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Analysis of Health care Models

  • The biomedical and public model for health
  • The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion
  • VicHealth and VicHealth funded projects

Many types of health can be found thorough out the world. Whenever a federal or organisations is determining the most appropriate model to implement factors such as cost, ability to achieve desired benefits and feasibility must be considered. The types of medical care that play the greatest role in the health of Australians will be the biomedical and interpersonal types of health.

The biomedical style of health

The biomedical style of health focusses on maximum physical health for folks. This model focusses on diagnosis and treatment of health conditions, with the goal of returning visitors to their pre-condition healthy express. This model relies heavily on private hospitals, pharmaceuticals and medical technology to achieve this goal and can be an expensive model. The biomedical model is greatly accepted and forms the foundation of healthcare throughout the lady.

Advantages and cons of the biomedical model of health


  1. Increases populations life expectancy as treatments advance
  2. Effective at dealing with common problems and going back people to a wholesome state
  3. Can business lead to advancements in medical technology
  4. Can increase the standard of living for folks with serious conditions via medications etc.


  1. Use of advanced medical technology and the health system to diagnose and treat conditions is costly for governments
  2. Does not talk about factors that lead to the introduction of particular health conditions
  3. Not all health issues can be healed, however they can frequently be managed via behavior changes which this model will not consider
  4. Paying for medications and treatment via the biomedical approach can be expensive for individuals

The social model of health

The social model of health focusses on affects that can lead to illness. It aims to boost health and wellness by directing attempts towards addressing public, economical and environmental determinants of health. Rather than an individual way, this model focusses more broadly on neighborhoods and populations in an attempt to promote optimal health.

There are five key key points to the social model of health:

  1. Addresses the broader determinants of health

    Factors such as gender, socioeconomic position, culture, physical environment, education and ethnicity can impact the fitness of people. The sociable model of health looks beyond the natural determinants and centers on how health and wellness can be affected by such broader determinants.

  2. Acts to reduce social inequities

    Quality of professional medical, access and use of health care should be equal across all teams locally. The social style of health acts to ensure socioeconomic position, gender, race, vicinity or physical environment do not reduce collateral.

  3. Empowers individuals and communities

    When people gain increased control over decisions and actions influencing their health they become empowered. The communal style of health acts to empower and this may occur through increased health knowledge and can happen on an individual basis or collectively as a community.

  4. Acts to allow access to healthcare

    Health treatment and health information should be accessible and affordable to meet people's needs. Public determinants that can affect this gain access to include socioeconomic position, cultural barriers and education levels. The cultural model assists to lower such obstacles to enable access to health care.

  5. Involves intersectorial collaboration

    The authorities, non-government organisations and the private sector should work in a collaboration to address the broader determinants that impact individual's health. Greater community health has positive implications for all sectors and collaboration should be desired between such organizations.

Acronyms tend to be a useful way to remember much of the data covered in the HHD course. The acronym AREAS or IDEAR enable you to remember the key points of the social model of health.


  • Addresses
  • Reduce
  • Empowers
  • Acts
  • interSectorial


  • Intersectorial
  • Determinants
  • Empowers
  • Access
  • Reduce

Closing the gap campaign - demonstrating the rules of the public model of health.

Since 2006, Australia's maximum Indigenous and non-Indigenous health systems, NGOs and individuals rights organisations have worked together to accomplish health insurance and life expectation equality for Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. This is known as the Close the Distance Campaign.

The Close the Difference Campaign partners have developed targets to support the success of Indigenous health equality over many areas. Key goals include those to support:

  • significant reductions in the rates of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander loss of life and disease from diseases and chronic conditions;
  • the delivery of the required primary healthcare services for health equality to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander areas, especially by Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services;
  • big advancements to casing (such that it supports a sound body) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities;
  • a dramatic upsurge in the availability of fresh and balanced diet resources in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander neighborhoods; and
  • significant reductions in the speed of smoking among Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islanders.
  • The Shutting the gap marketing campaign reflects the principles of the cultural model of health in the following ways:
  • Addresses the broader determinants of health: This program is wanting to solve determinants such as behavioural tactics, such as healthy food consumption, and interpersonal affects, such as casing, that impact on the health of indigenous people.
  • Acts to reduce social inequities: Friendly inequalities such as usage of professional medical are being dealt with in the program.
  • Empowers individuals and the community: Providing a rise in the option of fresh and balanced diet items, allows individuals and areas the choice to engage in health behavior. In conjunction with education about the benefits of these food types, this program will attempt to empower people so they feel they have got control over their health.
  • Acts to permit access to health care: Increasing usage of primary medical services, including delivery of the services by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders where possible, reduces barriers which could prevent indigenous folks from achieving optimal levels of health. - Involves intersectorial collaboration: On this campaign authorities and non-government organisations are working together and therefore there is the ability to influence a broad range of cultural factors that affect indigenous health.

