (4) backforming, (5) reduplication, (6) phonetic distortion, (7) blend phrase, and (8) diminutives (the formation of a new term by nicking or shortening a name and adding a suffix indicating love or smallness).

In the other side, Warren (1992) also deals with how euphemisms are shaped. The model, along with the pragmatic 'context' released above, will body prominently in the classification of euphemism. Warren's model is dependant on the idea that "novel contextual meanings", i. e. new meanings for words in a particular context, are constantly created in terminology. This creation is 21

rulegoverned and the acceptability of new meanings depends on, for example, the strength of ties between the novel term and its own referent, whether the novel term is known as to be of long-term value, i. e. the referent has no other name, or if the novel term is a "desirable option" (Warren, 1992:130). It really is this last mentioned situation that results in the creation of euphemistic terms.

In her theory, Warren offers four devices for euphemism creation. To organise the wide selection of euphemisms that exist, these categories are split into sub-categories of development devices. The first device in Warren's model is word formation devices. Warren gives five ways to create euphemisms by using system: (1) compounding, (2) derivation, (3) mixes, (4) acronyms, and (5) onomatopoeia. The second device is phonemic adjustment, which elaborated as: (1) back slang, (2) rhyming slang, (3) phonemic replacement or, according to Rawson conditions, 'a euphemistic mispronunciation' (1981:254), and (4) abbreviation. The 3rd device is loan words, that happen to be usually from French, Latin, and other languages, like Spanish and Yiddish. The final device in Warren's model is semantic technology. In cases like this, a "novel sense for some established term or word combination is created, " (Warren, 1992:133). The Warren's seven types of semantic technology are: (1) particularization, (2) implication, (3) metaphor, (4) metonym, (5) reversal or 'irony', (6) understatement or litotes, and (7) overstatement or hyperbole.

These categories are stated to take into account most euphemism formation. However, Warren does indeed say that other, slight methods may be used. 22

Unfortunately, few of these systems of classification were not explained further by Warren about how they are formed.

2. 3. The Translation of Euphemisms

Whatever terms that are being translated, translators frequently end up wrestling with euphemisms, those words or phrases employed by folks of all ethnicities to send politely to subjects they feel awkward mentioning openly in simple or direct terms (i. e. , fatality, certain areas of the body, legal problems, sex, bodily processes, and the supernatural).

For illustration, translators will probably run into euphemisms (or find the need to insert them) in documents talking about some form of trauma, psychiatric assessments, courtroom testimony, or police reports detailing family violence and abuse. In addition they appear in medical literature written for a general audience.

Therefore, in translating euphemisms or determine whether one is really necessary in the target text, good translators not only know the vocabulary and sentence structure of the languages they convert between, but are also acquainted with each language's culture, including which subjects a particular group considers hypersensitive. Oftentimes, the source words will address a subject with plain vocabulary while the aim for language runs on the euphemism, or vice versa. No matter where euphemisms are encountered, translators must attack a balance between choosing words that properly convey the initial message while preventing language which will be offensive to the prospective audience. 23

2. 3. 1. Strategies in Translating Euphemisms

According to Leppihalme (1997:82), there are nine strategies for the translation of allusions, and these strategies may also be used in translating other figurative languages like euphemism. These are: (1) use of a standard translation, (2) minimum change, that is, a literal translation, without respect to connotative or contextual so this means, (3) extra euphemism advice added in the text, (4) the use of footnotes, endnotes, translator's notes and other explicit explanations not supplied in the written text but explicitly given as additional information, (5) replacement with a TL item, (6) reduction of the euphemism to sense by rephrasing, (7) version, which adapts the SL word first to the normal pronunciation, then to the normal morphology of the TL, (8) retention of the euphemism, in which using the euphemism as a result, (9) omission of the euphemism.

Moreover, there are also several possible strategies in controlling euphemisms in translation suggested by Unseth (2006). They are really: (1) convert the euphemism actually, (2) translate the initial euphemism using a different euphemism which has a similar meaning in the prospective language, (3) translate the euphemism using ordinary terms, and (4) convert the euphemism utilizing a mixture of two practices of the prior.

Unseth states it is possible to use literal translation if the source and target languages both have similar euphemisms. A literal translation is satisfactory because English audio speakers will understand the connotation. Furthermore, if literal translation can't be performed, translators might replace 24

it with a different euphemism, yet have an appropriate similar so this means. Another possible strategy is using plain language. To do this, translator should be aware of the initial author's motives and the audience he or she was writing for. In the event the three strategies can't be used in a complete, a combination of two of them might be the best strategies in translating euphemisms. In this way, the translation succeeds in transmitting this is clearly while keeping a feeling of the initial context.

