Posted at 06.10.2018
There have been various discourses in regards to a literary world of Joseph Conrad who has been called as one of the great pioneers in 20th British literature. Since he was a Polish publisher and composed in English, his vocabulary, grammar and syntax was accepted as unconventional and new in those days. Not only these multilingual areas of him but his personal experience in French, Britain and Congo as a seaman before a copy writer deeply damaged his many various works such as Almayer's Folly, An Outcast of the hawaiian islands, Lord Jim, Nostromo, The Secret Agent, The Duel, Victory, The Shadow Collection, plus the Rover, Heart and soul of Darkness.
Moreover, it is important to find the proven fact that he published in the heyday of the English Empire to have a great understanding of his literary world. He wandered Europe and colonies of European countries and then settled in England. As the cosmopolitan and a man who always crossed the borderline between a country and a country, his issues of individuality fully reflected his works and the ones issues and his racial and political frame of mind has often been questionable until now.
Of a variety of controversies encompassing Conrad's works, the most famous thing was provoked by the Nigerian writer, Chinua Achebe. In his essay, 'An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's 'Heart of Darkness'", he deemed that "Joseph Conrad was a thoroughgoing racist" (260) for reason that Africa itself was "a foil to Europe, as a location of negations at once distant and vaguely familiar, in comparison to which Europe's own point out of spiritual sophistication will be manifest"(261). Conrad, he says, portrays Africa as " 'the other world', the antithesis of Europe and for that reason of civilization"(253), which makes Achebe say that Conrad required an antipathy against dark-colored people. The problem of racism in Conrad's novels aroused controversy and it is ongoing now and it was absolutely unavoidable considering how political and interpersonal situations he lived were.
However, we should know that his unique descriptive style was remarked and differentiated from other set up authors in England for the reason that his ability expressing incomprehensible and incomprehensible things was excellent and which added to make his works the subject of the controversy and regularly to cause disputes on his certain viewpoint among many scholars who attempted to discover it. Furthermore, he formed a diversity of lively discussions with race, social hierarchy and gender consciousness as well as his different writing style and his complicated narrative structure. He also opened up the market of philosophical and historical arguments beyond literary criticism.
Likewise, of the nice range of strong tips in his bits, the reason why his work, Center of Darkness is important for all of us living the present is that this novel amazingly epitomizes ambivalence which means coexistence of two conflicting ideals or feelings. To explain, the entire world we you live is not fixed and secure. As the barriers between countries collapse and the world gets globalized, it is hard to hold a centre point we can depend upon and we are in the uncertain situation that threatens our own distinctive identity. Appropriately, if we can try to indirectly understand Conrad's ambivalent point of view in that confused situation, it will be helps us live our insecure lives.
In this newspaper, I will package with how Conrad's ambivalent feelings and thinking about the wilderness, the African people and the white contemporary society was defined in Heart and soul of Darkness and look into what an efficient imagery he found in embodying it literarily by using visual imagery, auditory imagery and layered narrative.
Ambivalence in Center of Darkness
Joseph Conrad attempts to explore the internal side of a guy by providing him with an array of different experiences within an exotic environment in Heart and soul of Darkness. In Joseph Conrad's mental health realism, Hyo-won Kim remarks that Conrad often depicts psychological shocks and break up personality that a protagonist suffers in pressure of turmoil between modern european civilization and primitive wilderness oxymoronically, an obscure unconsciousness and wonderful world of sub-consciousness of human from a skeptical perspective. (27) These issues between unconsciousness, awareness and manifestation of sub-consciousness are confirmed in his description of the wilderness, the African people and the white modern culture.
2. 1 Ambivalent Information of the Wilderness
In Center of Darkness, the wilderness has two conflicting aspects. One is an object to be conquered by the superior Europe. Another is a sort of spiritual, supernatural lifetime never to be conquered by individual who is doomed to useless someday. It means that the first aspect is a reflected consequence of a desire of self-expansion and the next one relates to a desire to have protecting oneself who is aware of finiteness of a life.
For starters, as Chinua Achebe pointed out, Africa in Heart and soul of Darkness functions as just a backdrop or establishing that the protagonist, Marlow enlarged his world view. (60) What's important here is that Conrad forgotten the fact that Africa was also a place that many African people live an ordinary lives like white people do in European countries. He erased the culture and history of Africa and made it an abstract image such as a sort of strategy, fantasy or notion of European people. It gives European people a chance to make an arbitrary interpretation irrespective of a fact, which shows how white Western european people has perceived and handled Africa with a sense of superiority. For instance, we can easily see this in the evaluation between the Thames and the river Congo in the first part.
