This assignment is intended to develop some of the heart features of the network and communication to point in the theoretical and practical understanding of the tools and techniques linked with venture networking. The jobs in this assignment can become more explored in categorize to obtain advantage of the excess sophisticated top features of the network such as telephone system, two-way communications and network topologies.
Firstly I would similar to be pleased NCC Education for enhancing computer knowledge by planning this assignment. Thanks also to my lecturer, U AUNG ZAW MYINT for his excellent management in a practiced effect. And also, special gratitude to my fellow workers with their support made this project successfully. Finally, I would like to broaden a deepest because of my parents who confident me to come to an end this task effectively.
In networking conditions, topology refers not only to the physical structure of its personal computers, cords, and other resources, but also to how those components talk to one another. A network's topology has a substantial effect on its performance and expansion potential. There may be another conditions that match topology scheme are "Ethernet" and "token ring", these are sometimes referred to as LAN topologies. The mass media gain access to method Ethernet uses in a shared-media environment (a rational bus). Token diamond ring systems have a physical celebrity topology but function as a logical band. All network designs today are based on three simple physical topologies: "bus", "ring", and "star".
Bus network topology contains a series of computers linked along a single cable segment. If this cable tv fails, the whole network crashes.
Fig 1-1 Bus Network Topology
Computers connected to form a loop create a diamond ring topology network. A typical single-ring network fail if one computer in the engagement ring fails, but a dual-ring network can operate around such failure.
Fig 1-2 Engagement ring Network Topology
A star network topology identifies computers connected by cable sections to a central interconnection point (hub). Celebrity topology doesn't identify how impulses should travel from computer to computer, only that cords connect pcs to a central device.
Fig 1-3 Superstar Network topology
easy to set up,
widely available and greatly use
can over only a restricted distance,
susceptible to interference
limit the consequences of external interference
more resilient to EMI than Thinnet
more expensive than UTP
difficult to utilize,
can over only a restricted distance,
more fragile than UTP cables
less susceptible to EMI interference than other types of copper media
Less bandwidth than fiber
Installation expenses are lofty,
Difficult to utilize,
is not supported for some network requirements (eg. Token diamond ring),
more susceptible than fiber optic cable
is not susceptible to EMI
resistant to disturbance as any media can get,
can transmit through longer distance
The priciest form of cabling,
expensive to set up,
difficult to terminate
I want to recommend environment superstar network and twisted match cable tv (UTP) for the following reasons.
Star topology is the relative simple troubleshooting because all personal computers connect at a central location; an administrator can easily and easily isolate network problems regarding an individual device or cable tv segment without impacting on other devices.
Twisted couple (UTP) cable connection is the normal use for star network topology. In UTP cabling, category 5 (kitty5), category 5e (cat 5e), category 6 (cat 6) are the most popular types. UTP is particularly prone to crosstalk. It is used for phone system and two-way communication. UTP is common generally in most office structures and other work environments.
Task - 2
The internet services give Communication, Information and File transmission all over the world. The next appliance are the most commonly use for internet services.
Simple Mail Transfer Process (SMTP) -liable for moving e-mail.
File Transfer Process (FTP) -use for file transfer and manipulation services
Hypertext Transfer Standard protocol (HTTP) -use to copy Webpages from an online server to a Web browser.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS)- use to gain access to linked documents on the World Wide Web that can be found over a secure server.
Post Office Standard protocol (POP3): specifies how e-mail clients can identify itself to the server and demand that mail announcements be made open to an individual.
The connection speeds that are suitable for the above services are as follows:
just 384 Kbps
over 1 Mbps
Myanmar Post and Telecommunication (http://www. mpt. net. mm/mpt/index. htm)
Myanmar Post and Telecommunication offers a number of access services from dial-up interconnection (low speed, low priced) like Internet Dial-Up Consideration or Pre-paid Access Set to different kind of Broadband Services (high speed, additional tone options) like Broadband Wireless, ADSL or IPSTAR. Depending on your locality, your present telephone line interconnection, your budget as well as your requirements, Myanmar Post and Telecommunication can advice you which Gain access to Service will suit you best. To adjust the Access Services even more to your individual wishes you can choose out of different individual plans for every single service.
