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Application Of GPS To Disaster Management IT Essay

GPS is particularly useful during disasters since it operates in any weather, anywhere and all the time. While it functions simply to give the location of the receiver, the amount of precision of Gps navigation helps it be quite useful in disaster management.

GPS find its most significant utility during the response and restoration phases; however it can also be used during preparedness and mitigation stages.

An important program of GPS in EDM is checking of disaster vehicles or resources. In this application the GPS receiver attached to the automobile and the positioning is overlaid onto a map.

Other applications include the monitoring the elevation of waves. Gps navigation units are set to buoys and the level of the products are can be motivated to within centimetres any significant change in wave height or speed can activate an alarm for a tsunami or sea surge. Volcanoes can even be monitored using GPS. By calculating the deformation of the bottom, inferences about volcanic activity can be produced.

Remote Sensing and Flooding

Flooding is one of the very most frequently occurring risks. With flooding comes the risk of damage or disruption on track living including communication, travel, the surroundings and infrastructure. Given the magnitude of disruption that may take place, it can be difficult for devastation managers to get access to remote areas or areas which have been cut off because of this of the disaster. Remote sensing as a technological tool would greatly assist this technique as it would allow users of the technology the chance to view what's taking place in an influenced area, without jeopardizing the safe practices of the user, since they won't really be at the site.

It is obviously heading to be difficult, if not impossible, for organizers to recognize all the areas more likely to experience flooding in any location. The usage of technology however, in identifying flood potential could highlight top features of the geography that could make the community vunerable to the threat. Types of flooding such as adobe flash flooding, which usually take place in a relatively small amount of time, with little or no warning could demonstrate potentially dangerous for devastation managers if they attempt to literally go into any that is experiencing continuous rainfall. As the job of providing assistance to victims is critical and time reliant, a physical occurrence in the afflicted area could raise the persons vulnerable.

Using distant technology however, would allow response workers to remain away from risk zones while at the same time gather important information to aid timely response, rescue and relief attempts.

Floodplain mapping is a useful indication of flood possibilities within an area and distant sensing can certainly help the procedure of identifying overflow plains. The technology would generate satellite television imagery of the region in question, which allows for proper planning and timely rescue efforts if the need arise. The in depth photography created from remote control sensing provides correct information and can limit attempts to the influenced area. Other characteristics that may be identified in regards to a geographic region using distant sensing include land-use classification, historical data, dirt coverage, and ground moisture.

Remote sensing and Hurricanes

Hurricane forecasting during the last century has increased dramatically, with experts having the ability to estimate the likely volume of storms for a given year, level and possible degrees of destruction. Today, this process is manufactured even easier with the use of remote control sensing technology. Trackers are able, whilst the storm is in progress, to visit the key of the system in search of information. This tool, at any level of the hurricane menace pays to in mitigating from the deadly effects that can happen.

Remote sensing makes it possible for planners to see data about the features of watersheds to include drainage and density. Once obtained, this pays to information as it offers information on the capability of the watershed to cope with the quantity of water-flow that could result from rains associated with the storm.

High image resolution technology, a feature of distant sensing, is useful in providing spatial data on hurricanes. Because the scales of geographic areas in remote control sensing can be manipulated, users will be in a position to move in on specific areas for review. Surprise surges and seaside flooding, which often accompany hurricanes can be better mapped using remote control sensing and offer information on the amount of flooding that has been experienced.

Remote sensing and Earthquakes

Development in any area with high seismic risk is actually going to be problematic. Given the high level of mistake lines that stretch over the breadth of geographic areas, it is unavoidable that we now have heading to be individual settlements in these areas. Considering also that there is no early warning system in place for earthquakes, emphasis must be placed on risk mitigation to lessen the likely impact from earthquakes on lives or properties. In depth use of remote sensing (and especially the utilization of satellite television imaging) is critical to the planning process for earthquake preparedness. This technology will help in determining the structural and non-structural earthquake risks that can be found and employ the most likely tool for reducing these risks. LandSat imagery is one tool that works well for this purpose given supply and cost.

After an earthquake has taken place, awareness with the nude eyeball, as well as usage of worst influenced areas may be constrained. When this happens, it becomes quite difficult for emergency personnel to gain usage of survivors in a short period of time. Using remote control sensing technology, however, would significantly improve the timeliness and quality of aid that can be provided. Activities, such as search and recovery, are best affected after major earthquakes using distant sensing. Since there will be considerable amount of debris from collapsed buildings, it might be advantageous to make use of the service of remote control sensing for deep searching.