And indeed nothing is easier for a man who has, as the key phrase goes, "followed the ocean" with reverence and love, than to evoke the great spirit of days gone by upon the lower reaches of the Thames. (Heart and soul of Darkness 2)
What greatness had not floated on the ebb of this river into the mystery of unknown globe!. . . The dreams of men, the seed of commonwealths, the germs of empires. (HD 3)
The Thames is referred to as a starting place of man's intelligence, civilization and refinement. Western european folks have reverence and affection to the Thames because it gets the great heart of the past and symbolizes the dreams of men. Consequently, it reminds them of their greatness and their great previous history. On the contrary, as the antithesis of the Thames, the river Congo is portrayed as "the secret of an unknown globe. " (HD 3) The use of definitive word deprives Africa of its historical, social and politics characteristics and protects the whole thing of Africa under the name of the mystery. The assumption is an instrument to make Western people invade and exercise a drive on Africa as they need. That's, the white people go to Africa to satisfy their interest and affirm their assumption seeing only what they would like to see there. It shows transcendental desire of the white people in that they grow their physical area and then want to see what they could not see.
However, the white, Marlow who establishes to go to Africa with ambitious mind is stressed by the wilderness, which makes him feel just like keeping himself away "from the truth of things, within the toil of any mournful and senseless delusion. "(HD 12) With a feeling of awe and concern with the wilderness, he feels that this blurs belief of reality. It can be interpreted that Marlow unconsciously is aware of that he is an invader who comes to Africa with a feeling of European superiority and before the wilderness he feels unconsciously his insignificance, his mortality when he sees the infinite coastline that always looks the same. In other words, the wilderness is memento mori to him. We can see that he is aware of the fact unconsciously by the next quotation.
We called at even more places with farcical names, where in fact the merry dance of loss of life and trade continues on in a still and earthy atmosphere as of an overheated catacomb; all along the formless shoreline bordered by dangerous browse, as if Mother nature herself had tried out to ward off intruders; in and out of waterways, streams of death in life. (HD 13)
At once, he seems uneasy with the theory that the wilderness destroys him and leads him to death. It derives from a feeling of guilt about the overall European head that considers dynamics as a concentrate on of conquest and suppression. The manifestation he uses such as intruders and loss of life in life mirrors his unconscious horror well.
2. 2 Ambivalent Explanation of African People
African people, in keeping with the wilderness, are defined differently reflecting Conrad's ambivalent brain. Like the wilderness, African people are barbarous and therefore an object of subjugation, modernization and detribalization with reason and enlightenment which is a solid foundation for European imperialism. In contrast, he confirms that humans are always helpless against the force of mother nature and he sometimes recognizes African people with nature. As a result, he also encounters supernatural ability from them in harmony with nature. Also, what's important here's that he feels a sense of kinship as the same human being.
To get started with, Conrad likens African people to black colored ants, naked beast and he will not forget to refer their skin color which is dark. Sometimes, he reduces their form or their existence by revealing them simply black shadows or tones. WITHIN AN Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's 'Heart of Darkness', Achebe says that in the place of conversation African people made a violent babble of uncouth looks and exchanged brief grunting phrases even among themselves. (57) Furthermore, African people does not have any great difference from beasts in this book and even reminds us of devil via Hell.
"catch 'im, " he snapped with a bloodshot widening of his eyes and a adobe flash of sharp tooth -"catch'im. Give'im to us. " "For you, eh?" I asked; "what would you do with them?" "Eat'im!" he said curtly. . . . (HD 42)
His frame of mind that separates himself from African people by emphasizing their inhumane aspects implies how he perceives African people. That's, he just seems to want to verify that he was a more superior, privileged white person. Because of this, his purpose of exploration is not based on enhancement of worldview or self-expansion. He just has a sense of pity for the ignorant natives with the superiority of Western culture.
However, as we talked about in the ambivalent explanation of the wilderness, there also prevails ambivalence about a few of the African people. Likewise, Conrad gives supernatural nature and capacity to an African female who is some type of mistress to Mr. Kurtz.
