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World region and their characteristics


As we all know that the earth system is an interdependent system of several countries connected by monetary and politics competition. The planet region emphasize on the interdependence of places and regions throughout the world where in the locations are further grouped as primary, semi peripheral and peripheral areas.

Immanuel Wallerstein, the founder of the intellectual university of world-systems theory, characterizes the planet system as a set of mechanisms which redistributes resources from theperipheryto thecore. In his terminology, thecoreis the developed, industrializedpart of the world, and theperipheryis the "underdeveloped", typically raw materials-exporting, poor part of the world; themarketbeing the means by which thecoreexploits theperiphery.

The above figure depicts the hierarchy of national societies split into 3 world-system areas. The primary countries are in dark dark, the semi peripheral countries in the middle of the global hierarchy are in cross-hatch and the peripheral countries are grey.

Further we'd study more about these regions which would help us understand their role plus some of these characteristics.

Core region and their characteristics:

The core regions of the globe system are the most economically varied, wealthy and powerful (both financially and militarily) nations of the world. These nations are very on top of industrialization plus they tend to focus on information, fund and service companies. Often they produce manufactured good alternatively than exporting recycleables to other countries which would not yield them high incomes. More regularly they are the front side runners in high-technology electronics and biotechnology establishments. They may have sufficient tax basic so the government provides better infrastructures and facilities for a solid overall economy internally and externally. Due to these factors, the main nations have more influence over noncore countries as a result which they enjoy relatively high per capita earnings.

The trading hubs of Great britain and Holland were the first primary regions of the globe system and they were later signed up with by other production and exporting regions in other areas of Western European countries and in North America. Japan too became a part of the primary region as these were and will be the market leaders in electronic science and technology.

The background of modern world system demonstrates the core countries has been rivalling with one another in order to access world's resources, economic dominance and have control over peripheral countries. Accordingly to Immanuel Wallerstein, a main nation can be dominant over all if indeed they lead in three the majority of critical indicators.

1) Production dominance which will allow them to create goods and services of high quality at an inexpensive price when compared with some other country.

2) Production dominance will also lead to trade dominance meaning there's a advantageous balance of trade since there may be more of export trade than import trade.

3) This in turn contributes to financial dominance meaning the inflow of the money could be more than the outflow which will lead to more control of world's money.

Semi periphery region and their characteristics:

Semi Periphery parts can be explained as a geographic area that lays just outside and portion of key financial activity. They are considered as the mediocre locations this means they lay between your core and the periphery regions. For better understanding, they may also be called as developing nations. They will be the nations moving towards industrialization and more diversified economy. They may be neither as developed as the central society nor they are really underdeveloped as the peripheral parts. "While they are really weaker than primary societies, they want to get over this weakness and aren't as at the mercy of external manipulation as peripheral societies. "

Semi-periphery parts play an important role in arbitrating political, social and economical activities that website link center and peripheral regions. The probability of reforms in cultural and organizational framework, ground breaking technology and dominance over peripheral countries is led through these areas. Hence, through these changes, a semi-periphery country is promoted to a core nation. Additionally, Semi-periphery assists as a posture within the earth hierarchy in which economic and public change can be interpreted.

As defined by the World-systems theory, the semi-periphery region performs an important role on the planet economy. The semi-periphery performs much important role than what the Spain and Portugal enjoyed in the 17th and the 18th hundreds of years as intermediate trading groupings within the Western colonial empire.

As mentioned before, semi peripheral countries are industrialized and hence they are the hub of processing and exportation of a variety of goods. They usually have above average land mass this means increase in market size and share, examples of which can be China, India and Mexico. Though not all the semi peripheral nations are large, smaller countries such as Poland, Italy, Israel and Greece also exits with the semi peripheral region.

Since early amount of globalized trade, the semi-peripheral nations of the world have played out a essential role in world trade and interaction. This "middle earth" between the very powerful cores and the backwaters of the far periphery allowed those two zones to connect to greater convenience.

Periphery parts and their characteristics:

Regions which have resisted and remained economically and politically struggling to participate in this technique of incorporation into the world system are known as Peripheral nations. These countries are least economically diversified plus they tend to be based upon one type of monetary activity such as extracting and exporting raw materials to core nations. Moreover they are often targeted by the multinational organizations from core countries that can come with a mind set to exploit the cheap unskilled labor for export back again to the core nations. The ratio of poor and uneducated people in these regions is too much and hence inequality is commonly too much for the actual fact that small top class that has most of the land and has profitable ties to multinational businesses. These are highly affected by core nations and their multinational companies because of which many a time they are compelled to follow economical policies that prefer the core countries and damage the long term economic potential clients of periphery countries. Unlike core parts, they may have relatively weak establishments with little taxes base to support infrastructure development.

At the same time, it is important to recognize that center, peripheral and semi peripheral aren't gigantic geographies. In other conditions, there are peripheral areas within central regions and in core locations too, just as there are core areas with peripheral parts and peripheral metropolitan areas. For example, Canada being the part of core region has some intensive areas such as Nunavut that don't have widespread usage of advanced technologies and also have low level of economic productivity. The identical complements the periphery region where some areas have significantly more in common with the key region than they are doing with the areas that immediately encircle them. For example, Rio de Janiero and Mumbai in India, both of which are core places in semi peripheral and peripheral countries.

List of core, semi peripheral and peripheral regions of the entire world.

Core region

Semi peripheral region

Peripheral region












Costa Rica



Dominican Republic




New Zealand






United Kingdom



United Areas of America

South Korea

Yemen Republic.

The future of peripheral region:

Periphery region would not stay the same and can slowly proceed to the semi peripheral region for certain in the coming future. Below are a few of the logical reasons for it.

Economical: As everybody knows that the key locations have always used to exploit the natural resources in the peripheral parts to earn more profits by different ways of investment, earnings writing etc. the overall economy of the united states is bound to take a step with an increase of investment and with flow of financial resources which will also help the society, infrastructure, medical help and education system in the country. This has a direct impact on the international trade which helps the united states to build an improved economy. For example, India had exposed their door for overseas investments in middle 90's because of which, today the country is one of the super power in Asia and a leader in software industry.

Political: Globalization has made the earth a small location to live due to which we often see two or more countries unite to hint trade and welfare contracts. These agreements also helps the country to make itself a much better and safer destination to live as the member countries is there to help the other person in terms of political, financial or communal needs. Also with growing overall economy, education system performs a vital role which indeed produces in better politicians and economists.

Social: The social facet of peripheral region is likely to be high because of globalization and extreme competition on the planet market. With more overseas investment and overseas trade, the social environment of the united states will get better which in turn can promote a great many other factors of our daily life.


After studying the annals of the world locations, one can say that the time used by a land or a region to go from peripheral to semi peripheral gets shorter and shorter with sudden increase in overseas trade and globalization. Even super powers like United states and Japan were a peripheral region. Spain and Portugal, area of the original center in the 16th century, became semi peripheral in the 19th century but are actually once more an integral part of the central region.

It is the people of the planet who can change the region from peripheral to semi peripheral and from semi peripheral to primary by causing right and useful decisions which can help us and the generations to come.


* (0): World region in global context by Sallie A Marston, Paul L. Knox, Diana M. Liver man

* (1): Wikipedia site

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