By any way, we must choose Myanmar Post and Telecommunication since it isn't just the only real ISP in Myanmar but also a Administration Association.
It aims that
To rapidly build up the market by taking benefit of high capacity satellite tv and broadband cordless technologies
To ensure network overall flexibility aiding multiple service type which range from basic tone of voice to advanced multimedia system streaming.
To provide complete communication service to anybody, anywhere in Myanmar by achieving 100% network converge countrywide.
Task - 3
A full-duplex is data transmitting in both two directions at the same time. Land-line is an excellent exemplory case of full-duplex communication in a cell phone networks given that they allow both guidelines of callers to speak and be heard in once. Examples: Telephone, CELLULAR PHONE, etc. A half-duplex system helps the communication for two directions, but only 1 caller can speak at a time. If one caller transmits the sign, another caller must await the transmitter to stop transmitting. Antennas are of 1 of the kind of trans-receiver that transmit and get. Examples: "walkie-talkie" style two-way radio.
DECT isn't just used generally in house/small office systems but also available in various PBX systems used medium and enterprise businesses. This system can be employed for cordless devices. Words applications are usually common nowadays. Data applications be, but have been included in Wi-Fi. 3G mobile (WCDMA) is absolutely full with both DECT and Wi-Fi for not only speech but also data. DECT runs on different frequencies: 1880MHz, 1900MHz, 1910MHz, 1920MHz, and 1930MHz.
GSM has been continually improved to provide platforms that spread broad range of mobile services. Where in fact the industry started speech calling, there is a powerful platform able to mobile broadband and multi-media services. Its system is currently utilised for 219 countries plus more than three billion people are employing it. GSM is the industry standard for mobile tone and data. GSM is one of the mobile technologies that used to transmit the transmission and data services. GSM activates on four different frequencies; 850 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 1900MHzs. This phone system uses transmitting of digital and there's a maximum power productivity of 2W.
In our country, MPT (Myanmar Post and Telecommunication) facilitates mobile communications plan and agree to DECT (Digital Enhance Cordless Telecommunication) technology.
In the radio-telephone system, there is one central antenna tower per city, as well as perhaps 25 channels existing on that tower. This central antenna intended that the telephone needed a powerful transmitter -- big enough to transmit 40 or 50 kilometers (about 70 kilometres). It means that few people will use radio telephones -- there just were not enough stations. The brilliance of the mobile system is the section of a city into small skin cells. This allows comprehensive consistency reuse across a city, so that millions of people may use cell phones concurrently.
There will vary frequencies operate with the Government Communication Commission use in DECT and cord-less phones.
43-50MHz (foundation: 43. 72-46. 97MHz, Handset: 48. 76-49. 99MHz allocated in 1986 fir 10 stations, and later 25 stations, FM system)
1. 7MHz (1. 64MHz & up to 5 channels, AM system)
900MHz (902-928 MHz, allocated in 1990)
1920-1930MHz (DECT Cordless Phone)
1. 9 GHz (DECT Phone Standard)
5. 8 GHz (allocated in 2003 due to crowding on the two 2. 4 GHz music group).
2. 4GHz (recently MPT allow)
As Newtown Flames Section is one of the Government Association, you won't need licenses for communication. In our land, Myanmar, the national radio communications controller "Ministry of Defense" control the reunion of radio frequencies. Radio occurrence licenses aren't usually issued free of charge and the price of the permit can be different greatly depending on country and type of usage. Working within FCC guidelines and conventions is the responsibility of the real person. The FCC can fine corporation up to $10, 000 each day for inability to adhere to the rules and conventions! Licensing is an essential little bit of the conundrum, and as essential as any other aspect when booking 2-way radios.
operate on channels with a bandwidth of 12. 5 KHz or less (narrowband)
disappointment to comply 1, 2031 deadline may cause annulment of license
must be capable of working in 6. 25 KHz mode
activate on 25 KHz channels
Premier Service, TWELVE MONTHS, KIRK 2010, 4020, 4040, 5020, 5040 handsets
Premier Service, Three Years, KIRK 2010, 4020, 4040, 5020, 5040 handsets
Premier Service, One Year, KIRK 4080 handset
Premier Service, Three Years, KIRK 4080 handset
Limitations of DECT
By using large varies of basic stations to aid building, it communicate with open public telecoms network.