She was savage and superb, wild-eyed and magnificent; there is something ominous and stately in her deliberate improvement. And in the hush that had fallen suddenly after the complete sorrowful land, the huge wilderness, the colossal body of the fecund and mysterious life appeared to take a look at her, pensive, as if it had been taking a look at the image of its own tenebrous and ardent spirit. (HD 66)
Her appearance leads us to think of a possessed shaman who connects this world and another. A shaman mediates between the world and the next and manages affairs of individuals that typical people cannot know and do. With this sense, she is a superior living to Marlow which is what Conrad implies. In addition, in Joseph Conrad's Ambivalent Criticism of Imperialism, Sang-kee Park explains that this woman in harmony with the background of nature expresses the essential force that Western people do not have. Park also signifies that there surely is a stark distinction between richness and vigor of the African woman and paleness of the Mr. Kurtz's fiance. (17) From Achebe's declare that Conrad lavishes a whole web page quite unexpectedly on the African female (56), we realize Conrad's intention displaying that Marlow is fascinated by her fecundity and full vitality. This means that Marlow is struck as small mortal human being before the female who symbolizes infinity or a perpetual life.
Two varieties of African people I discussed above are in the opposite factors and represent Marlow's ambivalent emotions of African people. Meanwhile, you can find another man who is situated between your extremes, who's Marlow's African helmsman. He drops down with a spear in his heart and gives his white master a peek in final minute.
And the close profundity of that look he offered me when he received his hurt remains to this day in my recollection - such as a claim of distant kinship affirmed in a supreme point in time. (HD 54)
After his loss of life, he realizes a subtle bond between Marlow and his helmsman is damaged. A substantial point is the fact that he notices a feeling of fellowship after fatality because it suggests that in a matter of life and fatality human being are equal no matter race, national personal information and electric power.
Furthermore, there are a few African people on the verge of hunger who startle Marlow by the actual fact that they do not eat Western people despite of being hungry. Marlow realizes that cannibalism is only their custom; they also have personal- restraint opposed to beasts. Consequently, these direct experiences weaken a deep-rooted previous prejudice or a feeling of superiority in Marlow and develop his civilized id in European cultural framework to a cosmopolitan's conception. Inside the Images of the Superior man and the mean man in Heart and soul of Darkness, Cheol-soo Kim says that Conrad pursues Marlow to do self-expansion as a protagonist in the wild world by overcoming self-centered point of view and escaping himself from a thin worldview and recover marriage with others. (7) On top of that, it suggests criticism of european culture that constructs self-centered empire because of this of oppressing others. Once we examine, the explanation of the African people in Heart of Darkness has two different aspects which are hatred (abomination) as others and affection (fascination) as the same human being. This citation shows that clearly.
Land in a swamp, march through the woods, and in a few inland post feel the savagery, the utter savagery, acquired closed rounded him, - all those things inexplicable life of the wilderness that stirs in the forest, in the jungles, in the heart of wild men. There's no initiation either into such mysteries. He must reside in the midst of the incomprehensible, which is also detestable. And it has a fascination, too, that goes to work after him. The fascination of the abomination-you know. (HD 106)
Through those proceedings, Marlow seems to approach the truth of your life. However, Conrad never resolves the ambivalence in Marlow even at the stopping of this novel. Depending upon the story, we can just expect that a series of experience would enrich Marlow's life but cannot conclude what truth is because Conrad sticks to his distinctive oblique writing style.
Ambivalent Explanation of White Society
Achebe asserts that the Thames too has been one of the dark places of the earth but conquered its darkness, of course, and is now in daylight with peacefulness. Then he explains to that Conrad divides the river Congo and the Thames into bestiality and civilization. (253) However, description of white population is not always positive even though information about greatness of the Thames is splendid. White culture in this novel is seemingly processed and beautiful but his underlying idea of it sometimes appears to be inexorable and uncomfortable. We would catch his skeptical firmness about white culture representing civilization, culture, politics and current economic climate. We are able to see this in the next scene that Marlow comes in a city to hint a contract to be a seaman.
