A Key Design Role In Tectonic Architecture History Essay

The pursuing thesis seeks to recognize and examine the partnership between tectonic structures and materials. Although materials are around us; we often do not take the time to examine them; to truly reflect on their inclusion, therefore there very presence is often taken for granted. To be able to emphasise the value of materials in structures; this research question focused on discussing Just how do materials play an integral design role in tectonic architecture?

The thesis used two main methodologies. The first was a literature review, with a comprehensive review of the literature that was instrumental in addressing the main topics, materials and tectonic structures. The next was a model based study which focused on a specific building. It examines how a change in materials could have an impact on the design of the building; and thus emphasises the main element role materials play in tectonic structures.

The results of the research highlighted the fact that materials do indeed play a key role in the design of tectonic complexes; and in some instances they can be the main drivers for the initial design. Nonetheless it was also set up that there are many other contributory factors which also affect the entire design. Factors such as the structure, the crafting of development, innovation, the utilization of cutting edge technology, the collaboration of the design team as they work in synergy with the architect, and finally the methodologies of learning by doing or facilitating education through the coaching of others.

Definitions / Glossary

Tectonic Architecture - A non-monolithic composition, set up using different materials, techniques and resources in the act of building making and uncovering.

Stereotomic Architecture - A self-supporting monolithic structure made up from articulated stable elements.

Atectonic - A blend of tectonic and sterotomic building techniques.

The crafting of development - This is not only a joint or a development detail; it's the crafting collectively of materials and surface through bespoke means.

Green design - Philosophy that snacks environmental qualities as design aims rather than as constraints.

High-tech - Identifies technology that reaches the leading edge or the innovative technology currently available.

Honesty - The idea that a framework shall display its "true" purpose rather than be decorative

Materials - "The matter from which a thing is or can be produced"

Constructivist coaching methodologies - "Constructivist teaching is based on the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning and knowledge structure alternatively than passively acquiring information".

"All works of architecture involve a creative interplay between ideas and materials to which both creators and critics have frequently been willing to assign honest value"

Table of Contents

1. 0 Introduction

"Materials are not trendy; they are essential for the realization of creativity"

Looking across the built environment, one can see materials are all over the place; yet they are not often questioned; when were they developed? How are they picked? How are they used? Why were they come up with in a specific way? Were the right materials selected? In addition to these questions architects must also talk about issues around purpose and design; can materials be the driving a car power behind their designs or are they insignificant, simply an aesthetical feature of the building. Attempting to delve into and address some of these questions has resulted in the research of the thesis; namely 'How do materials play a key design role in tectonic structures'?

This thesis aspires to comprehend tectonic structures and the role of materials in the look of a building. One has a basic understanding of what these words suggest from the glossary however there's a need to explore where they have come from and exactly how they have and can affect structures. In exploring this idea there's a need to acknowledge, where tectonic architecture and materials started out, that they have evolved over time, and in the years ahead what course are they headed in?

The thesis shall discuss a number of the issues in order to address the research question. The paper shall examine the following main chapters; Joint / The crafting of engineering, the tectonic invention of large course, 20th hundred years modern tectonic architects, 21st century tectonic environmental structures and a model based study.

Research methods

This thesis is jointly done through two research methods. The first involves the literature review, and was under taken up to gain an in depth understanding of tectonic structures and the difficulty of materials. The next includes a model centered research that was conducted through the evaluation of drawings to be able to understand the result of a materials change on a tectonic building.

The first five chapters will analyse the main element role materials play on tectonic structures. It will take a look at both the theory and the functional side of this subject; with analytical drawings to help expand develop this process. This review will be carried out via secondary research, comprising of literature, journals, paper articles, electrical journals, published meetings and websites. Research will be carried out on both subject matter, starting with the look and building of the mere hut to the development of the modern day tectonic structures.

Chapters six will be an in-depth review in to a model based mostly research, where in fact the question will be asked if materials do play an integral role in tectonic architecture and if there was variations in materials would the building design and space transformed. The analysis will try to show how important materials are to the building design with 3 dimensional drawings.

2. 0 Joint / The crafting of construction

"Often it is the expressiveness of the jointing which humanizes constructions and provides them their friendly feel. "

In Greek, the term tectonic comes from the task tekton, which suggests carpenter or constructor. Within the fifth century, the meaning evolved in to the role of the tekton. This led to the emergence of the expert contractor or architekton. Kenneth Frampton seen that Adolf Heinrich Borbein said this meaning would eventually change to an cosmetic rather than technical category.

Frampton mentioned in his publication 'Studies in Tectonic Culture' that Karl Otfied Muller, in his third release of 'Handbuch der Archaologie der Kunst', that tektones was specialised, in reference to people in construction or cabinet creators that used a specifically functional or dried joint, though this did not include clay and material working in this is. This gave this is of tectonic as the joint or the signing up for through the development process.

