Posted at 10.16.2018
A body or collection of knowledge that is of all use in supplying definitions and explanation to the vocation of nursing is referred to as a nursing theory. Theories are based on assumptions made up of models, concepts, definitions, and propositions. Croyle (2005) identifies a good theory as one which is logical, recognized by a earlier research in the same field, steady with day-to-day observations. Florence Nightingale is seen as the forerunner of nursing theories although she hardly ever really developed any theory doing his thing today. She had written a e book about her nursing experiences supplying way to numerous nursing ideas. This paper is about the use and software of a medical theory in addressing a clinical issue. Of particular interest is Dorothy Johnson's Behavioral systems model (Johnson, 1980). This newspaper attempts to recognize a medical problem in the culture and apply the principles of Johnson's theory in finding the answer to the issue. The issue identified is aggressive habit in the elderly surviving in long-term care nursing homes.
In the medical profession, theories form a very vital part of the system. The primary aim of nursing theories is description, reason, and prediction of nursing phenomenon. A good theory in this field therefore ensures better patient treatment, professionalism, and better communication between nurses and most importantly provides help with further research and education in the field. An excellent theory has procedures for foundations of the medical practice to help in the era of further knowledge and giving good direction to the field. A theory shows what we know and what we are in need of to determine thus in nursing, it performs a central role in looking after patients. Ideas thus go a long way in the introduction of the vocation.
Dorothy Johnson is the proponent of the Behavioral Systems model. Delivered in Georgia on the 21st of august 1919, she received her A. A in 1938 from Armstrong Junior School. In 1942, she graduated from the Vanderbilt University with a B. S. N. she acquired her M. P. H. from Harvard College or university in 1948. She was involved in teaching pediatric medical at Vanderbilt University before subscribing to the University or college of California in Los Angeles.
Johnson (1980) states that the eight subsystems of action are interdependent, interactive and included at the same time. According to her, humans are behavioral systems consisting of the next seven subsystems: the accomplishment deals with arranging and attaining goals as the affinitive forms relationships with others. The aggressive/protective gets the function of giving an answer to threats and providing coverage to one's self applied while the dependency subsystem obtains necessary responses about the self applied and goes in advance to recognize the need to depend on others. Whereas the eliminative part expresses feelings to the outside world which is mixed up in removal of wastes from your body system, the ingestive is involved in the intake of the extremely valuable nutrition and acquiring knowledge. The intimate subsystem is made for recreation, development of gender established individuality and having intimate romantic relationships with others. In other words, the seven subsystems have to be in good conditions and in action for a normal healthy individual. Interaction between your seven subsystems is subsequently interrelated and linked in a way that they influence each other in delivering their various tasks.
However, the seven subsystems do not go it only as they are also acted on, significantly, by external factors. For Johnson, the surroundings is the main exterior factor as it includes anything and everything outside the person involved. The physical, socio-cultural and some degree even the economical factors form area of the external stars on the subsystems. Hostile behavior is a interpersonal concern and the contemporary society forms the major area of the external environment. The main role enjoyed by nurses is thus aiding the affected specific return to the normal balance of the seven subsystems. To attain the possible ultimate functioning action, the nurses at the attention facilities have to help make the public environment of the patients comfortable so they feel at ease.
When the subsystem does not develop totally and/or will not get sufficient supply of something, it easily comes out of balance. At other times there is certainly discrepancy and therefore the subsystem is not doing enough to achieve the end goal, which is being in the best condition. Conflict between the components of the subsystem is not good for the body as much among the subsystems being prominent doing his thing over the rest. They are the major causes of imbalance in the subsystem that results in people not sense well and consequently falling ill. In the case of aggressive action, the ambitious subsystem is prominent in the other subsystems. When this energy is not channeled in the right way clinical issues come up. These can be observed in form of assault, or aggressive terms (Croyle, 2005).
