Soft System Methodology

Andrzej Werner

Soft System Methodology can be described as a 7-step process aimed to help provide a solution to true to life problematic situation induced by two different perceptions by applying defensible and wise models for evaluation with the situation in true to life in order to assist to make decisions or suggestions regarding the solution or response for the problem.

Those models are known as Conceptual models, those models logically signify what steps must be undertaken, to be able to attain desired effect mentioned in root definitions which are manufactured predicated on the tasks, norms and beliefs taken from the discovered problem. In another words conceptual models are models that show just what a good standard appears like concerning compare it with the true life situation to see what must be done to achieve that good quality standard. (Burge 1-14)

A Lawyer by the name of "Crane, Poole and Schmidt" is a professional legislation company with 15 years of experience; their reputation established fact among the law firms with unbeatable and compassionate law firms. To keep on top of the competitors, the business's IT team requires changing their infrastructure to be more efficient and reliable for research and documents to be exchanged. However the company is bound in the amount of money they can spend on the update and cloud processing alternatives aren't cheap.

In order to develop accurate conceptual models for comparison of different possible solutions to the situation, first the challenge needs to be identified by knowing the jobs, norms and values for the individuals involved within the situation.

In case of "Crane, Poole and Schmidt" the IT section wants to up grade their infrastructure to be able to benefit from the could-computing increasing the company efficiency, production and income. As "Crane, Poole and Schmidt" will be the first company to adopt could-computing technologies, that could give them a substantial advantage and newer approach over competition companies.

The first step is to identify the roles; those functions are cultural positions being involved within the trouble. Those functions are categorized by expected norms or behaviours in it, which is judged by the neighborhood values or criteria that the individual within the positioning of the role needs to achieve and complete. (Checkland 13-328)

The role of the Board of directors & CEO is to control the organization as well as conclude table meetings in case of larger size decisions such as update of the IT infrastructure within the Company. Also, they are in charge of any major contractors and partner companies, as well as executing and making use of new ways of be prior to the opponents in their vocation. This panel is also in charge of granting permissions to any larger scale assignments within the company, as well as allowing the required/allocated budget and resources.


The standard norms that Table of directors with the CEO should perform include:

  • To carefully evaluate the need for a change or the upgrade or the company
  • Monitor financial aspects and function accordingly to the company's best interest
  • Make up to date decisions within the best interest of the company


The values that your role should perform are for the greater good of company therefore the Board of directors with the CEO will be judged based on the local criteria or principles:

  • Allocate appropriate budget for the projects
  • Make correct decisions for authorization and disapproval, as it pertains to assignments within the business, strategies used to stay together with the rivals and/or choice of companions with the firm

Role - System Analyst

The system analyst is in charge of analyzing the existing system and its implications, and what could be done to improve it. System analyst will examine the existing system, then design and use new IT infrastructure. This role is very vital for the upgrade of the IT infrastructure because system analyst will design and put into action improved IT infrastructure, including both software and hardware requirements.


A system analyst has certain norms that his role requires to perform, these norms include:

  • Study the current infrastructure to identify its strong and fragile points
  • Design a new infrastructure with necessary hardware and software requirements
  • Implement and test new infrastructure and article back to the IT Section Administrator


As for the beliefs that your role is expected to achieve, are the following:

  • Managing the update within the deadline
  • Managing the upgrade within a given budget
  • Reviewing the improvement of the implementation
  • Determine possible options for the update, including hardware and software requirements.
  • Communication with the IT office and third-party online cloud centered solutions.

Role - IT Section Administrator

The administrator of the IT team (henceforth 'admin') is a crucial role to an organization; because the supervision department is accountable for smooth flow of information between different departments within the business.

The role of administrator of any division comes with specific duties which need to be fulfilled. In cases like this: handling the IT division, any projects that integrate the IT section, manage the performance of office and its influence on the company, as well as taking care of the approved cover the division and IT infrastructure of the company. (Mishra)


With the role of any admin of an department there are specific norms that the role should show, these involve:

  • To have the ability to improve employees capability to manage and plan the work area in professional and effective manner
  • Advance the right possessions management approach
  • Advance the right office management approach
  • Capable of creating administrative procedures
  • Capable of planning and managing given budget for the department


A role of administrator also requires specific prices to be performed by occupant of this role. For the occupant of the role these values are the actual occupant is judged on.