In 1851 Gottfried Semper, shared his book, 'The Four Elements of Architecture' (Die vier Elemente der Baukunst). He founded a few of his elements over a Caribbean hut (see number 1) that he observed at the great exhibition of 1851 and he divided the dwelling into four elements, "1 the earthwork, 2 the hearth, 3 the platform (like the roof) and 4 the light-weight epidermis or membrane". On the base of the four elements, Semper classed the building crafts into two fundamental different methods: the tectonics of the light structure work and the stereotomic of the bottom.

Semper illustrated the utilization of the stereotomic basic where mud-brick and rock were placed on the ground, on to which the lightweight framed structure sat. Frampton considered the stereotomic bottom to be fill bearing masonry, weather rock and mud brick. He known the importance of the light framed composition, where he observed the creation of the knot as a simple element in permitting the tying jointly of the light-weight components. The knot led to the securing of the shape and was identified by Semper as a intricate jointing of structure. Around the world, this system can be visibly seen, where rope is used to knot light-weight structures alongside one another; highlighting how locally available materials were utilized to build huts. African tribal civilizations used a variety of vertical screen wall space where in fact the rope knot was the key construction factor. The Gogo house in Tanzania was built from tree branches in which a rope knot was employed to hold the structure collectively while dirt was built surrounding the structure. Compared to this, the Kuba hut within the southeast of the Congo was erected using woven mats, again with all joints being knotted together with rope.

Semper highlighted the development of knots into a weaving process, which consequently resulted in the creation of properties fabric. Buildings including the Bedouin tribal huts were built using locally sourced materials in a weaving manner in order to construct strong huts; as oppose to those which were built with knots. Woven wall surfaces were a kind of "wattle structure", that was referred to by Allen Noble as "vertical stakes, each installed into a gap or slot in one horizontal and sponge into a groove or another hole in the other member of the framework. Materials such as osiers, reeds or slim pieces of oak were most common". This form of wattle construction is still used today in the building of fences; nonetheless it did lead to the growth in wattle and daub engineering, that can be observed in many vernacular structures about the world today.

Cherie Wendelken in his article for the Tectonics of Japanese Style: Architect and Carpenter in the Past due Meiji Period noted that Japanese architecture got great symbolical structures which were primarily tectonic, whereby locally sourced materials such as grasses and bamboo pillars were being knotted along. The 15th hundred years Japanese house was constructed with a woven faade. These homes were built in a post and beam framed manner with woven infilling surfaces which allowed for flexible sliding monitors. Semper's, The Four Elements of Architecture, can be seen evidently in these properties as the stereotomic bottom part which was built of boulder footings, a compact timber composition sat on these foundations and lastly a lightweight skin area was applied. A few of these buildings would be built every 20 years as there time routine only lasted this duration. The most celebrated of these buildings being the monumental Naiku and Geku.

Pre 1800 tectonic structures illustrates that the joint or the crafting of building was the most important and innovative facet of tectonic architecture with materials playing a key role in the look of the building. This can be seen from the reed-built properties of the Marsh Arabs in Iraq (Materials, Form and Architecture for images p13). These materials were normally locally sourced and the structure methods were tried and tested over long periods of time, as was the case with most vernacular architecture of that period.

3. 0 The tectonic advancement of large spans

Gothic churches and cathedrals were mentioned by Frampton as having "the idea that with the incorporating vaulted and trabeated structural varieties in a fresh spatial unity; on the other, it extended the skill of reinforced masonry development to its technical boundaries". This resulted in the development of large non-load bearing faades in gothic architecture. This technology in structure continued to influence many architects of the 19th century, including Augustus, Welby, Northmore, Pugin and Viollet Le Duc.

Voorthuis features how Pugin said "You may decorate constructionbut you can construct decoration" and in so doing hides the true construction of a building. Pugin experienced a great knowledge of material's and craftsmanship. He himself used innovative and experimental techniques when it came to workmanship and planning building like the Church of St. Augustine, Ramsgate or St. Aidan's Cathedral in Enniscorthy. However Voorthuis emphasised how Pugin would insist that if mouldings were to appear over a building, they need to accomplish that for a reason, such as to stop weathering of an area alternatively than for cosmetic reasons; which was his use of tectonic architecture. Frampton directed this out in the fabric build-up of St. Pauls in London (167-1710). Where he commented on Pugin's proposed drawings of the cathedral "a section by having a pointed church compared to the hidden buttresses built into the fabric" (fig ??) or ornamented mediaeval truss rooftop in comparison to that of the hidden truss hidden by the suspended ceiling (fig ??). While Pugin done the technology in build and his idea, that mouldings were to seem for reasoning, Eugene Emmanuel Viollet le Duc worked on the progression in materials.