Unseth also claims that we now have some possible trouble spots to be cautious for when deciding how to handle euphemisms in translation: (1) keeping euphemisms obscure, (2) being intentionally offensive, (3) inserting euphemisms, (4) misidentifying euphemisms. To get obscure, sometimes a euphemism is meant to be intentionally vague. This is concluded predicated on J. R. R. Tolkien's The Fellowship of the Wedding ring (2003), when the wizard Gandalf falls into a great crevasse in a cave. It really is later reported that Gandalf "has dropped into shadow. " The reader understands this to be always a report of his loss of life, but it really is a deliberately veiled reference to Gandalf being engaged in a great struggle with an evil being, and of eventually being mystically transformed. Translating this euphemism calls for finding a way to suggest loss of life while still keeping the ambiguity Tolkien supposed. In cases like this, the translator shouldn't attempt to clarify the author's original wording. To mention the context impact of the original, some passages must be translated with equally strong terminology in the mark vocabulary. 25 In inserting euphemisms in the translated variations, the translated must be conscious of various factors. One factor occurs when translating archaic or historic language. An excellent translator must measure the impact of the original wording on the modern-day audience. If going out of the original phrasing is only going to serve to distract the audience from the subject matter, the translator might determine that it's necessary to add a euphemism so that the readers will get the idea without becoming offended by the initial wording. Another option might be to put in a note at the end of the passage to describe to the audience that it was quite common to work with such crude words at that time the text was writing.

Also, sometimes translators might slip-up something that is said in the foundation language for an alternative euphemism off their own dialect. Therefore, translators should be aware of how each terminology uses euphemisms in order to easily identify them in the source text. 26

CHAPTER III

THEORETICAL Construction AND

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3. 1. Theoretical Framework

As respect to this issue, an explanation of euphemisms from Blackaby, Holder, and Allan and Burridge is the one for the bases for executing the research. They may have an analysis that a euphemism is used instead of a dispreferred appearance and is utilized to avoid particular embarrassment or obscure negative connotation.

What Baker said about equivalence in translation can be used by the writer. Her theory is the one which seems to stand in the centre and illustrates that equivalence is used 'for the sake of convenience-because most translators are being used to it rather than since it has any theoretical status'.

To classify varieties of euphemisms, the article writer will use a theory that worried on the types of euphemisms predicated on regular euphemistic expressions suggested by Warren. It is chosen because the elaboration of the categories is known as to be broadly broad. The categories have recommended a solid pack of ideas. Therefore, the classification of euphemism depends on four main types; the word formation euphemism, which includes four sub-types of compounding, derivation, acronym, and onomatopoeia, the phonemic changes, which includes two sub-types of phonemic replacement unit and 27 abbreviation, the loan term euphemism, and the semantic innovation euphemism, which contains six sub-types of particularization, implication, metaphor, metonymy, reversal or irony, and understatement or litotes.

For the ways of translate euphemisms, the article writer will sort out them out using Unseth's proposition, blended with three Leppihalme's key strategies, and one strategy suggested by the copy writer. Therefore, the strategies found in this analysis would be: (1) Indonesian euphemism, (2) Source Words euphemism (as Leppihalme's suggested), (3) adaptation (as Leppihalme's suggested), (4) literal translation, (5) ordinary terms translation, (6) subjective interpretation by the translator (as the article writer advised), and (7) deletion (as Leppihalme's suggested).

3. 2. Research Methodology

3. 2. 1. Research Method

This research was conducted as a descriptive analytical study. According to Whitney (1960), a descriptive method is utilized to search for facts with the appropriate interpretation.

3. 2. 2. Way to obtain Data

In this review, materials to be analyzed are the English euphemisms identified in The Sum of All Anxieties and their translations identified in Puncak Ketakutan.

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3. 2. 3. Data Collection Technique

In conducting this research, the first rung on the ladder to collect the info is to find the materials. The novel The Sum of All Doubts is chosen because of the genre. As elaborated before, the genre in this book represented the incident of euphemisms. The next step is to learn the English version and the translated version. Then, the writer will identify the euphemisms of the original and their translation. From then on, the writer will collected euphemistic expressions by adding down the euphemisms in The Sum of All Fears and its translated version.

3. 2. 4. Data Examination Technique

From the data accumulated using the procedures above, the euphemisms of the English version will be compared and/or contrasted to the Indonesian editions. The further step is to sort the data into two models, the English euphemisms and the translation one. The British euphemisms are grouped into meanings from dictionaries and more. The data from each category then will be analyzed. After that, the result can be acquired and it could be concluded into what form the euphemisms in the Indonesian version in the Sum of All Anxieties are translated.

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