  • The occupant must have the ability to control and plan budget well for the department
  • Admin is required to take care of the department to ensure professional and successful working standard
  • Admin is also required to ensure the IT infrastructure of the company is working without the complications

Role - Financial Manager

The role of an financial manager is to be responsible for financial condition of the company; their job includes data research and advising mature professionals on different approaches for maximizing the business revenue. The financial supervisor will be accountable for calculating the budget for the upgrade of the IT infrastructure; they will calculate costs for update of the infrastructure but also the estimated cost savings attained by this upgrade. (Derweesh, Schnitzer and Stettin)


The specifications that the financial supervisor must achieve in his performance are as follows:

  • Organize business action studies and financial statements
  • Ensure legal requirements are achieved by observing on the financial details
  • Assist the management in financial judgments
  • Analyze company financial documents and position and seek a new strategies for cost reduction
  • Perform evaluation of the marketplace to spot potential choices for increase of the company and obtaining new companies


A role of financial manager is challenging and frequently requires working in-collaboration with executives group, CEO's and administrative planks. This role is assessed by certain worth such as:

  • Financial condition of the firm
  • Net income of the company
  • Costs and Cost decrease strategies
  • Making sure all the legal requirements are achieved for any business deal performed by the company.

Role - End-user

The end-user group is a role in which the employees of the organization, is a role that is important where each worker is doing their designated tasks to be able to improve the growth, efficiency and operation of the organization. Those employees are employing the business's IT infrastructure on daily basis changing it will also have a particular impact on those end-users.


Norms that belong to end-user role are:

  • Performing their part in the business and expertly and efficiently deal with the tasks assigned
  • Be responsible for customer data protection and integrity
  • Use the business IT services for work on daily basis


The ideals which this role should display are:

  • Perform the job/activity properly, ethically, lawfully and efficiently
  • Work with customers and their data
  • Always stand for company in a good name
  • Do not use company's IT services for reasons not associated with work

Role - Third-Party Companies

Another role associated with this upgrade is third-party cloud companies, which will be found in the upgrade of the infrastructure. Those companies occupy a job where these are responsible for providing cloud-based service to the business and most of its employees, as well as guaranteeing the safeness of the firm and customer data.


The norms that this role should show are as follows:

  • 99. 9% uptime of the servers and the service
  • Good data security
  • Good customer support
  • Variable price range and different deal options
  • Good back-up and devastation recovery planning


This role also offers its principles which have to be achieved to become recognized as a professional company and service in the industry. Those ideals are what the firms providing the service are judged on, included in these are:

  • Uptime of the servers providing the service
  • Amount of security breaches the company has had
  • Techniques for security of the data
  • Price being much like the competitors
  • Quality of the customer support
  • Quality of the service

Rich Picture


The root definitions are used to logically find out what steps the company will need to undertake, to achieve the desired final result of the definition. The root meaning comes from CATWOE evaluation which includes six levels, including; client, actors, transformation, world view, owner and environment. (Simonsen 1-18), (Williams 1-20)

C - Client

As the receiving party, consumer in this circumstance are the end-users of the machine (employees using the current IT infrastructure), the primary issue that your client has is that they are comfortable with the existing IT infrastructure plus they do not want any changes, and also the end-users aren't happy that they need to go through additional training to get accustomed to new system while dealing with the customers.

Even although clients like the thought of a cloud centered infrastructure, they are afraid about their potential to execute their duties on a new system, thinking that the company will increase its profits while the employees must work with new and new infrastructure.

A - Actors

The actors will be the roles that may perform the Transformation (T), people mixed up in upgrade of the IT infrastructure will be the panel of directors and CEO's, IT office admin, financial supervisor and system analyst. The impact that they will experience is additional benefit almost all of the edges, as well as additional costs to raised system analyst and the budget for the update.

The final decision is going to be made by the plank of directors and CEO's whether the update is possible/ required or neither. The celebrities which work in the company might not exactly be happy about additional costs and work, however they know the reason for this update is to constantly stick out above the challengers, at exactly the same time they see benefits for the work flow within the business.