Viollet Le Duc was a French architect and theorist well-known for his interpretive restorations of middle ages structures and also for his writing advocating that materials should be utilized honestly. He started his job with twelve commissions for the restoration of medieval monuments. He urged the utilization of different materials with new techniques and resources, in contrast to the task of William Morris and his fine art and crafts movement, which advertised traditional crafts. Henry Truck Brunt in his book Discourse on structures observed that Viollet Le Duc was more concerned with the "economy of composition than the theorists of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Viollet-le-Duc pursues light in weight hollow or reticulated material construction as an agent for transforming every conceivable tectonic element, from window shutters to material roofs". This desire for metal construction led to Viollet le Duc using wrought and cast flat iron which promoted light-weight tectonic framed structures and was a distinctive resource from which 19th century structures would developed from.

His experimentation with material led to the development of an flat iron network of vaulting and can be seen in his octagonal hall design. Frampton mentioned that the "octagonal hall is sorted out with its polygonal roof framework and statically determinate flat iron members viewed the concepts of structural rationalism for the very first time in development". The octagonal hall was to be a 3000 chair hall spanning 140 feet, illustrating flat iron works and impressive techniques, which tended to pressed the restrictions of architecture and materials with their limits. His notion of cast flat iron framed constructions was to be first of all came to the realization by the British scenery architect Joseph Paxton and Anatole de Baudot.

Paxton won the look competition for the Great Exhibition of 1851 (fig ??) making a building calculating over 92, 000m2. He was assisted in his work by two engineers, Fox and Herderson, who came up with something of structural elements. The building was completed in nine a few months because of its progressive modular design and building techniques which used the largest wine glass sections available and the most up to date technology in order to forge and hook up elements. Another major factor that added to the fast building time was the collaboration of each person engaged, from the architect down to the craftsman.

De Baudot was seen as Viollet Le Duc's predecessor. Frampton mentioned that he worked in a similar style to that of Viollet le Duc, using cast iron columns to similarly point out his tectonic architecture in the world exhibitions kept in Paris in 1878 and 1889. These two significant jobs, "one round, the other rectangular, were attempts to realize Viollet-le-Duc's flat iron network vaulting over a grand size". However they never resided up to the grand scale of Galerie des Machines 1889 designed by Ferdinand Dute which experienced a 180 feet span. The building was a controversial design for metal construction however flat iron was used as Robert Thorne notes that John W. Stamper emphasised "The main materials of the building's composition was to have been steel, however the decision was made at the last minute to use iron instead. Steel was discontinued on the two-fold ground of expenditure and the need of hastening the execution of work".

Georg Heuser, and Otto Wagner were both great authors in the advertising of architectural realism as a matter of principle in the past due 1800's. Heuser saw the introduction of architecture innovation rather than decorative style. Frampton indicated that Heuser "appears to have been among the first to acclaim the riveted steel frame as the new professional vernacular of the machine age". Towards the in contrast Richard Weston wrights "For Ruskin, commercial production was the task of the Devil, and cast or machine work that imitated craft (side) development - what he called operative deceit".

4. 0 Tectonic strengthened concrete

"Draw out the nature of the materials; let their characteristics intimately into your plan"

The latter fifty percent of the 19th hundred years, also observed the development in structural framing cement. In 1890, engineer Paul Cottancin came up with his reinforced masonry system known as ciment arme. This system was mentioned to be labour extensive and became outdated 17 years later due to Francois Hennebique's patent and his strengthened concrete design known as beton arme. This final result reversed tectonic key points allowing the transgression of an stereotomic materials to a tectonic shape.

Frampton mentioned that after "Louis Vicat's efficiency of hydraulic cement around 1800, cement began to be utilized in a new way". However he mentions how Joseph Moniers commenced building prefabricated blossom pots and sewer pipes from reinforced wire and concrete. It was not until Francois Hennebique, a French engineer and self-educated builder, commenced using perfected reinforced concrete in his engineering that this became popular. Douglas McBeth, in his book Francois Hennebique-Reinforced concrete pioneer, emphasised that Hennebique's system began as fireproofing to protect flat iron beams. However he soon realised that the floor system would be more economical if the flat iron was used only where the slab was at tension, while it could count on the concrete in compression. The Hennebique system was a straightforward erection of timber formwork around metal, after which cement could be poured.