32 Kbit/s of net bit rate, that low for data communication.
With good range (up to 200 meter insides and 6 kilometre spending directional antenna outsides, data rates of approximately 500 Kbit/s. DECT emerged one time to be a much better uncommon to Wi-Fi.
DECT activates in 1880-1900 MHz band and identifies 10 programs. Each base train station framework offers 12 duplex communication channels with onetime fit occupying any of channels.
Interference-free wireless operation to approximately 100 meters outside. Operates clearly in keeping crowded domestic radio traffic situations. For instance, generally protected to involvement from Wi-Fi systems or video tutorial dispatchers, Bluetooth equipment, baby screens and other wireless devices.
Limitations of GSM
Data copy rates will are as long as 171 kbps with General Packet Radio Service which not only splits the mobile call into packets but also allows each cellphone to make use of several channels.
Technical limitations pressure a couple of maximum cell site range of 35 kilometres of GSM
Data speeds up to 9. 6 Kbit/s can be found.
Wavelength: 10 Meter and above, frequency range: 890-915MHz (mobile transmit) and 935-960MHz (bottom part transmit).
External Disturbance: There is certainly another transmitter beyond your network such as TV transmission, Railway Station rate of recurrence, and microwave links.
I want to recommend setting DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) for two-way speech communication for the following effects:
Several handsets can be use in each base train station and each mobile phone line outlet. This let several cord-less telephones to put in the spot of house, all doing his thing with the same cell phone jack. There are always a battery charger channels in the add handsets rather than a base station. The extra handsets don't need extra phone sockets or extra transceivers.
Capability to make interior (intercom) phone calls between handsets.
Broaden series talk-time, sometimes available to a day.
Matrimonial cordless phone, employing a single base station to add a number of handsets to the civic telecoms net, which is currently accessible.
Civic access, utilizing large numbers of base stations to offer elevate ability building or inner-city area treatment within civic telecoms net.
Unlike the GSM benchmarks, will not identify any inside facets of the preset network itself. Connectivity to the preset network which might be of a great deal of distinct types is manufactured through a basic station to come quickly to an end the radio link, and a gateway to attach phone calls to the preset network.
Task - 4
Telephone system is one of the important elements of requirements for Fire Department. Satellite phone are necessary for a serious incident such as a major terrorist attack or battle and then lines cellphone and PBX system are needed. For this department, four range devices are needed at least and four dish phones for Key Fire Officer and three watch official. For each firefighter, the extensions of lines cordless phones are required to call form the guts via two way words communication.
A telephone line is a single-user circuit on a phone communication system. These identifies the physical wire or other signaling medium linking the user's phone equipment to the telecommunications network, and usually also suggests a single phone number for billing purposes reserved for that customer. There must be wires to hook up with line telephone. These wires hook up with Local exchange via trunk lines. These wires were generally copper, although aluminum in addition has been used, and were transported in balanced pairs separated by about 25 cm (10") on poles above the bottom, and later as twisted match cables. Nowadays, modern lines may run underground, and may hold analog or digital impulses to the exchange, or may have a device that converts the analog indication to digital for transmitting on a carrier system. Additionally there are hooking up with jacks RJ11 jack port for the departments and homes.
PBX is also an exchange system for phone. This exchange will acts for Fire Division to talk easily and cheaply within the Section. It makes contacts among the internal telephones and then attaches these to PSTN (public switched phone network) by using trunk lines since there is incorporation with phones, fax machines, modems, and even more. The extension can be used to talk to each other. The PBXs' edge was cheap for inside phone calls Now PBX became level of popularity and it started out the services such as hunt communities, call forwarding, and extension dialing etc.
The advantages with all the VOIP PBX system:
Free interior calls
Allow virtual inbound amounts to breaking long distance barriers and exclusive call centers on anywhere.
Easy and quick execution within the existing PBX infrastructure can be gained with inexpensive Analogue Telephony Adapters that will convert signals from your existing usually analogue phone lines into VoIP extension.