T- Transformation

The procedure for transformation in this case is the procedure of taking inputs which will be the views of the employees concerning see what they think about the cloud centered infrastructure and transforming that into the system requirements for the end-users. Aswell as taking current IT system hardware and software resources and changing them into a supplementary cover the update, what resources are needed and which may be sold that decision will be produced by the IT division administrator. The entire budget will be allocated by the mother board of directors and CEO's influenced by the view from the financial administrator.

In order for the transformation to be successful certain steps need to be undertaken. First rung on the ladder would be for the CEO's to decide whether the upgrade is necessary or not, and they would seek advice from with the financial director which could assess estimated budget available for the update. The authorization for the update along with the budget would be given to the admin of the IT section which in turn will be required to make use of system analyst who will handle the update within the believed budget, and they will be responsible for finding system requirements by obtaining opinion from the end-users. System analyst may also be required to offer with third party cloud providers. (Simonsen 1-18)

The output from this transformation will be increased working efficiency as the end-users can perform a few of the duties in the comfort of their own home; additionally the reduction in hardware will increase company income as well as decrease in the personnel anticipated to surplus to requirements will raise the company cost savings. The admin of the IT department will then develop a training program for the end-users.

W - World View

The update of the IT infrastructure is necessary for the business to stick out above the competition on the market, overall increasing the company productivity and income. In a greater plan of things, rules firms are incredibly demanding about their working ethics and aren't keen for any big changes as this may impact not only on the working efficiency of the employees but also on the customers which put trust into the company.

As technology progresses increasing the benefits for most businesses, law businesses also need to adapt to stay within the market and be practical to the prospective audience. In the bigger picture companies with an easy and reliable IT system can process and deal with more customers simultaneously increasing the profit, however as law firms are named very respectful companies any flaws made can have a dramatic impact on the client basis and their trust.

The wider impact of the perfect solution is is never to only increase company gain changing to cloud but also to reduce hardware resources in effect becoming more eco-friendly, allowing the employees to work from home by linking to cloud services as a result increasing the region of work to utilize more customers, away from cost and staff reduction the business will be noticed as newer with the same professional and moral approach that will increase its level of popularity with the industry.

O - Owner

The owner which is responsible for the upgrade and the IT system is the admin of the IT department, however the primary owner are the CEO's of the organization, ultimately every bigger decision undergoes them and they decide what to do as they give out the permission for the procedure and the budget.

The owner is bound in the quantity of assistance they can offer due to interacting with other tasks, contracts and competitors, they can offer the agreement for the update and the budget however the rest of decision making and responsibility sits with the admin of the IT department.

If the main owner would be constantly changing their brain on the allocated budget or the admin of the IT office would not have the ability to implement and control the new system that could easily get in the manner. However with a good level of communication with the CEO's is placed and all the huge benefits combined with the design of the new system would be presented to them, that could potentially lead the owner to help out even more by for example making the budget more adaptable.

E - Environment

When it involves changes within the system as well as how to company operates there are environmental constraints that need to be fellfield, these can range from simple in company rules/ suggestions to legislations and legislation necessary for the company lawful efficiency.

There are current regulations that your company has to follow such as Data Cover Action 1998, Legal Services Function 2007, medical and Safety Action 1974 and Companies Take action 2006. All those polices and legislations are in place as the company is accountable for safeguarding and promoting the public interest.

Aside from the laws and regulations already set up, in order to perform transformation procedures there are environmental aspects to take into consideration when picking associates which will provide the service. As regulations firms deals with not only the business data but also customer data, when performing the update the service provides should ensure the full Safe Harbour contract if any or all information would be stored beyond your EEA.

The service provider also should ensure that the communication between the employees that will work on the move is anchored, as well as the service provider should ensure 24h access to the service. And also the service should have conformity with ISO 20071 and must include requirements of the SRA Code of Do.

Root definition One

A system given by the admin of the IT department held by CEO's "Crane, Poole and Schmidt", requires upgrade because of the system being sluggish and not secure. Upgrading to cloud structured alternatives would straighten out the matter of security as well as storage. By changing to cloud processing therefore you will see a reduction of human resources in the office allowing the end-users to travel to consumer locations increasing in company production, reputation and services. Due to the transformation certain new legislations and coverage comes into place, not only keeping the use of service for professional and moral reasons, ensuring data integrity by pursuing Data Protection Function 1998 and ensure that no end-user will breach restrictions such as Computer Misuse Function 1990.