While Hennebique was perfecting his methods, De Baudot whom was Viollet Le Duc's forerunner was focusing on St. Jean de Montmartre. Frampton detected that De Baudot wished to exploit a way that could combine light development with bonded brickwork, as he described, "the result was a slightly oriental, diagonally bought system of vaults increasing from thin brick wall space and piers enclosing narrow programs of interior spots". This might bring Viollet Le Duc's idea of cast iron vaulting to a fresh innovative method of brick vaulting. However Hennebique system started to be widely used and was further produced by architects such as Auguste Perret.

Auguste Perret's architectural profession was bound across the principle of strengthened concrete and Karla Britton, in her book Auguste Perret known that Perret said "reinforced concrete shape construction is the ultimate structural material". Perret's went to the Ecole des Beaux arts school where he argued between functional and theory in architectural education. However as Frampton outlined, he chose the practical as he left abruptly before submitting a final project. He started to design and build one of the first apartment blocks from reinforced concrete building. Nonetheless, Perret was concerned for a building to be structurally genuine and with this, used a obvious framework as can be seen in his Garage area Marboeuf. His work was observed for establishing concrete as a satisfactory architectural materials in the 20th century. It was observed by Britton that Perret and Frank Lloyd Wright attempted fair faced reinforced concrete at virtually the same time and both acquired similar results.

5. 0 20th Century Modern Tectonic Architects

"Structure is the means; architecture is the effect"

Frank Lloyd Wright remaining college in 1887 without concluding his level, and shifted soon after to Chicago where he found work with Adler and Sullivan. Wright was impressed with Sullivan's ornamental design. Louis Sullivan was affected by the theory 'from and function'. However his declaration was "form ever uses function"'. Sullivan took Wright under his wing and acted as a coach to him in his early on career. Frampton stated; "Wright's early local architecture, performed in wood, is invariably conceived and machined matching to a repetitive modular order and framed". Sullivan also unveiled Wright to Celtic iconography and Celtic textiles. Following on out of this induction, Wright became greatly influenced by textiles. He frequented the Columbian exhibition of 1893, 'the Ho-o-den', and commenced turning his attentions to Japanese structures. He seen Japan in 1917 and worked well there until 1922. While working in Japan, Frampton noted that Wright examined tea houses, religious Japanese structures, and the Horyu-ji shrine. Upon his go back in 1922, Wright brought back many ideas, such as heated up floors and modular part development. However it was woven faade and concrete that generally encouraged him as he explained "Aesthetically, concrete has neither music nor any history". In 1921 Wright finally viewed the idea of wire-reinforced cement blocks that were pre-cast with a routine on the exterior face. He'd later call this the textile block. He first used this system in the Aliace Millard house in Passadena California. Terry Patterson in his book Frank Lloyd Wright observed that he'd make a double coursed wall, one internally and one externally for the cooling and heating of the home. After the achievement of both system and house, Wright refers to himself as a "weaver" proclaiming his textile blocks were a woven skin/faade. Wright uses this up with a affirmation in his book Frank Lloyd Wright Writings and Structures "I finally had found simple mechanised means to create a complete building that looks the way the machine made it, as much at least as any fabric need lookStandardisation as the heart of the device, here for the first time may be observed in the hand of the structures".

Semper, in 'The Four Elements of Structures', spoke about the textile and its comparison to the fine art of enclosures or the woven faade. This is seen from the wattle development, or Japanese vernacular residences, but now can be seen in the development and the affect in Frank Lloyd Wright's structures. There is also the development in the joint or crafting of development. This originated from the pre 1800's work and the great iron works of the 19th century which was advanced by architects such as Mies van der Rohe and Carlo Scarpa.

Mies vehicle der Rohe saw details and joints as one of the main important elements in his architecture, as his famously states, "God is at the details". Mies started his job by using brick on such projects as his Brick Country house Job going to great measures in this effort. Philip Johnson in his publication 'Mies van der Rohe' observed this as he expresses; "he determined all dimensions in brick lengths and occasionally proceeded to go as far as to separate the under-fired long bricks from the over-fired short ones, using the long in one route and the short in the other". Mies little by little began to use other materials, such as metal, marble and large mattress sheets of wine glass. The features of different materials became a respected idea in how Mies designed his buildings, from a stereotomic mass to a skeleton tectonic structure. When one looks carefully at the details in Mies's properties, he had a great understanding and admiration for the attributes of materials. As while he was looking for natural stone for the Barcelona Pavilion, he recognized that one could not move marble from a quarry in winter because it is moist inside and freezing conditions could cause it to break. With this in mind, he had to discover a dry material and finally found onyx blocks of a certain size and proportion, and out of this he designed the pavilion to be twice the elevation as it was at first considered and developed the program after that. Frampton acknowledged that from 1926 to 1933, Mies experienced "three main considerations; first of all, in the primary aesthetic intention, second of all, in the substance of materials at hand, and thirdly, in the institutional status of the task". An alteration in Mies work can be seen when he shifted the column from circular to I or H. He began to express the joint in the column and beams more often. This transformation helped bring him back again to a move to more traditional tectonics. This manifestation can be clearly seen in the Farnsworth House and the Neue Nationalgalerie Berlin. Frampton says, "Within these variables, the art of creating for Mies meant the embodiment of the nature in the banality of the real; the spiritualization of strategy through tectonic form".

