Posted at 10.14.2018
Among the other four skills, tuning in is the the one that has been most overlooked and neglected in second terminology classrooms. So educators don't pay much focus on this skill and show it carelessly. In the field of language teaching and learning effectiveness has tended to be viewed as the ability of speaking and writing in dialect in question. Hearing and reading skills are in the next position. One reason behind this example might be the challenging attribute of the listening skill. Tuning in has gained a fresh importance in words classrooms after growing IT technology established information in world in Iran. Additionally it should be mentioned that the majority of the students' course time is devoted to the listening. Despite this, we often take importance of listening for granted, which is the most overlooked skill among other skills. In natural order of learning any vocabulary, listening stands at first rank. Without any reception one can not produce anything. Though, when a teacher wants to possess fluent and beneficial students, he/she should pay much and necessary focus on teaching being attentive skill.
Some of the educators assume that speaking should be actively discouraged. One of the reasons of emphasizing being attentive and delaying speaking is dependant on an opinion. Those who give importance to speaking view the terms as a product and think that terms is a behavior and speaking is the manifestation of the learning or happening.
On the in contrast, there are methods that gave more importance to tuning in Land, Newton (2009). in this approach of language learning, listening is at the center. All the information necessary for building up the knowledge for using words comes from receptive skills: being attentive, and reading. When the data of words in this regard is made the learner can write and speak. Quite simply, devoid of any input, the outcome or outcome should be little or nothing.
Gray and Grey (1981) described the benefits associated with delaying speaking and focusing on being attentive. These benefits are the following:
" 1. The learner is not overloaded by having to focus on several skills at the same time-a cognitive advantage.
2. Swiftness of coverage -receptive knowledge develops faster than productive knowledge.
3. It is easy to move very quickly to sensible communicative listening activities.
4. L earners will not feel shy or worried about their terminology classes. Needing to speak a spanish, particularly when you understand very little, can be a frightening experience.
5. Hearing activities are well analyzed to 3rd party learning through listening to readings. "
Critics think that producing a dialect is not sufficient for learning. In dialect learning substantial levels of receptive activity should be included in the mind for future use. To speak communicatively and to express and understand this is, one should have a previous language knowledge and information in his/her mind.
Models of listening
Traditionally hearing was viewed as a passive skill through which the listener or hearer received information dispatched by communication senders. More recently listening is viewed as a dynamic and interpretive process where the meaning is not fixed but is made or created by members. (Newton, Nation. 2009)
Types of listening
According to Nation and Newton (2009) there are two types of listening:
1. One-way listening-typically from the transfer of information.
2. Two-listening- typically associated with keeping social relations.
As it is known, in the first type of listening one can pay attention to monologues which can be one of many ways productions with no pause and stop to clarification.
While in two-way being attentive both edges of relationship are energetic in a natural sounding dialogues.
One of the listening operations is bottom-up one. In this process the message goes from the parts to the complete by piece. In this process the listener uses information which is already present in data.
The other process in listening is top -down process. As Country and Newton (2009) status this process requires the listener in inferencing. The listener should go from complete to parts. Listeners' earlier knowledge or information and his /her content of schemata help him/her to forecast what the message will be.
According to the above mentioned processes, being attentive is not really a solo skill but as a number of sub-skills (Land, Newton, 2009). So hearing understanding is a top-down approach which targets meaning and need much attention and attention.
Problems with traditional model
There are a lot of problems with traditional types of teaching being attentive skills. In old ways of teaching the responsibility of learning weren't upon the shoulder blades of the students. Instructors established goals. Chose material and control the equipments. There have been little room for students preferences. "the fact that the tutor still tends to choose the materials becomes even harder to justify now that a variety of spoken language is available to students outside the language classroom by using a satellite television and the internet" (Goodith White, 2006). a few of the teachers of the model, and learners are thought to be passive over-hearers somewhat than active members in the tuning in process. They are often listening to audio or video tape which they can not stop. To be able to clarify and solve the understanding problems, it is necessary for them to integrate or interact with the loudspeakers. In real life situations, listeners play an active and important role in dialogues and conversation acts. They show interest, ask questions, require repetitions, and cause the speakers to change some parts.
Some ways of improving the coaching of listening
It seems clear that just how of teaching hearing needs to be customized and changed. In order to engage the students in the topic and make sure they are mixed up in learning process a few of the original problems of regarding models of teaching hearing should be avoided. It is better to permit students to:
"1. choose what they listen closely to
2. make their own hearing text
3. control their equipment
4. supply the instructions
5. design their own being attentive task
6. think about their problems in tuning in"(White, 2006).
Goals for coaching and learning listening
White (1998) states the tuning in skill goals as:
-understanding brief utterances on a literal semantic level
-understanding interactive discourse
-understanding the practical/illocutionary force of any utterance
-interpreting utterances in terms of the situation
-resolving understanding problems by seeking help from the speaker
-remembering suggestions, monitoring, and evaluating how well one is understanding.
I tried out to persuade the readers through these internet pages that the technique for teaching listening must be modified. All aspects of listening skills should be covered and lead to true competence in being attentive with in a communicative competence platform. Suggestion is to deal with the being attentive in a far more task based part of attention and authenticity of hearing materials must be at the center of attention. Students and listeners should be urged to use more responsibility for producing their listening capability.