The Nobel award winner of books in 1948, Thomas Stearns Eliot catches the literary consciousness for several reason. Like a modernist poet, Eliot categorically declined the anthropocentric Charming lamentations of the recent literary history. At the same time, he also transcended the angst-ridden, war-ravaged, chokingly fraught atmosphere of modernism to search for a substantial so this means amidst the fractured ruins of the existential ennui permeating the twentieth century.
This paper seeks to comprehend Eliot's meaning-making process by checking out the various sizes of The Misuse Land, a 1922 creation. It tries to investigate how Eliot deploys Classicism as a tool to assist him in his endeavour. This newspaper, therefore, magnifies The Waste material Land although lens of Classicism.
Classicism has been popularly defined as a tendency in skill and literature that follows the ancient Greek and Roman key points. Though there were minor departures out of this recognition of Classicism, as we will see in case of Eliot's The Waste materials Land, the broader characteristics of Classicism stand reverentially honored. Classicism is normally associated with harmony, restraint and adherence to recognized specifications of form and workmanship. Classicist tendencies fructified very self-consciously from the Renaissance to the eighteenth century in the British literary culture. They affected distinctly the authors of each time and acquired revised idioms in correspondence to the pulsating rhythms of the fluid spatio-temporal certainty. Henceforth, how Shakespeare, Webster and Marlowe hired the classical inheritance was distinctly not the same as how Milton included those elements.
Themes and meanings of the depraved individual condition as punctuated in the classics translated in to the writings of the authors prior to the Augustan age. Politically fraught seventeenth century witnessed revolutions, Repair and many sociological formalizations of change. Books by means of pamphlets, journalistic writings and other experiments in prose started to carve a niche for themselves in the literary culture.
Amidst this flux, the dawn of the eighteenth century Neo-classicism endeavoured to realize a telescopic view of the glorious history. Classics became a cursory model to improve and rationally compose a reasoned order out of chaos.
Romanticism rebelled from this selection of the weight of Classicism. 'Creativeness', thoughts and emotions translated into books as expressions of "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings". So, while Shelley and Keats make reference to the antiquity by creating Prometheus and Hyperion, they only used days gone by inheritance as storage containers to mortalise the abstract ideas - with no fidelity to traditional norms. Wordsworth, in simple fact, appropriated the utilization of 'rustic terms' to articulate better the 'ideas' about the earth at large.
Modernism dismantled this myth about the linguistic ability of articulation of exact ideas in words. The difference between your world and the word grins so huge in the modernist texts that fragmentoriness and incomplete exclamations appear as literal expressions of the existential angst and ennui of the twentieth century. It really is within this framework that this paper argues an instance for T. S. Eliot's classicism inside the Waste products Land.
What makes a piece of work basic is the time-tested relevance of its says to longevity. Dante, Homer and Ovid are authors who have stood the test of time across generations and decades of change. Similarly, Shakespeare's has and Milton's Heaven Lost have provided seeds of influence to writers succeeding them. The ideas, expressions and thought techniques of these craftsmen are so general and comprehensive that they have dominated the English literary thoughts till night out. Thus, anyone who wishes to build something 'new' would in reality wrap up reworking on the already explored. Eliot's essays like "Traditions and the Individual Expertise", "Ulysses, order and Misconception", "The Function of Criticism" and his criticism anywhere else interrogate this question quite regularly and self-consciously, perhaps because Eliot was a poet and a dramatist too.
Eliot declares a poet cannot inherit a tradition but only acquire it through labour. The unique sense which would assist in the loan consolidation of the essences of days gone by is a cultivated genius of the copy writer. The process of the "progress of designer is a continual do it yourself sacrifice, a continual extinction of personality. " It is this complete reverential distribution to the traditions that helps an "impersonalized" copy writer as platinum to assimilate the sulphur dioxide and air of past experience to create a new poetry in sulphur trioxide. To work with Eliot's expression again, "Relations, proportions, worth of each masterpiece of design towards the whole are readjusted" in the new. Eliot's classicism, therefore, appears as the "pastness" of the past remoulded in the new idioms of today's.
In order to do this consolidated articulation of the past and today's, Eliot proposes the concept of "objective correlative". The mindful endeavors to choose concrete objects to connect abstract notions participate Eliot's creative craft in looking for 'items' in the classics. Henceforth, Phlebas, Tiresias, Gerontion, Prufrock and Sweeney despite being 'new' are essentially reworked types of days gone by. This pertinent estimate from Eliot on Ezra Pound explains the theory succinctly, "When he deals with contemporaries, he sometimes notes only the accidental. It is only a question of means suited to a specific poet, and we are more concerned with the end somewhat than with the means. " The required 'end' in Eliot's poetry is to visit 'beyond poetry' as Beethoven tried to go 'beyond music'. His fidelity to classicism can be an appropriation to achieve that aim.