6. 0 21st hundred years Tectonic Environmental Architecture

"Materials are not trendy; they are simply essential for the realization of creativeness"

Materials loom basically as one of the most discussed ideas of modern-day structures. Victoria Ballard Bell, in her publication Materials for Design clarifies that "Materials should motivate designers to think about materials as a palette that to imagine a concept or concept that can be realised by using materials". This idea can be seen in such building as the Laminata A glass house in Leerdam, HOLLAND, the horse firm (Ghost 9) in Nova Scotia Canada or Frank Gehry Guggenheim Museum Bilbao. However how are these materials chosen?

Bell outlines that material selection is one of the utmost important decisions an architect must take on. She notes generally, materials are not addressed till the end of the design process or even through the creation of a construction record for a building design as though there are sometimes mere afterthoughts in a variety of tasks. Lisa Wastiels gets the view that every material selection should try to fulfil a simple need, to identify the best material for a specific application. However in order to recognize the best materials, it is important to first understand the requirements used to select those materials in the first instance. Wastiels research broke materials selection thought into four identified categories, context, developing process, materials aspect and experience (see amount). However from interviews in Wastiels research, some interesting information came out. It was highlighted that building rules, regulations and expectations are major factors in the choosing of materials today. Further to the Richard Weston in his publication Materials, Form, and Structures says, "in addition to their traditional curiosity about the structural/constructional and cosmetic attributes of materials, designers must now also consider their embodied energy (in development, travelling, and on site), potential for recycling, and renewability as a source". Bell remarks that materials are now being chosen for their green qualifications to be sustainable and sensitive to your environment. This idea has been utilized by many tectonic architects such as Glenn Murcutt and Renzo Piano.

Australian architect Murcutt is globally renowned for his energy conserving structures; although he does not work beyond your country, using his motto "touch the earth gently". Murcutt can be an advocate of using locally sourced created materials such as goblet, timber and material where he developed an gratitude for simple vernacular architecture which pays attention to the surroundings. Murcutt considers the origins of the material, the energy used to process them and reusing those to avoid the loss of energy. The Marika-Alderton House in Yirrkala Community is a leading exemplory case of Murcutt's energy conserving ideas where he adapts his materials to the hot tropical local climate where a skeleton pores and skin like building emphasises air flow. Nevertheless he also uses agricultural tin bedding to cover the building in an ground breaking way.

Murcutt uses Simper's basic principle notion of elevating the principal building off the bottom, using lightweight metal structure (see body). Murcutt has set up a master school for educating students how to use his environmental ideas successfully. He used the constructivist teaching methodologies which advocate education through practice rather than a theory based job in order to give students an improved knowledge of these concepts. Parallel to this, Renzo Piano has similar values; however working on a more substantial high-tech range.

Renzo Piano is one of the main tectonic architects of the 21st hundred years. He has collaborated with many architects such as Sir Richard Rogers on the infamous Pompidou Centre, and Peter Rice the Irish engineer on a number of innovative tasks until his death in 1992. Peter Buchanan in his publication Renzo Piano Building Workshop: Complete Works, Vol. 5 expresses how Piano has included green design directly into all his recent work. One of is own most recent jobs is the academy of sciences in SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA which earned the highest sustainability rating granted by the U. S. green building council. This is achieved through the use of many innovated ideas such as reusing recycled materials, and only using locally sourced materials in a 500 a long way radius.

In 2004 Piano set up an application for students to build up and promote architecture. The program implements Piano's basic principle 'learning by doing' as he states "The look machine shouldn't relinquish connection with the workshop where the properties of materials are best explored, and where visual judgements are best made full size and not merely by vision but by the feel of the hard too". In doing this Piano has enabled others to fully understand their projects by building 1:1 models of their proposed designs therefore understanding the materials marriage with the project. It also allows for innovation in high-tech structure techniques such as the crafting of development as seen in lots of his tasks, specifically in his J M Tjibaou Cultural Centre or the Kimbell artwork museum expansion (see shape). However with new high-tech building techniques comes new high-tech materials.