Just as Dr. Thomas Jordan pointed out, "The data from the Southern California Integrated Gps navigation Network allows us to predict future earthquakes with an increase of accuracy and reliability, as well as to review in much greater detail the fundamental procedures of crustal deformation that will be the root factors behind earthquakes. " (2006, gps unit. gov)

Remote Sensing and Volcanic Eruptions

On-the-spot seismic monitoring of volcanoes is the simplest way to monitor volcanic activity. However, it may not fit the bill or safe to be on-site all the time. In light of the, remote sensing is crucial to the monitoring process. Remote sensing technology makes it possible for disaster managers to observe volcanic activities on a continuing basis without being bodily on site especially sometimes when it would be dangerous.

Remote sensing and Landslides

Landslides usually take place with other hazards, such as flooding, hurricanes and earthquakes, but can also happen independently. Once major servings of land shift out of place, access to and general awareness of the influenced area is usually severely constrained. Remotely sensed images under these conditions are of help tools in helping planners. It presents a picture of what has taken place, and supports your choice making process regarding the future of the influenced area. Where examination of a location is limited credited to rubble and mudflow from a landslide, distant sensing could permeate thick areas to provide critical information.

As new technology emerge, and with the increased incidents of natural and man-made disasters, it's important to employ as many of these technological advancements as is possible to mitigate against the effects of disasters.

Introduction to Disaster Management, Virtual School for Small States of the Commonwealth (VUSSC),

http://www. col. org/SiteCollectionDocuments/Disaster_Management_version_1. 0. pdf

A critical component of any successful recovery operation is time. Knowing the complete location of landmarks, roads, buildings, emergency service resources, and disaster alleviation sites reduces that point -- and saves lives. This information is crucial to disaster alleviation teams and public safety personnel in order to safeguard life and reduce property loss. The Global Positioning System (GPS) will serve as a facilitating technology in handling these needs.

GPS has enjoyed a vital role in comfort initiatives for global disasters including the tsunami that struck in the Indian Sea region in 2004, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita that wreaked havoc in the Gulf coast of florida in 2005, and the Pakistan-India earthquake in 2005. Search and recovery teams used Gps unit, geographic information system (GIS), and remote sensing technology to generate maps of the disaster areas for save and aid businesses, as well concerning assess damage.

Another important section of disaster relief is in the management of wildfires. To contain and take care of forest fires, aeroplanes combine Gps device with infrared scanners to identify fire restrictions and "hot places. " Within a few minutes, flames maps are transmitted to a portable field computer at the firefighters' camp. Equipped with these details, firefighters have a larger chance of being successful the battle resistant to the blaze.

In earthquake vulnerable areas including the Pacific Rim, GPS is playing an increasingly prominent role in helping scientists to foresee earthquakes. Using the complete position information provided by GPS, scientists can research how strain accumulates slowly as time passes so that they can characterize, and in the future perhaps anticipate, earthquakes.

Meteorologists accountable for storm monitoring and flood prediction also rely on Gps unit. They can determine normal water vapor content by studying transmissions of Gps navigation data through the atmosphere.

GPS is becoming an integral part of modern crisis response systems -- whether supporting stranded motorists find assistance or guiding emergency vehicles.

As the international industry placement standard for use by emergency and other area of expertise vehicle fleets, GPS has given professionals a quantum revolution in efficient operation of their disaster response teams. The ability to effectively identify and view the positioning of police, open fire, rescue, and individual vehicles or vessels, and how their location relates to a whole network of travelling systems in a geographic area, has led to a whole new way of doing business. Location information provided by GPS, coupled with automation, reduces wait in the dispatch of crisis services.

Incorporation of GPS in cell phones places a crisis location ability in the hands of everyday users. Today's widespread placement of Gps device location systems in traveler cars provides another jump in developing a comprehensive safety net. Today, many ground and maritime vehicles include autonomous crash sensors and GPS. These details, when coupled with automated communication systems, allows a demand help even though occupants are unable to do so.

The modernization of Gps device will further accomplish disaster comfort and public basic safety services. The addition of new civil signals will increase precision and reliability all over the world. In short, Gps unit modernization means more lives saved and faster recovery for patients of global tragedies.