Within an ambit of this framework, you can explore The Waste products Land from two vantage items - how does the poem incorporate Classicism and exactly how should it depart from the sooner classicist tries at one level, and at the other how can The Misuse Land transcend the weight of the modernist cannon. To be able to start into these investigations, this newspaper aims at concentrating mostly on two areas - the theme and the structure of The Waste Land.
The Throw away Land is a modernist expatiation on the 'waste' - 'inactive land', 'dried out tubers', 'useless tree' (The Burial of the Deceased ); 'desert', 'withered stumps of time', 'nothing' ( A CASINO GAME of Chess); 'brownish land', 'wrinkled feminine chest', 'dusty trees', (The Flame Sermon); 'a fortnight lifeless', 'transferred' (Death by Drinking water); 'dried grass', 'frosty silence', 'unfilled chapel' (What the Thunder Said) - that punctuates modern consciousness. This waste material is social contamination, political purulency and literary languish that canopies the modern situation. Eliot's try to comprehensively treat this atmosphere gets authorized weightage in the process of gaining money from the classics.
Eliot admits to Dante's affect in his creative process. The snapshots of impressionistic images of decay and dilapidation in the text can be seen as symbolically inherited from the trip of hell in the Inferno. How he reworks the classical inheritance departing from the eighteenth century Neo-classicists fundamentally, is an interesting involvement. The Augustans created mock epics and mock heroics, more often than not, imitating the classics. Also, they mocked the contemporary world of not having the ability to live up to the traditional ideal, on the main one hand, while on the other, they simultaneously repudiated those very ideals that could no longer be became aware in the modern-day world. Eliot, however, priviledges the 'mythical method' within the 'narrative technique' as James Joyce uses in the Ulysses. His goal at the creation of Tiresias is towards internalizing the traditional precedents set up by Hamlet and more and making associations between these parallel personalities.
The past, for Eliot, becomes a reservoir from to 'remove' the 'essentially living'. In his parodic parallels, objective correlatives and conjuring up of imagist impressions - inverting the fecund Chaucerian April to 'the cruelest month', invoking the Shakespearian 'burnished throne', Spensarian nymphs - Eliot seems to 'submit' himself to the past 'self-consciously'.
It is essential to notice here that Eliot announced that he was a "Classicist in books, Royalist in politics and Anglo- Catholic in religious beliefs". Thus, Eliot's embracing of the Classicist tendencies is plainly a political choice than mere aestheticism. The clear demarcation of days gone by and today's and attempts to search for 'pastness' in the present is a cautiously chosen Conventional politics position. The Waste Land, henceforth, earmarks a hierarchy between the classical order and modern day modern ruins. There is no Augustan ambition to diffuse the obviously separated restrictions.
The reverential fidelity to classicist tendencies within the modernist cannon looks concretized by the close attention he pays to the composition of The Throw away Land. While Eliot eulogized Shakespeare for his complete evaluation of thematic concerns in his works, he puts Dante on the pedestal because of his detail of diction, clear, aesthetic images and market of words. Additionally, his compliment for Donne and the metaphysicals was not a "violent yoking together of heterogeneous ideas", as Johnson puts it, but a light blending of the two seeming anti-theses into a harmonious 'entire'.
Therefore, Eliot's very careful endeavours to unify and blend the 'heaps of busted images' has been commented after by many critics as a symphony of musical notes or a solid architectural framework that his works just like the Waste Land is becoming. Eliot asserts in response that commitment to a 'certain emotion' is what produces the music and keeps the many slabs of cement along as an architectural 'full'. The Waste material Land can be read as an exemplary incarnation of Eliot's commitment to Classicism in the light of this argument.
Eliot adopts a method and form that attaches these 'whispering feelings' into a crafted overall. For example, equally decay and misuse run as leitmotifs in The Waste material Land, a desire to have regeneration pulsates in the throbbing tendons of the poem. The 'a little life' in the 'lifeless roots' (The Burial of the Deceased); 'if it rainswe shall play'(THE OVERALL GAME of Chess); 'a new start', 'burning'(The Flames Sermon); 'getting into a whirlpool'(Death by Normal water); 'In a display of lighteninggetting rain'(What the Thunder Said) - all echo a 'desire' for 'new life' fuelled by 'storage' - some type of regeneration. The continuous dedication towards this desire of resurrection is seen as the unifying rule that stitches the many images conjured within the Throw away Land into a pastiche.
The Waste products Land frustrates a reader's ambition to learn the poem as a linear narrative. The coherence and connection achieved in the poem floors towards the finish when the various fragments fall into place as the components of a jig-saw puzzle similar to the overwhelming sentiment achieved after looking at an impressionistic painting.