Victoria Ballard Bell highlighted how "additionally it is most impossible to keep pace with the latest and hottest types of materials being created to the engineering field". Architects such as Shigeru Ban an prize winning architect, whom showed innovation with newspaper and specifically recycled cardboard paper pipes, which he utilised in rebuilding homes for devastation patients. However with all this modern creativity in materials and architecture, it is still important to remember what of John Ruskin "a building cannot be considered in its best until 4 or 5 centuries have handed over it'.

7. 0 Model Founded Research

"Each material has its own subject matter and, to the creative painters, its own songs. "

7. 1 Subject of Research

The following will be the research objectives of the study:

To gain an in-depth understanding of tectonic buildings across the world.

Establish the effect on the building and its environment; if the initial materials were modified or modified

Examine the consequences of materials change to the building's design.

Identify any problems in this research.

7. 2 Choosing the buildings

The pursuing research examines modern tectonic or atectonic architects, from throughout the world, to give a broad view of their architectural styles. Complexes designed by various architects will be evaluated, specifically those which have given a larger understanding and understanding towards tectonic architecture. Cases have been decided on from both ends of the spectrum, highlighted the nice and the bad within such architecture. The complexes were then broken down into their associated brackets, (see appendix 11. 1) to be able to give a greater understanding of what their relationship is to tectonic architecture.

Three different buildings would be evaluated when carrying out this research. They ranged in scale to be able to provide a greater knowledge of how the variance of materials can affect a space in differing scales. If it had been possible, the analysis would have explored a variation of creating functions; nonetheless it was regarded that function was not a key point. A criteria has been placed, that the properties require to truly have a framed framework; these set ups can be either light and portable or heavyweight, as the change in materials will possibly give bigger variations in structural type. The structures would have a minimum amount of materials, concerning allow for a larger gratitude of change. There is also to fit into the tectonic design of architecture and varying varieties of tectonics' as set out in the criteria, nonetheless it is thought that the design of the 'grasp contractor' (see meaning) is extremely hard in most countries so it was excluded on that bases. One stereotomic building will be included in order to offer an impartial view and illustrating if such a building design could be adapted to a tectonic style by using a change of materials.

Three buildings were chosen which best suited the criteria of the model founded research. These complexes are the Offer Pier Cafe by Niall McLaughlin, the Farnsworth by Mise truck de Rohe and Tadao Ando's 4 x 4 House see appendix 11. 2 more for information.

From these three structures, one building was chosen to complete an in depth analysis. After numerous discussions with lecturers, it was decided to use Mies vehicle de Rohe's, Farnsworth House as it provided the greatest exemplory case of both tectonic and modern local architecture. It had been perceived that the best possible results could be gleaned out of this building.

7. 3 Conditions for Changes

After learning the objectives and selecting the relevant structures; the following standards has been set out to ensure that impartial email address details are achieved;

Acceptable

Change of materials

Changing of cable connections / joint method's

Changing of the structural principles, however only once materials requirements cannot meet up with the existing structural ideas.

Exposing the structure

Heights can vary greatly as required to be able to achieve the right proportion and level of the materials.

Alteration to glazing design

Unacceptable

Change in the structures function

Inserting walls

Adding rooms or floors

7. 4 Factors not considered

The next factors weren't considered, as to allow such changes to the materials used or it would bring about an obsolete study (Fait accompli)

The physical framework, the cultural context or the context of use weren't considered.

The specialized aspects such as building regulations, and building rules were not taken into account due to the differing age ranges and technological requirements of creating and location.

The architects reasoning had not been considered, as it would prevent the materials being changed

7. 6 Results of Research

The building designs performed change after the materials were changed. With each adjustment, Mies's notion was lost. For instance changing the width of the columns and removing the plinth were necessary modifications to the design for varying materials. Nonetheless it shows that structure and the constructional build of the building are of utmost importance it is therefore not possible to change the materials utilised without influencing the physical structure.

The design of the building advanced with every single change as can be seen when the idea of using two heavy structural elements were used to hold the roof structure (site ??). This change changed the understanding and articulation of the area. The original design had nominal structural elements with a sizable free available plan. This concept was lost with the help of two large columns, which changed the space and also clogged views which influenced the open up plan design.

Mies notion of the development joint was very important in the building design. However as obvious with timber there can be many types of joints. These engineering joints can change the building and its own design (see webpages ??). The crafting of development and change in materials resulted in varying looks to each building as it's changed from the initial design.

There was a lack of Mies's aesthetic dreams in each change made, however the metal and brick were closest to his idea. The study emphasised that each material used must in every instances take into account structure. Every time the materials were improved the structural concept of the building were changed. This is not accounted for in the beginning of this research.

This study has shown that changing the materials will change the buildings design and can hamper the design in lots of ways. Using the change of material it has shown that the crafting of structure and structural rules are as important as materials in all instances. With this knowledge framework and jointing links in materials could be part of my technological thesis.