Other programs that are based on the social model of health are the "Swap it, Don't stop it" initiative, the Quit plan and the SunSmart program. A progressive modern culture, such as Australia's, does not choose to use either the biomedical style of health or the social style of health, but integrate both approaches to strive for maximum levels of health of their population.

The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion

One of the very most significant efforts to the development of People Health happened at the First International Discussion on Health Campaign kept in Ottawa, Canada in 1986. Stemming from the public style of health this meeting saw the introduction of The Ottawa Charter for Health Advertising. The Ottawa Charter is a platform to aid governments and organisations about the world when growing health advertising strategies.

The Ottawa Charter recognises that for health gains that occurs the following basic conditions and resources must be available:

  • Peace
  • Shelter
  • Education
  • Food
  • Income
  • A stable eco-system
  • Sustainable resources
  • Social justice and equity

The Ottawa Charter also outlines that the following three basic prerequisites are the basis for health campaign:

  1. Advocate

    Political, economic, interpersonal, social, environmental, behavioural and natural factors can all favour health or be bad for it. Health promotion action is aimed at making these conditions favourable through advocacy for health.

  2. Enable

    Health promotion focuses on achieving equity in health. Health promotion action aims at reducing distinctions in current health position and ensuring equal opportunities and resources to allow all people to accomplish their fullest health potential.

  3. Mediate

    Health promotion needs coordinated action by all concerned: by governments, by health and other sociable and economic industries, by nongovernmental and voluntary group, by local authorities, by industry and by the mass media. Professional and communal organizations and health employees have a major responsibility to mediate between differing interests in contemporary society for the pursuit of health.

Priority / Action Areas of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion

When health campaign strategies and programs are devised by governments or organisations you have the intent to achieve various health effects. The following concern or action areas are recommended for use because of the Ottawa Charter for creating a health promotion program. Not all areas you need to addressed atlanta divorce attorneys strategy.

Build Healthy People Policy

This action area asks governments and organisational insurance plan makers to be aware of the health implications of the decisions and accept their tasks for health. Insurance policies that involve taxation and legislation can influence the behaviours of individuals, resulting in either positive or negative influences on health. For instance a legislation that helps prevent people from smoking indoors at a restaurant, can then make it possible for a family to choose to venture out for dinner and not put the fitness of their members of the family in danger. Health promotion stimulates health to be on the agenda for policy makers in all industries and everything levels.

Create Supportive Environments

This action area recognises the hyperlink between health insurance and our societal and natural environment. Changing patterns of life, work and leisure have a significant impact on health. Work and leisure should be a source of health for people. The way world organises work should help create a wholesome society. Health promotion generates living and working conditions that are safe, stimulating, satisfying and pleasurable. Protecting natural and built surroundings and conserving natural resources is an important part of health advertising given the impact they can have on retaining health. For instance, work places which have natural light and fresh air support the fitness of their staff.

Strengthen Community Actions

This action area recognises that community participation in arranging priorities and making decision on the route of health concerns can result in empowerment. When a community feels as though its voice is being heard this may lead to increased participation and engagement in health promotion activities. For the community to get on its individuals and material resources to promote good health it requires usage of information, learning opportunities and funding support.

Develop Personal Skills

To increase options for people to exercise more control over their health personal and social development must appear. Providing information, education and opportunities for skill development whether that be at college, home, work or locally permits learning and development of personal skills that occurs.

Reorient Health Services

This action area recognises the necessity for the health promotion note to be distributed between more than doctors and private hospitals it needs to be shared among individuals, community organizations and governments also. For instance, if new medical knowledge is present regarding limiting the prevalence of child years obesity, medical staff should be prompted to share this information at message boards and via college visits.

SunSmart program - demonstrating the Ottawa Charter priority / action areas.

Cancer Council Victoria and the Victorian Health Advertising Basis first funded SunSmart in 1988 in Victoria. Since inception this program has averted more than 100, 000 skin cancers and saved thousands of lives rendering it one of the most successful programs in Australia. Today SunSmart is a multi-faceted program recognized for providing authority and creativity in ultraviolet radiation (UV) security. Programs operate in each condition and place of Australia by individual Cancer Councils, all using common principals but personalized to jurisdictional priorities. Sunlight protection message happens to be Slip! Slop! Slap! Seek! Glide!

SunSmart looks for to influence specific sun coverage behaviours, those with responsibilities for protecting others and broader environmental change. SunSmart also is designed to promote and enhance the awareness of a balanced approach to UV exposure and the hyperlink with vitamin D.

