A Focus On The Superments In Singapore Economics Essay

Economics is a sociable technology, that studies the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services, and may be used to quantitatively and qualitatively examine confirmed market. The question I decided on for further exploration through economics is, "To what extent do supermarkets in Singapore resemble an oligopoly market composition?"


The supermarkets in Singapore are an indispensible part of modern culture. Wedding caterers to the needs of all, Supermarkets are said to be "the inspiration of the population. The phrases "I'll NTUC" and "I'm at Chilly Storage" have found one common place within the Singaporean contemporary society with on the million people or around 25% of the populace regularly visiting a supermarket. Regardless of the numerous supermarkets in Singapore, the marketplace is dominated by four large organizations; NTUC FairPrice, Chilly Safe-keeping, Sheng Siong and Giant.

An oligopoly is a market form, where organizations are 'few and large'; the whole market is dominated by a small number of sellers, where the top 4 or 5 5 retailers control over 40 % of the market share. Based on the fact that the marketplace under examination gets the assumed scenario, where the four largest firms control over 40% of the full total market share, the marketplace under research has been hypothesized to be an oligopoly. There are several factors that are inherent in the structure associated with an oligopoly. Included in these are assumptions and characteristics including the following:

Barriers to Entry: Most oligopolies have specific barriers to access, usually the large-scale development or the strong branding of the prominent firms. Barriers to entry may also be legal limitations such as patent rights, or collusion among the prevailing businesses to keep new entrants out by trimming prices sharply to make it impossible for the new entrant to compete or produce at that price. Regarding the market for supermarkets, there are substantial barriers to accessibility, which include the size of the vegetation of the prevailing firms, import created from overseas and strong brand of the firms. These act as a hurdle to limit the admittance of probably new firms into the market, further enhancing the position of existing companies in terms of market share

Interdependency of Organizations and Price Steadiness: In an oligopoly, firms are reported to be interdependent as the results of action of 1 firm will depend on the result of the rival businesses. As there are just a few organizations, each firm needs to take careful notice of every other's actions. Interdependence can make organizations want to collude therefore avoid surprises and surprising outcomes. If they can collude and act as a monopoly, they can boost their profits. Thus the businesses are very interdependent which is shown by the idea of the kinked demand curve (Physique 1). The kinked demand curve is applicable the effect of interdependency in respect to the resource, demand and price fluctuations in a Oligopoly market. The kinked demand curve works on the assumption that, the truth is, the firm has learned only 1 1 point on the demand curve, the the one that it holds at the moment ('A'). When the firm were to raise its price, then it would be unlikely that the competition would increase theirs therefore, the company would lose its demand to the other businesses. Thus, demand would be stretchy above point 'A', where in fact the firm happens to be operating at, as a tiny increase in price would lead to a big fall in number demanded. However, if the firm were to reduce its prices, it would be likely that the other companies would reduce theirs too. Also, instead of minimizing it to the amount of the company, the other companies may lower it even more to replace the lost sales, by attaining more. Hence, demand would be inelastic below point 'A', as a decrease in price would lead to a negligible increase in amount demanded. Hence, it is stated in an oligopoly that if a company were to improve its prices, it would be really the only loser. This reduces the motivation of the companies to remain competitive by reducing their prices. This can help in preserving price stability within an oligopoly market. Thus it is unlikely that a person supermarket would minimize their prices to pull market share from other opponents. However, organizations may gain an advantage by reducing their production cost per product (economies of scale) to cut costs to a far more competitive level, while still making super-normal earnings. Also, being profit-maximizers, the companies operate at MC=MR. But the form of the MR curve is such that, even if the marginal costs were to increase, it would still equal their marginal income and the organizations have a range for profit maximizing.

Benefits of economies of Level: Large companies, within an oligopoly, have an advantage of benefits to scale. Larger businesses enjoy special discounts when buying raw materials in mass, and borrow capital at lower interest levels. Thus in the Long Run, the organization would enjoy in the benefits of the economies of size. An current economic climate of scale is defined as an advantage of increased development where the price tag on production or servicing one unit reduces with each additional product produced or serviced. These more efficient firms can wipe out competition in the Long Run and may end up being the lone producer, i. e. the monopolist. In diagram 2, it is plainly evident that a firm can sell a larger quantity Q2 at a lesser price per unit than creating a lower quantity Q.

Non-Price Competition: As firms do not be competitive in price competition, they indulge themselves in non-price competition. As opposed to the homogenous goods of your Perfectly Competitive Market, an oligopolistic producer relies intensely on differentiating its products. Although the merchandise may be substitutes, they have got minor distinctions. Product Differentiation can create a solid foothold for an organization and increase their market talk about. Another way for a company to do this is through branding. This impact can be seen in Apple's "itouch" which has help Apple gain a considerable talk about of the MP3 market. Advertising also also performs a crucial role in the firm's market share. In the context of this research the result of product differentiation is a key area for the assortment of data. The factors that are considered are regular membership benefits, location, free examples, amount put in by each firm on advertising and operating time.

These theories offered help structure the basis for testing the way the market under inspection conforms with an Oligopoly.

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