8. 0 Conclusion

Throughout this research it is clear that materials do play a key role in the look of tectonic structures, from the mere hut structure, using its locally sourced materials to the recently designed Mexico Community Library designed by Alberto Kalach, using its light weight exposed structural steel framework. However it in addition has shown that set ups and the crafting of construction play, as an important role in the look of these buildings as described in the model based mostly study. The complexes in this particular research have shown there is a need for promotion of integrity with a quality of engineering and structural expression as can be seen in the Farnsworth house, while this clearness was lost after the materials were changed in the model founded study.

The study has shown the development in both materials and development techniques, can be traced back true time, however it has also been illustrated that these improvements were key to the idea of that task. Weather it was the jointing or weaving methods of the Caribbean hut, to the countless hours spent on the crafting of engineering on the J M Tjibaou Cultural Centre without these innovations, both of these projects would not be what they are today. Nonetheless it has shown that it is important to work with technology to your gain; in this it cannot only help in our design but we can put it to use in processing and creation of bespoke elements. These elements or joint parts can prove essential of the successful of any design or space.

With each invention in material or construction technique one key theory stood out. Every time there was a cutting edge idea of that period, there was collaboration between the construction team that being the architect, technicians, scientists (in more recent years) and the craftsman. Generally these improvements were as due to or response to a fresh design issue or system, while some were results of improving existing components or development techniques. In each situation the architect was the concept designer coordinating each team member as needed. The architect was at the forefront of the cutting edge systems pushing the boundaries beyond anything seen before. However credited to large scale developing and standardisation of components it is leading to loss of some id in individual structures and structures. In newer times however this damage is being altered by such architects as Frank Lloyd Wright and Renzo Piano with their 'learning by doing' methods which remove the idea of using standard components and again brings the thought of ground breaking materials and structure techniques back to the forefront.

It has been known that the apprenticeship of practical hands on experience has been lost from architectural academic institutions. However this notion is getting to be transferred back to schools, with the rise of design/build programs like the Rural Studio, Studio room 804 and the effort program at the University or college of Washington, has exhibited student's decision making skills and the understanding that what they design is crucial to a jobs success. This gives students some critical time for working experience and lets them try the invention of building techniques and gives them some precious time with materials. As Carlo Scarpa carved within the entry entrance doors of the University luav of Venice, school of architecture while he was president 'Verum ipsum factum' ('we only know what we make').

Through this technique the most essential thing I've learnt is that architects are not just designers. He/she is an artist of making these designs come to reality with huge amounts of exploration between your processes. There are lots of building designs that can be dissolved out of this process however I've proposed to design an architectural lab for my second semester design thesis.

"Design/building students learn immediately that their selection of materials can be powerful and didactic tool to this end. "

9. 0 Brief

"The realization that architecture is the making of things, it requires the total amount of technology and craft, brain and hand, experiment and storage area".

In the professional office and within college or university based mostly programs; there are programs which accommodate 'learning by doing'. However as Lisa Wastiels research has shown this isn't the case with architectural materials. Students need to develop consciousness and a capacity to understand their ambitions in architecture today; similar to the master builder of days gone by. Tests by the National Training Laboratories of Bethel, Maine have explored how university student retention rates mixed following a 24 hour period, depending on teaching technique applied. Physique ??? illustrates how learning by doing ('practice by doing') ??% and coaching others are ??% the most well-liked teaching methodologies to be able to improve learning and retention.

Therefore it is proposed that the Architectural lab will include these outcomes and all the sensual conclusions in this thesis. It'll give students and experts a space to get practical experience within the collective and inspirational environment. This could promote inspection/research into materials, development techniques and styles of architecture. While aiming to encourage experimentation with leading edge technology throughout one's education and into one's professional occupations, whilst also endorsing working within a collective team.

The lab would facilitate engineers and musicians and artists as well as the architectural scholar and professional. You won't be a university but rather a location for training and research. It will allow individuals to put together and discover the importance of implementation and accuracy, and examine the partnership between drawings and the realised complexes. This would improve education around materials, structure and the manipulation of 1 1:1 scale properties or elements whilst also incorporating the appropriate trials facilities.

The architecture lab and the engineering trade school should be interlinked. Such a link would encourage innovation from both gatherings to work on either materials or the new construction methods, enabling shared guidelines and synergy. There may also be a crossing of education and skills in one to the other resulting in an development of knowledge.

9. 1 Case Studies for brief

The following buildings and programs were used as circumstance studies to see this simple. Les Grands Ateliers de l'Osle d'Abeau, France, Ghost Architectural Laboratory, Nova Scotia, Canada, Studio 804, Kansas, USA and Rural studio, Auburn USA. Please see appendix 11. 3 for more info.