Dependent on internet connection
damageable regarding power outages
for emergency message or calls, the system can't be used
The system components for PBX stop are the following.
Cabinets, vaults, closets
Wires for interconnection
The PBX's moving over network.
Microcomputer that use for data handling and control.
Many credit cards such as Reasoning, switching and control, electricity and
Related accessories for PBX operation.
Phone Handsets and stations called lines.
Telco trunks to talk public cellphone network at the exterior.
The operator is allowed by switchboard to regulate inbound call.
For electricity, High performance UPS (Uninterruptible power)
The pursuing are main features in PBX system.
To dial other extensions
To dial outside lines
To make an enquiry call to some other extension whist linked to an exterior call
To transfer the external call to the expansion where an enquiry call got just been made
For each Brand Phones, Fire Division will pay $1, 600 and PXB assembly is $ 2, 000. The services charges are estimating $ 800. So totally amount, four lines phones and PBX place and services charges are almost $ 9, 200.
Phone Bill for four lines and extensions monthly
PBX Operator Salary
Bill services for cellphone company
PBX equipment maintenance services
For Fire Office, mobile phone system is one of the key elements of requirements. Line cellphone and PBX system are needed. And, satellite telephone are necessary for a serious event such as a major terrorist invasion or war. For this department, four lines devices are needed at least and four satellite phones for Key Fire Officer and three watch official. For every firefighter, the extensions of brand cordless phones are required to call form the center via two way speech communication.
Task - 5
If the Newtown does not have any electrical power or fixed telephone lines being damaged, there should be a crisis using of product. We are able to use not only mobiles, walkie-talkies, and satellite tv telephones but also generators which has the voltage of over 6600kva.
Satellite communication can be hugely great for the users who are situated in vastly remote areas, and cannot gain access to a broadband interconnection. Satellite receivers on the floor consist of satellite television telephones, mobile reception, direct-to-home (DTH) dish equipment, equipment in aeroplanes and handheld devices.
Two-way voice marketing communications can be found.
Data rates: 64 Kbit/s.
The satellites provide a relay connect to the home land earth train station from the mobile terminal.
Mobiles marketing communications (GSM)
Two-way voice communications can be found.
Can transmit 10 meter and above. Frequency range: 890-915MHz (mobile transmit) and 935-960MHz (basic transmit).
It is well suited for crisis services and all sorts of personal communications.
Two-way voice communications are available. Hand-held transceivers can use to connect between one another, or to vehicle-mounted or support channels.
Maximum range is around 2 miles (3kilometers).
Frequency range: 49 MHz music group (shared with cordless devices, baby monitors, and similar devices) as well as the 900 MHz strap. .
Task - 6
To Mr. STER BERD November 14, 2010
(Chief Officer, Flames Department)
Newtown, Green Highway, No. 1111 B.
Network Office, Red Links Company
The Fire Office has been restructured and it is opening a new head office building in the Newtown. I must demonstrate an understanding of the network requirements for a new head office including a computer network, phone system and two-way voice communications with staff on contact fire motors and fire section cars.
Firstly, I think star topology is ideal for network design. Because superstar topology can be management easily and locate problem easily and then it is more expand than Bus and Ring topology. Moreover, in my opinion, I think UTP is more able to use for legend topology. Due to cheap, easy assembly and widely available and widely use.
Secondly, I advised about the internet connection requirements for the Hearth Department. Our time became the age of internet. For Fire Department, it is required to know the information of fire and be contact easily. Therefore, I detailed Internet services, required interconnection velocity and Internet services providers (ISPs) and its prices for requirements.
And I said the techniques could implement for two way words communication. A couple of two kinds from it such as full duplex and one half duplex. I needed projected of cost for establishing and operation system including licensing costs and equipment costs. I advised the limitation of every system.
Moreover, I clarify calling systems available inside our country for single-site firm like Fire Section. Within the section, I make clear the line cellphone, PBX for expansion and satellite cellphone. The main accessories, features, costs and costs operation the system are discussed.
In this section, if there is an event of a serious incident like a major terrorist assault or war, I suggested how can work the operation of Newtown having no electrical power and fixed telephone lines being destroyed.
KHIN SANDAR PHYO KHINE
KHIN SANDAR PHYO KHINE