  • Building Health General public Policy: This program is an advocate for change and execution of SunSmart tips in schools, workplaces and local government areas.
  • Create Supportive Environment: Motivating colleges, workplaces and government authorities to provide shaded areas for people when they are outdooea creates a host that helps the SunSmart approach.
  • Strengthen Community Actions:By working with various groups in the community, such as early on child years centres and sporting night clubs, to reduce UV exposure this program is reducing the risk of skin cancer tumor.
  • Develop Personal Skills: The Slide, Slop, Slap, Seek, Slide marketing campaign is teaching people strategies to decrease their risk of developing skin cancer tumor.
  • Reorient Health Services: Dealing with a number of groups and individuals across the health sector increases knowledge and skills that individuals have for reducing UV subjection.

Other programs that integrate the Ottawa Charter top priority / action areas include the "Swap it, Don't stop it" initiative, the Quit plan and the Final the gap advertising campaign.

An acronym to aid keeping in mind the first phrase of each Ottawa Charter action area is "Bad Pet cats Smell Dead Rats".


The Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, more commonly known as VicHealth was set up in 1987 and works together with organisations, communities and individuals to make health a central part of everyday living. The target of VicHealth is mostly on health advertising and protection of health conditions for Victorians. VicHealth does not put into practice programs but advocates and fiscally support health campaign initiatives.

The quest of VicHealth is to make the capabilities of organisations, areas and individuals with techniques that:

  • change social, monetary, ethnical and physical environments to improve health for all those Victorians;
  • strengthen the understanding and the skills of individuals with techniques that support their work to achieve and maintain health.

The quest of VicHealth books selecting the organisations proper priorities, which reveal the Tobacco Take action 1987 and are founded on principles of equity. The priorities for target in the VicHealth strategic framework are:

  • Reducing smoking
  • Improving nutrition
  • Reducing injury from alcohol
  • Increasing physical activity
  • Increasing sociable and financial participation
  • Reducing injury from UV exposure.

VicHealth reflects the social style of health by participating in business activities that sketch on the Ottawa Charter. Health campaign actions that VicHealth get excited about are activities that:

  • Create and use knowledge received through research and evaluation.
  • Create conditions that foster health.
  • Encourage the development of systems that support and sustain health.
  • Communicate about priority medical issues.
  • Develop communities which are inclusive, accessible, equitable and safe.
  • Support organisations to plan, execute and assess health promotion activity.
  • Facilitate participation and skill development.
  • Contribute to, and advocate for, healthy general public policy and legislation.

VicHealth also shows the social style of health via its Key Consequence Areas (KRA). These are the targets they have place for the organisation over a particular period.

VicHealth Key Result Areas

KRA 1 Health inequalities

1. 1 Enhance the physical and mental health of these experiencing social, financial or geographic downside.

1. 2 Donate to closing medical distance between Indigenous and non- Indigenous Victorians.

KRA 2 Participation

2. 1 Increase participation in physical activity.

2. 2 Increase opportunities for social connection.

2. 3 Reduce race-based discrimination and promote diversity.

2. 4 Prevent assault against women by increasing involvement in respectful associations.

2. 5 Build knowledge to increase access to economic resources.

KRA 3 Nutrition, tobacco, liquor and UV

3. 1 Create environments that improve health.

3. 2 Increase optimal nutrition.

3. 3 Reduce cigarette use.

3. 4 Reduce damage from alcohol.

3. 5 Reduce harmful UV vulnerability.

KRA 4 Knowledge

4. 1 Produce, synthesise and translate practical health promotion knowledge.

4. 2 Evaluate health promotion


KRA 5 Communications

5. 1 Develop, implement and evaluate marketing and communications approaches to improve health.

5. 2 Develop proof on effective interpersonal marketing.

5. 3 Provide exact, credible and well-timed information to stakeholders on health

promotion issues.

KRA 6 Business operations

6. 1 Ensure effective business and risk functions and systems.

6. 2 Develop high-performing people in a healthy and sustainable work place.

6. 3 Operate transparently and with accountability.

VicHealth funded projects

VicHealth's programs and assignments focus on enhancing the health of everyone in Victoria, including addressing dissimilarities in health position between population categories. Programs are led by the latest proof and there is an attempt to invest in a selection of activities in sectors as diverse as sport and active entertainment, the arts, education, planning and built environment, community and local government. These programs promote changes in coverage and practice that can affect people's capability to sustain a wholesome lifestyle.

Activities supported because the Foundation's establishment in 1987 have added significantly to general population health advancements in Victoria. The reduction of smoking prevalence among parents is one of the success reviews in the potency of thorough, well-funded and continual programs for bettering health.