A slim and deserted street in deep shadow, high properties, innumerable glass windows with venetian window blinds, a dead silence, lawn sprouting between the rocks, imposing carriage archways right and left, immense double doorways ranking ponderously ajar. I slipped through one of these cracks, gone up a swept and ungarnished staircase, as arid as a desert, and opened the first door I emerged to. Two women, one fat and the other lean, sat on straw-bottomed seats, knitting black wool. (HD 8)
As Marlow says that the city makes him think of an whited sepulcher, the image of city is different from everything we usually regard packed and strong. His information of metropolis is prosaic, coercive. Plus, when we recall that a whited sepulcher signifies confinement, fatality and hypocrisy, we can presume his unconscious thoughts of the city. Playground also says that Belgium, a capital of Western european imperialism, is exhibited a whited sepulcher referenced in Matthew 23. This appearance is at first a number of speech utilized by Jesus Christ to criticize a faqih laying stress on formal ostentation and hypocrisy of Pharisee. He cases that the within of your whited sepulcher is full of loss of life and smuttiness even although outside of it is beautiful and covered cleanly. (274) Moreover, Conrad portrays Belgium as a location loss of life and hypocrisy which is the center of imperialism. The image of metropolis gives us a feeling like a phantom town where no individuals lives and shows that civilization eliminates vitality of real human life. We also cannot forget about two women knitting dark-colored wool because an act of knitting tightly pertains to human's impending doom whenever we recall "Charles Dickens's A Tale of Two Locations, in which Madame Defarge knits 'with the steadfastness of Fate'" (HD 103) Thus, the information of the Thames and metropolis have ambivalence for the reason that each represents light and darkness, tranquility and fatality.
Additionally, there are extensive white people in Heart of Darkness. As a foreigner in Congo, Marlow encounters two types of white people. As Marlow determines to visit Congo out of his interest and passion, he complies with the same kind of individuals who have inquiring mind or curiosity about life. Marlow first meets a doctor who wants to measure Marlow's head declaring that "I usually ask leave, in the interests of science, to measure the crania of those going out there. "(HD 10) He is the person who dedicates to a progress of science and is convinced that he is able to take action.
I have a little theory which you Messieurs who venture out there must help me to prove. This is my talk about in the advantages my country shall experience from the possession of such an impressive dependency. The mere wealth I leave to others. (HD 10)
His remark demonstrates he does not caution of personal monetary benefit but he cares of the progress of knowledge and the benefit of empire. The old doctor has a feeling of duty, fantasy and lofty ideal to make new discovery.
Marlow then sees a white man under a head wear just like a cart-wheel beckoning persistently with his complete arm (HD 55) at the river-bank. He is a Russian man and has looked after Mr. Kurtz. Marlow envies him and he is captivated by his soul of adventure.
If the absolutely 100 % pure, uncalculating, unpractical soul of adventure had ever ruled a individual, it ruled this be-patched youth. I almost envied him the ownership of this moderate and clear fire. It appeared to have used all thought of personal so completely, that, whilst he was speaking with you, you forgot that it was he-the man before your eyes-who had opted through these things. (HD 59)
The reason Marlow is enchanted by him is the actual fact that the Russian man maintains his pure mind and anticipation even though he's in savage and crude situation contrary to himself who is disappointed by secular white people and fearful barbarism.
Meanwhile, the other description is completely not the same as them. The previous captain before Marlow is murdered by African people. There was misunderstanding about two dark-colored hens between the man and African people, along the way, he tried to show self-respect and lastly beat the chief with hammer. In A Comparative Study of Narrative Framework on Heart of Darkness & Apocalypse Now: Modernism vs. Postmodernism, Mi-Sook Um implies that he's a precursor of Mr. Kurtz in that he would go to the Africa with a torch to understand commendable ideals that enlightens barbarians. (5) Within the jungle, Marlow encounters impulsiveness and assault of white modern culture "when a chance offered at previous to meet his forerunner, the turf growing through his ribs was extra tall enough to cover up his bone fragments. "(HD 7)
The Company's key accountant shows well how traditional western modernization and capitalism masks violent action of crime and something isolates individual from touches of mankind.