9. 2 Aspirations

The building shall be designed in the tectonic design of architecture, combining the impressive use of materials and framework. Its design shall enable spaces where people will be encouraged to make use of new impressive materials and development techniques in differing styles of structures. These spots need to demonstrate how the most leading edge technology can be utilised in a very sensitive manner and also apply the principals of tectonic structures, where people in the structure disciplines can collaborate and are a team.

There is a need to welcome people outside the construction industry to get and expand their knowledge, a space whereby the neighborhood community can get involved with architecture. Overall the area must promote architectural education with an emphasis on different teaching tactics such as Constructivist coaching methodologies

9. 3 Design Principles

Materials

Materials should be key to tasks and can be utilized as a driver/concept in architecture design. Their selection should be taken at an early on stage to permit for a full knowledge of their integration to the building, with reasoning for his or her selection.

Honest Construction

There is a dependence on integrity with tectonic structures. This should be obvious with clarity in the development and the appearance of structural elements. Where there's a meeting of materials or construction joints this will be exposed and not hidden.

Innovation

There should be an allowance for development within certain parts of each building design. This innovation can maintain the proper execution of materials, composition, environmental design, or build of construction etc. Cutting edge solutions should be embraced rather than feared. If there is no invention within structures then designs will be repetitive.

Learning by doing

Today, architecture is intricate and there is a need for students and professionals to realise their design beyond the pulling format. There is a dependence on knowledge around what design benefits can produce. With this, components of the design have to be explored in different processes other than drawings to permit architects and students reach beyond their current limitations.

Collaborative teamwork

Architecture today has advanced across a wide range and areas, however with this enlargement, clients expectations have developed. With this progress there's a further dependence on architects to work with highly trained individuals within their field. The architect needs to be the rule leader of the team and with this collaboration; their designs can be taken to another degree of development.

9. 4 Design Approach:

Existing trade colleges or architectural laboratories are currently established as independent entities, and everything research is completed nowadays, which leads to a separation in skills. Enabling a multifunctional adaptable open up plan space will encourage better integration of disciplines.

The design needs to accommodate access for the general public throughout the building in order to encourage discovery and increase exposure to daily functions. With this it will promote a big change in public notion towards architecture, and allows for an insight in to the inner workings. However there still remains a need for safety within these spaces and to ensure interruptions are held to the very least.

9. 5 Design Intentions:

The specific framework and contents will inform the look, form and structure of the building however as Kenneth Frampton stated "essentially our process is to free the practice of building from the control of the cosmetic speculators and restore it to what it should be: building". This process will be taken with regards to my design, that will use materials for their integrity whether that is at a structural form or the faade treatment. This will remove the proven fact that materials are there to handle only the cosmetic requirements in architecture.

Due to the ever changing technology the lab should be a smart lab. The thinking behind this would be that the building design would need to be flexible with new technology. For example allowance for the updating of technology within the building and the ability to set up new large machinery without interrupting the on-going works within the building.

There are intentions to permit the architectural lab to expand as time passes. With this growth there is a proposal to let students, whom desire to be a part of a summer institution, build part of the laboratory. That is a similar idea to that of MacKay-Lyons Sweetapple Architects, whom run the Ghost lab in Nova Scotia Canada

9. 6 Client

There are a number of proposed clients because of this task; The RIAI (The Royal Institute of the architects of Ireland), NSAI (National Standards Relationship of Ireland) and BRE (The Building Research Establishment). Your client preferred will be similar compared to that of Les Grands Ateliers, whereby it will be an inter university establishment including ten architectural / architectural technology schools of Ireland and North Ireland (Make reference to site analysis amount 2) in conjunction with the Foras aiseanna Saothair (FAS or Training & Career Expert). Students from different physiques could book the facilities when needed, however there would be the choice for professional and other uses much like this of Les Grands Ateliers to also reserve the facilities.

9. 7 Consumer / occupiers

The following will vary types of users of the suggested design. You can find 5 key users, which will occupy the building at various times of the entire year; and their needs should be considered. However the quantities below are used at an average time of the year and day.

Type Quantity: Records:

Full time worker 22

Full time analysts 12 Word research are also test of materials

Part time employee 10

Part time user's 80 Exhibition or trade fairs of 500+

Tourists/People 15 Traveling to cafe and lab

Local Community 50 Browsing cafe and lab

Estimated users 189 Exhibition or trade fairs of 600 +

9. 8 Program:

The laboratory must provide various functions, including theory areas, studio, workshops and laboratory studies. Movement and the set up between these main functions, should be designed as you complete scheme concerning feel a part of one large whole, to allow for the cooperation between these occupants.

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