The fraught environment of the twentieth century - ravages of the world war, frustrated ambitions, boredom, existential angst produced a bunch of literary works that unleashed the realization of the huge gap between terminology and thoughts. The linguistic impairment to articulate just what one feels manifested itself generally and universally as an entire breakdown of a whole into 'fractured atoms'. Tendencies like surrealism and impressionism is seen as particularized corollaries of the same within modernist literature.
When placed on the list of literary productions of the modernist cannon, The Waste material Land appears to owe its manifestation to the preceding Romantic legacy in poetry and Victorian sensibility in prose, especially in the novels. Eliot absolutely despised the hypocritical optimism, cheerfulness, and hopefulness of Victorianism. In retrospect, he had already validated Dante's Inferno over Paradiso and went so far as to say that poetry does not have found 'through suffering' but 'in fighting' - a somewhat Keatsian immersion in pain and anguish. Perhaps, that is why The Misuse Land is literally imbued in the seedy, grim, dismal, hopeless condition of the present day existence. This appearance of an elevated sense of ennui repudiates the popular demand of 'heartlessness' thrust on Modernism when contrasted against Romanticism.
However, The Waste materials Land will not indulge in extended lamentations of the Romantics. It really is a restrained, ordered indulgence in celebrating the existential angst as a parallel portrayal of the medieval anxieties of depravity. It isn't enabling 'loose' of 'spontaneous feelings', somewhat a calibrated containment of your processed sensibility. Eliot pays close attention to not let his thoughts run amock in the wilderness of 'creativeness' that produces 'ideas' - Passionate legacies. The Throw away Land, despite its psychological sensitivity to today's world, transcends the crazy world of 'ideas' to realize a structural solidity. The substance of this architectured design sublimates in Eliot's determination of the poem to the craftsman, Ezra Pound, 'il miglior fabbro'.
The ground breaking transmogrification of the Chaucerian 'April' in to the desiccated despondency of pervasive aridity in that 'cruelest month', Shakespearean 'burnished throne', legends of Philomel and Cupid, Pope's agreement of the dressing table and incorporation of the Vedic and Buddhist beliefs talk about a unity in the poem that surpasses even the assumptions of accepted precincts to determine Classicism.
While modernist poetry colored a comprehensive portrait of the desiccated modern world, it didn't give a solution or a reparation to the ravaged condition. The Waste Land seems to conjoin both of these tendencies. The collage of disparate and at times chaotic images and the needy despondency created in the structure of The Waste Land in the first four areas may actually commit themselves to an Aristotlean cathartic denouement in the last section. The recurrent chant of 'Datta', 'Dayadhvan', 'Damyata' reach a crescendo and echo Eliot's modernist endeavour to find a meaningful answer to the misleading nihilism misread by many as permeated in the textile of The Throw away Land. To do this task, he parallels the search of salvation in his contemporary world to the haunted realm of the middle ages times. However the place of redemption from this disorder transcends Western european awareness to find solace in the valleys of the Himvanta - the pre-modern, pre-Christian antiquity to identify Classicism for Eliot.
With the previous expressions of "Shantih, Shantih, Shantih", the poetic ideal suffuses the atmosphere of the viewers' consciousness. The announcement of calmness after internalizing the perfect of "Give, Sacrifice, Control" inside the Waste Land can be an achievements of Eliot's mindful consolidation of theoretical appraisals in his essays and poetic experiments.
Eliot was an acclaimed dramatist too. He once remarked, "The ideal medium for poetry, to my head, and the most direct means of communal 'usefulness' for poetry, is the theatre. " An extremely cautious architect of varied literary genres that he was, The Waste products Land can be seen as an experimental amalgamation of varied literary strains in a 'whole entire'. While the poem conjures up dialogues just as "The Game of Chess" or the monologues just as "The Burial of the Dead", it definitely brings out the theatrical conventions alive. Also, the juxtaposition of several voices, situations and atmospheres in great variety enhance the dramatic aspect in the poem.
The comprehensive manner in which the modern-day world is portrayed in the lyrical music on the Waste materials Land has produced some critical viewpoints throughout the poem as an epic creation. Though this grand case can be contested on various specialized grounds, the epical paradigms of the poem surface in impressive proportions. If one considers 'the wasteland' of modern civilization as the metaphorical hero and read the poem in this light, one can negotiate with the deep rooted reach of the poem.
T. S. Eliot's The Waste products Land qualifies the popularly conceived notions around Modernism and Classicism. The poet, critic and dramatist not only paid obeisance to the literary practices he inherited across years and space, but considerably modified the many borrowings based on the altered and changing requirements of his modern certainty. The poem contests the received cannon, negotiates with each preceding and present precincts of the literary moves and tendencies. The certified consolidated denouement of Eliot's laboured endeavours culminated into a new idiom that edified as The Misuse Land. It really is this regenerated 'sprout' and 'bloom' of poetry on the corpse of 'the waste land' that makes this work a 'Modernist Antique. '