I satisfied a white man, in such an unexpected style of get-up that in the first second I had taken him for assort of perspective. I saw a higher starched collar, white cuffs, a light alpaca jacket, snowy trousers, a definite necktie, and varnished boots. No hat. Head of hair parted, brushed, oiled, under a green-lined parasol performed in a large white hands. He was amazing, and acquired a penholder behind his hearing. (HD 17)
Um points out that the principle accountant neglects African people's groans with hunger and disease and do his work hard, which shows snobbery for the reason that he respect African people as an obstacle in doing his job. (5) "His literature, which were in apple-pie order" (HD 17) means his irrationality because this achievement can be made under exploitation and sacrifice of African people. Marlow phone calls it accomplishment and achievement. Nevertheless, Marlow's remark that "his appearance was certainly that of a hairdresser's dummy; but in the great demoralization of the land he retained up his appearance" (HD 17) unconsciously advises ugly aspect of humanity and in that sense; the accountant is like a hollow man who have no hearts. Quite simply, the accountant signifies both extreme moderation, self-control and pitilessness, cruelty. The others of white people are blind to personal profits and corrupted. That is outside and inside of european imperialism and we can understand that it displays the contradiction of European ideals from his ambivalent information of the white people.
Imagery of Ambivalence
There are some effective imageries of ambivalence in Heart and soul of Darkness. To mention his theme symbolically, Conrad often uses visual imagery such as white and black, light and darkness, auditory imagery such as frenzy and silence and unique narrative structure.
3. 1 Aesthetic Imagery
It is straightforward to compare Center of Darkness with an aesthetic architecture because the framework of the storyline is systematically composed with the beginning, the middle and the finish charged of varied symbols. The beginning part as embryo of the storyplot starts description of an steamboat. "The Nellie, a cruising yawl, swung to her anchor with out a flutter of the sails, and was at break. " "The sea-reach of the Thames stretched before us like the beginning of an interminable waterway. "(HD 1) We may easily draw out a man's exploration against dynamics or a man's goal in to the abyss of the heart with a respect to a motorboat and the river. Consequently, the word "interminable" means invisible reverse of your respective heart and soul and the concealed within life. In The Mythic Framework of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, Hyun, Young-Min also clarifies that Marlow's trip into the unknown of an undiscovered earth thus symbolizes not only man's business into his earlier background but also a pursuit in to the abyss of individual soul. (14) Likewise, Conrad tries to show inexpressible or incomprehensible what to us by in depth expression such as this with these symbols.
Conrad often also uses visible comparison such as white and black, light and darkness. The image of whiteness in the storyplot looks in a white sepulcher, ivory and light and white people and the bald mind of Kurtz. In the case of light and white people initially part, light and whiteness are symbolic of enlightenment that eliminates darkness representing bad and barbarism but it shows the other part as the storyline goes. Area, Sun-Hwa, in "To make you see" through the Icons in Joseph Conrad's Lord Jim, says that Marlow thinks that the natives are murderer or barbarians with wickedness, aggressiveness and violence before he would go to Congo but he realizes that the natives have strong vitality and are living harmoniously with aspect. On the other hand, white folks who are exploiting them and make them starve are indeed barbarians. Thus, whiteness advises hypocrisy of civilized people, and dark-colored is the energy of life pressure. (9) We can know these icons of whiteness in the description of the accountant putting on white clothes and ivory representing of human's self-centeredness, vanity and depravity of individuals characteristics. (9) To be specific, Hyun, Young-Min points out that thus this light is suggestive of the whiteness of civilization which blights and impoverishes the dark-colored savages relentlessly instead of playing a role of the torch to enlighten them. This light is symbolic of the spiritual emptiness of your white man suggested in Kurtz. The blinding symbolism of Western european civilization is well indicated in Kurtz's painting of "a woman, draped and blindfolded, having a lighted torch"(HD 25) (12) When we regard destructive character of fire (torch or light), we will get out that this has ambivalent imagery.
The image of dark-colored and darkness is referenced in your skin color of African people, two women knitting black wool in Brussels, Mr. Kurtz and the wilderness. It really is associated with loss of life, horror and emptiness in heart and soul. At first, darkness of the wilderness means both horror and a sense of awe for Marlow because he feels concern with infinite electric power of nature. Black people are also a goal to be upgraded, humanized to need enlightenment (light). However, as he considers the terrible views of imperialism which can be suffering beings, a number of kinds of problem and Mr. Kurtz who's a devil incarnate, this is of darkness comes to become dark aspect of civilization and Western european imperialistic people who have profoundly dark souls. That's, he is shocked by the fact that Chaos or Hell indicated as darkness is not in the wilderness, but the world of civilization, culture he lives in. Consequently, such an unappealing real truth enlightens Marlow, that could be thought to be being in Hell or Chaos because the reality shakes his world helping his prior conception and conviction. Inside the same vein, it carefully relates to Marlow's significant remark on dying Mr. Kurtz that "His was an impenetrable darkness. " (HD 75) and Mr. Kurtz's final remark, "The horror! The horror!" (HD 76)
3. 2 Auditory Imagery
Especially, Conrad overthrows auditory imagery as regards to the core theme of the storyplot and shows the procedure that Marlow's thinking changes. Silence in the Thames shows peaceful and orderly world that conquered every one of the distress and disorder before. On the contrary, silence in the river Congo is a hazard to Marlow because it makes him feel a sense of guilt giving him period to reflect on himself.