Two VicHealth funded programs are layed out below, associated with potential health effects of each job and how they indicate the social style of health:

    1. VicHealth's Arts About Us program encourages dialogue about the great things about cultural diversity and the injury triggered by race-based discrimination. Arts About Us presently provides three-year financing to 16 community and arts organisations which may have partnered with VicHealth. Each task is dealing with various organisations to build and showcase skill that strengthens ethnic understanding, celebrates social diversity and creates discussion about the consequences of race-based discrimination.

      Potential health effects of the program include;

    2. Breaking down the interpersonal isolation that people mixed up in program may have experienced, thus resulting in improvements in peoples sociable health.
    3. Building cultural connectedness for community groups and individuals which come together in such a program is positive for interpersonal health.
    4. Building the self-esteem of folks whose art may be displayed is positive for public health.
    5. Raising community awareness of race-based discrimination may possibly lead to less discrimination and for that reason has associated mental health advantages.
    6. Economic benefits may stem from people whose skill skills are recognized. Resulting occupation may have associated health advantages for these folks.

How this program reflects the rules of the public style of health;

    • Strengthening social understanding and bringing up knowing of issues such as race-based discrimination seeks to reduce social inequalities.
    • Celebrating diversity aims to enable individuals and communities so they may have the self-assurance to take part in the community.
    • Culture is a wide determinant of health that is being targeted in the program.
  1. As of November 1, 2011, it is currently against the law in Victoria to provide alcohol in a private home to anyone under 18, unless their father or mother or guardian has given agreement. The teen taking in law web resource launched by VicHealth, the Australian Drug Basis and the Victorian Federal government is aimed at parents, adults and teenagers and gives useful information about the new law change.

    The website stimulates parents and children to discuss alcohol ingestion, provides information on short term and permanent harm which could result from alcoholic beverages and how to lessen these risks.

    Potential health effects of this effort include;

  2. Raising community knowing of the new rules may decrease the amount of underage alcohol intake with associated health benefits.
  3. Social health advantages may result when parents and their children speak about alcohol consumptions and the associated risks.
  4. Physical health advantages may direct result when teenagers are educated on safe consumption of alcohol.
  5. Mental health advantages may effect when parents are reassured that there surely is a law guarding their children from accessing alcoholic beverages from other parents.
  6. How this program reflects the principles of the public style of health;

      • Teaching teenagers and adults about alcohol intake addresses the broader determinants of health, particularly education.
      • When teenagers are informed about alcohol and its effects they are really empowered to assume control over the decisions that they make in their lives.

      For further practice how VicHealth reflects the guidelines of the Public style of health, check out the VicHealth website. Here you will find types of many VicHealth funded programs. Identify several programs and make connections with the key points of the Community model of health. Ensure you get your teacher to learn over your replies.


      Biomedical style of health - Focuses on the physical or natural areas of disease and illness. It is a medical model of care and attention practised by doctors and/or health professional and is associated with the diagnosis, stop and treatment of disease.

      Mission - A statement defines what an organization is, why it is out there, its reason behind being.

      Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion - Produced by the entire world Health Organization this process attempts to lessen inequalities in health. The Ottawa Charter for Health Advertising originated from the social style of health. It considers health advertising as the procedure of enabling people to increase control over, and also to improve, their health. The Ottawa Charter identifies three basic approaches for health promotion which can be permitting, mediating, and advocacy.

      Social model of health - A model that efforts to achieve improvements in health and wellness by directing effort towards handling the social, economic and environmental determinants of health.

      VicHealth - Is actually a Victorian authorities body that works with organisations, communities and individuals to promote health and prevent illness regarding to its priorities.

      Revision check checklist

      • Can you describe the biomedical style of health?
      • Can you describe the social model of health including the five principles?
      • Can you make clear the Ottawa Charter like the five concern action areas?
      • Do you know VicHealth's mission and tactical priorities?
      • Do you know the health outcomes of any VicHealth funded project and exactly how this project displays the social style of Health?

      Revision Questions

      1. List three good examples that represent a biomedical approach to health?
      2. Outline two top features of the biomedical style of health?
      3. The QUIT campaign attempts to lessen the prevalence of smoking through assisting smokers to give up and not continue smoking. Describe how the QUIT campaign reflects two of the action areas of the Ottawa Charter?
      4. Explain the role of VicHealth in promoting health?
      5. VicHealth supports the Darebin Northern Interfaith Respectful Romantic relationships Project. This job engages faith leaders and neighborhoods in Melbourne's north to raise awareness of the problem of violence against women. The job helps faith and community leaders build their capacity to undertake primary reduction work. It comes with a variety of activities, including using scripture and teachings to promote respectful human relationships, White Ribbon Day initiatives, interfaith declarations and peer mentoring programs.
      6. Explain, using information, two rules of the sociable model of health that are mirrored in the program.
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