Public safeness and disaster relief, GPS. gov, http://www. gps. gov/applications/safety/

"The data from the Southern California Integrated Gps device Network will allow us to foresee future earthquakes with an increase of correctness, as well as to analyze in much more detail the fundamental processes of crustal deformation that are the root causes of earthquakes. " Dr. Thomas Jordan, Director Designate, Southern California Earthquake Middle.

Deliver disaster relief to areas in a far more timely and appropriate manner, saving lives and rebuilding critical infrastructure.

Provide position information for mapping of catastrophe regions where little if any mapping information can be obtained.

Enhance capabilities for flood prediction and monitoring of seismic precursors and happenings.

Provide positional information about people with mobile phones and in vehicles in case there is emergency.

A devastation can be induced by federal government humans or characteristics. Disasters are happenings that are occasionally unpredictable. It is important for any to manage disasters. Authorities provides legislation, allocates resources and will logical planning and ecological development. Disaster management and planning is a key part of authorities work.

Disasters require federal intervention. They aren't always unstable. Floods take place in valleys and flood plains, droughts in areas with unstable and low rainfall, and oil spills happen in transport lanes. This predictability provides opportunities to arrange for, prevent and diminish the impact of disasters.

Disasters arise from both natural and human being triggers, and the responses needed could stretch out community and authorities capacity to the limit. For instance, during 2000 we saw some disasters in South Africa: huge floods devastated the Limpopo Province, Mpumalanga and neighbouring countries; large fires and an essential oil spill threatened Cape Town; and independent floods struck rural neighborhoods in KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape. In 2004 Cape Town experienced a drought devastation related to global warming. From Apr 2004 to January 2005, the province encounters 376 disasters, usually fire and flood.

Disasters are unavoidable although we do not necessarily know when and where they will happen. But their most severe results can be partially or completely avoided by preparation, early caution, and swift, decisive reactions.

Disaster management is designed to reduce the occurrence of disasters and decrease the impact of these that can't be prevented. The federal government White newspaper and Take action on Disaster Management identify the roles of Local Authorities as well as Provincial and Country wide government in disaster management.

Identifying potential disaster hazards in your area

These can include all or a few of the next:

Mass-event situations (concerts, sport, other sociable gatherings - including the 2001 Ellis park disaster during the Pirates-Chiefs game)

Storms and storm damage;

Flooding;

Fires: Domestic, hill and veld;

Oils spills, at sea, on land;

Transport mishaps;

Hazardous materials spills (spilling of chemicals, etc from factories, vehicles);

http://www. etu. org. za/toolbox/docs/government/disaster. html

disaster management, South African Government programs and policies

Disaster management is an activity or strategy that is carried out when any type of catastrophic event occurs. Sometimes referred to as disaster recovery management, the procedure may be initiated when anything threatens to disrupt normal operations or puts the lives of humans at risk. Government authorities on all levels as well as many businesses create some sort of catastrophe plan that make it possible to overcome the catastrophe and go back to normal function as quickly as it can be.

One of the fundamental elements of devastation management involves defining the types of catastrophes that could possibly disrupt your day to day operation of a city, town, business, or country.

Identifying those potential disasters makes it possible to create contingency plans, assemble supplies, and create procedures that may be initiated when in case a given catastrophe does come to go. A truly extensive devastation management plan will encompass an array of possibilities that may easily be adapted in the event one disaster cause a chain result of other types of disasters in its wake.

Because of the necessity to continue operating in crisis situations, devastation management plans tend to be multi-layered and can talk about such issues as floods, hurricanes, fires, bombings, and even mass failures of utilities or the immediate get spread around of disease. The catastrophe plan will probably treat such as important concerns as evacuating folks from an impacted region, organizing temporary real estate, food, and medical care. It is not unusual for the plan to also work toward containing and perhaps neutralizing the main causes of the disaster if possible.

The procedure for disaster management will often address the problem of ongoing communication. Since many disasters can cause communication sites to fail, a reliable disaster plan will include the quick installation of choice communication capabilities that not count on the many switches, towers and hubs that are usually part of cell phone and mobile communication systems. Often utilizing short-wave transmissions that are recognized with satellite television technology, the communication stream can continue from the area influenced by the devastation to other things where help can be prolonged when and as possible.

http://www. wisegeek. com/what-is-disaster-management. htm

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