And exterior, the silent wilderness encircling this cleared speck on the planet earth struck me as something great and invincible, like bad or truth, hanging around patiently for the passing away of this fantastic invasion. (HD 23)
This is because he subconsciously realizes that the reason he's here does not be resulted from simple interest and pure passion of exploration. Because of this, he feels that he's not different from white people that he gets totally disenchanted. "I became in an instant as a lot of a pretence as all of those other bewitched pilgrims. "(HD 27) Therefore, because the work of soul-searching leads him to see the hidden fact under the top, he concerns of silence in the wilderness that gives a chance of self-examination and makes him know his self-deception.
You know I hate, detest, and can't endure a lie, not because I am straighter than the rest of us, but simply since it appals me. There is a taint of fatality, a flavor of mortality in lies, - which is exactly what I hate and detest on earth - what I wish to neglect. (HD 27)
In terms of frenzy or noise from wilderness, he considers it primitive because African people are savage and barbarous initially. Nevertheless, he becomes lost as he views the brutal scenes of imperialism, so eventually he begins feeling that it is fury of nature.
Perhaps on some tranquil night time the tremor of far-off drums, sinking, swelling, a tremor great, faint; a acoustics weird, attractive, suggestive, and wild - as well as perhaps with as serious a so this means as the sound of bells in a Christian country. (HD 19)
Free from a private individual, he considers that invaders approaching to Africa are obtaining punishment for Europe-centered brain which conquers and exploits dynamics in support of pursues one's gain. In comparison to a bell in a Religious country, it shakes the planet earth because the sound of nature pertains to the conscience in human's brain.
As for the ultimate burst of Kurtz, it is the moment of differ from Marlow's prior abstract ideal idea to realization of simple fact. He always listens about Mr. Kurtz from the general manager, the accountant and the Russian man in the train station. The reports about Kurtz are just full of words like God. "He was simply a word for me personally. "(HD 27) Finally he listens to his voice though. This means the distance between our idea or expectation and the true situations. Although His expectation to meet Kurtz realizes, he realizes Kurtz degrades beyond his control and reason. However, we have to understand that this report is also handed down by the listeners, who are Marlow and anonymous loudspeaker. Accordingly, it shows that there is always room for reinterpretation, distortion and beatification.
I didn't start to see the man in the name any more than you do. Would you see him? Do you really see the history? Do you see the anything? It seems to me I am seeking to tell you a goal - making a vain attempt, because no relation of a fantasy can convey the dream-sensation, that commingling of absurdity, surprise, and bewilderment in a tremor of attempting revolt, that notion of being captured by the extraordinary which is of the extremely fact of dreams. . . . (HD 27)
Finally, when we consider that words instantly disappears when it emanates, we can recognize that it is analogy of your mortal life. No matter how we make an effort to approach the reality, it is requiring to truly have a clear sense of it. In addition, this is of this act or the simple truth is likely to get stained because our company is living in a limited time. All we can do is interminable effort as though we walk in complete darkness.
3. 3 Imagery of Narrative
Above all, whenever we read the starting area of the story, it generally does not seem to be to be interested in the very spot story as though "glow brings about of any haze. "(HD 3) A detailed portrayal of landscape discourages us to learn and catch it because diffuse sentences and overflowing adjectives overwhelm us. Therefore, we can not get the idea because even making a picture in our brain grows to a limit even though visible details should expand the number of understanding.