By getting into the cloud computing some new troubles could be created where some of the client basis could have any doubt about their private data being stored somewhere in an undiscovered location. While using the service providers that are centered only within the EEA is a must as it ensures data safeguard laws and also the company should preferably also follow SRA Code of Do.

However yet another way to ease those in hesitation is always to put into practice a hybrid system where a few of the info is stored locally plus some of the data is stored on secure servers in the cloud. Also the utilization of encryption software to automatically encrypt company documents and customer data would put additional level of security in place.

(Burge 1-14)

C - Client

As a client in this case customers are the primary recipients of the power from the update of the infrastructure as they'll be able consultations done not only in the office but also online and in the comfort of their own home. The employees will be able to take their data and documents with these to the client location and present everything there by being able to access the company data, stored on a secure server in the cloud.

A - Actors

As for the folks performing the change, actors include the primary directors and CEO's which will be in a position to approve and offer the cover the update, financial manager will assist CEO's in budget allocation and admin of the IT section with budget management. The admin will be responsible for management of the upgrade and training for the end-users, he'll also hire a system analyst for advice and information during the update.

T - Transformation

Transformation is focused on reduced amount of the redundant resources and applying a cloud-based infrastructure which is employed by end-users to do the honors for the customers, increasing the worker output, company income and client satisfaction. The entities in charge of the upgrade are the admin of the IT section with the assistance of system analyst and financial manager. Another important factor of the change is the review of the performance and income to have the ability to take improvement action to constantly improve.

W - World View

A good and well reputable company in the industry always must consider their impact and opinion on society, market, customers and other functions. Cloud computing is a fresh technology that grows up rapidly, enabling companies to become more versatile in their type of work and benefiting customers by providing the service to them, additionally decrease in hardware resources will also make the business more eco-friendly.

O - Owner

The real owner of the job is the table of directors & CEO's as they make the key and last decisions for the well health being of the business, they are also the entity that has the complete control over the budget specified for the upgrade. By providing sufficient budget and approval for the upgrade the owner assists the stars and increases company reputation, income and efficiency.

E - Environment

As for the surroundings variable which impact the effects the update and the company are rules legislations, suggestions and regulations which the company must ensure to be able to develop and keep maintaining professional trust with the customers and lovers. These legislations would include Data Cover Act 1998, Health and Safety Function 1974 and Legal Services Function 2007. Additionally the company should ensure that the companies will follow appropriate laws and regulations, such as SRA Code of Do (Solicitor's Regulation Power) and ISO 2007/1 rules.

Root classification Two

A system had by the law company "Crane, Poole and Schmidt", which is under the supervision of the administrator of the IT office will serve the end-users which deal with customers on daily basis increasing the company reputation and income. The update of the machine is necessary to boost the company production and efficiency, by growing to cloud computing the firm and its employees could work from anywhere at any given time increases the customer platform and enhancing the business's production and efficiency. As coping with customer data is vital for the business functionality, data integrity needs to be kept and all the legislations and rules to do with the business and customer relationships and data need to be used. (Williams 1-20), (Burge 1-14)


(Williams 1-20), (Checkland 13-328)

  1. Burge, Stuart. An Overview OF THIS Soft Systems Technique. 1st ed. Burge Hughes Walsh, 2015. Web. 3 Mar. 2017.
  2. Checkland, Peter. Systems Thinking, Systems Practice. 1st ed. Chichester: Wiley, 2002. Printing.
  3. Derweesh, Zayd, Tom Schnitzer, and Jessie Stettin. "The Role Of Financial Managers". Boundless. N. p. , 2016. Web. 9 Mar. 2017.
  4. Mishra, Pankaj. "Effective Role Of Administration WITHIN AN Organization". linkedin. com. N. p. , 2014. Web. 7 Mar. 2017.
  5. Simonsen, Jesper. Soft Systems Strategy. 1st ed. semanticscholar, 1994. Web. 9 Mar. 2017.
  6. Williams, Bob. Affluent Pictures And CATWOE: Simple Yet Powerful Scope-Modelling Techniques. 1st ed. bobwilliams, 2005. Web. 18 Feb. 2017.
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