Interestingly, though, that is how to Conrad shows his idea, which is a symbolic setting. That's, he takes benefit of the fact that we cannot comprehend emotions and situations in those days because those occasions already handed and even we pick a account up from others. The point is that it's inevitable that there are gaps between idea and fact, the true situation and experience that we think and rearrange by our feeling and thinking. For example, it pertains to Marlow's voyage because he would go to Congo with yearning for exploration but he becomes disillusioned. It demonstrates his ideal idea is betrayed by truth.
Furthermore, since Marlow depicts his previous experience, his depiction might have been evolved by his subjective evaluation. Kurtz's story is also conveyed by Marlow's point of view. In addition, an anonymous loudspeaker is revealing to Marlow's story, which means that thoughts of the anonymous presenter are projected in the storyplot. In this sense, in Eye-sight, Illusion, and Misinterpretation in Conrad's Under European Sight, Jong-Seok Kim signifies that of special importance is the actual fact that the condition of illusion is not restricted to the novel's protagonist and narrator by itself; additionally it is true of the novel's other main personas. For them, the entire world is like "a blank webpage" which they job their own ideas, hopes, prejudices, and wants. Locked in his subjective and narcissistic notion, each personality creates for himself a eye-sight of the world in his own image, shaping it in to the mould his distinctive imagination invents. (979) Thus, layered narrative in Heart and soul of Darkness makes us have a problem in grasping real tale and its interpretation.
In Literary World of Joseph Conrad, Bae, Jyong-Un says that when we discuss Conrad's narrative, another rates show his distinctive descriptive way that requires various and complex response and view depending upon the way you see as well as strong suggestiveness. (297)
The yarns of seamen have a direct simplicity, the complete meaning which is situated within the shell of any damaged nut. But Marlow had not been typical (if his propensity to spin yarns be excepted), and to him the meaning of an episode had not been inside just like a kernel but exterior, enveloping the tale which helped bring it out only as a shine brings about a haze, in the likeness of 1 of the misty halos that sometimes are made noticeable by the spectral lighting of moonshine. (HD 3)
In this way, by split narrative, the essence of the storyplot is blurred, which figuratively emblematize the key content of the storyplot that the ethnic department and hinge supporting Marlow becomes obscure and he agonizes the issue of how he is able to maintain himself. Besides, such dilemma on a search represents a defect of belief. Matching to Jong-Seok Kim, Conrad's condemnation of the very one-sided perceptions of reality is indicative of perspectivism, which is the technique of portraying character types, objects, and events from different perspectives or things of view. (979) That is, it accurately encapsulates that we cannot show the truth by showing the story through imagery of narrative in an ambivalent way.
Throughout this thesis, Conrad's distinctive information of ambivalence in working with the wilderness, African people and white people and how he embodies ambivalence through imagery are created. To be specific, the conflicts between instinct and custom, consciousness and unconsciousness, a human being and a Western european man are indicated in these explanations. The protagonist, Marlow has detached emotions and attached feelings at exactly the same time to both white people and African people because he desires to increase himself mentally but if so, his basic of presence is threaten. Also, dynamics is portrayed as supernatural and frustrating life as well as an subject to be exploited. By these mixed sentiments, he experienced bafflement of personal information and the collapse of conviction he had. Accordingly, it is natural that he seems these ambivalent thoughts.
In the truth of imagery, visible and auditory imagery are used and Conrad's the way of narrative also epitomizes what he wants to reveal by showing. He often takes advantage of image of color such as white and black, light or darkness. It sometimes corresponds to our sense of color and sometimes is inconsistent with it circumstance by case. Such a contradiction totally shows the ambivalent brain recommended in this storyline. Frenzy and silence creates an atmosphere of terror or an atmosphere of peacefulness. Marlow's an unconscious sense of guilt tasks silence, which indicates loss of life to him. Ironically, silence of dynamics provides him with restful sense and a chance to retrospect him. Frenzy which range from gunfire of white visitors to boisterous sound of African people sometimes makes him disillusioned or charmed.
Likewise, ambivalent sentiments form a nucleus in Heart of Darkness. Although numerous ideas and criticisms concentrate on the partnership between Mr. Kurtz and Marlow, the most important thing here is his unique style of description, imagery and its interpretation. These infinitely stretching out meanings give us an opportunity to deeply think our point of view about life also to strike a balance between ambivalence because this novel postpones a particular answer or decision. That's, Conrad implies that that is clearly a life and our invincible trip to be continued in the foreseeable future.