Regulation of habit is the simplest way for the individual to get back the total amount hence is well again. The nurses at the care and attention facilities for the elderly have to pay attention to any changes in the tendencies of these patients. Alteration of the internal as well as exterior environment while n some situations activation of the recovery process goes quite a distance in aiding the patient to come back to the standard balance. The new environment in the facilities sometimes triggers aggressive patterns, especially amongst older people in the good care facilities. Elderly people at the facilities need the nurses to assistance with the aggressive action (Croyle, 2005).
It is Johnson's notion that the basic responsibility of the nurse is to support the individual restore balance when lost and in case of imbalance then, achieve the position quo, which means return to normal balance. Nurses, therefore, have to be patient with patients with aggressive behavior if they're to access the reason for the situation. Most aggressive habit is induced by anger and emotional stress. It really is thus after the nurse to set-up conducive external environment for the patient to open up. Because of research and the advancement of technology, it is now better to identify and pinpoint where the situation comes from.
In her evaluation and development of the theory, Johnson did not fail to mention the contribution and effects of the surroundings to the body. Here the surroundings is split into external and inner, the internal being the subsystems as the external include anything outside the body. On health, the idea holds a healthy person is one with a perfect balance and steadiness in the functions of the seven subsystems. The nurse has a role to experience in the legislation of the balance whenever there may be instability in the machine.
External and internal environments are the main causes of hostility or aggressive patterns. Differing of the body contribute differently to aggressive behavior. The brain is the major controller of aggressive behavior. The mind is in charge of controlling manifestation of both automated and behavioral the different parts of aggression. This includes violent patterns and vocal appearance. The brain accumulates signals from both the external and inside conditions and expresses them in form of hostility. Whenever the average person feels threatened or unpleasant, they become extreme in their discussion, tossing insults, and demeaning words. It becomes worse when they switch violent to release the anger they have got inside.
By elderly people, we signify those from the age of 65 and above, most of that have retired. These people are normally seen as a bother to their loved ones as their needs increase from the normal. They thus need more attention which can't be provided at home so they are generally taken to assisted living facilities where they can get the correct care. Because of old age and stress from retirement living. These people have a problem dealing with the changes around them and their patterns changes. Some become extreme while some develop mental problems making long-term nursing homes the better to take care of the individuals.
There are numerous long-term care facilities which range from mental establishments for the psychologically handicapped to assisted living facilities where there can be found facilities to aid them in their daily livelihoods. Many of these facilities are homes to the elderly and those with terminal ailments. From the seven subsystems, the ambitious part with their systems is more active than the others. They thus face life-changing issues and try their level best to deal with the mental as well as mental troubles. Nurses in these facilities are especially faced with coping with mental conditions that come with hostility.
Behavioral problems often come up from the patient's effort to cope with his emotions or simply share them. The behavior ranges from repeating questions or phrases, humming, pacing up and down, to repetitive patterns. Aggressive tendencies includes tossing things, punishing terminology and even hitting (Parker, 2001).
Nurses in these companies have to pay keen attention to such aggressive action and identify which of the seven subsystems is not functioning properly thus help these patients regain balance in their systems. Maybe it's dependence, the attachment, or the hostile causing a big change in habit. The dependence in the sense that the patient who was simply used to caring for himself now discovers it aggravating when he has to count on others for everyone his needs. The attachment will come in when the individual struggles to form new associations at the health care facilities and being held away from the prevailing relationships. Normally the patient is important in the behavioral system model of treatment but in working with mental problems, especially the ones associated with aggressive behavior. A lot of the effort is required from the part of the nurse who must be patient with the individual.
Ones the subsystem triggering the change in tendencies has been identified, the nurse should go ahead to ensure conducive exterior environment to aid the patient to full recovery. The patient must feel comfortable in the health care center because any soreness or soreness agitates them. The patient is incapable of controlling their feelings or emotions and may be hostile in expressing what they feel. The nurse therefore has a work to stimulate the inner environment to be peaceful through the exterior. It is not easy to look after mentally sick patients because the challenge lies of their minds.
The best way to help the patient is by learning what evolved in their past behavior. What happened before they became ill is vital in determining the situation and adjusting the surroundings in an attempt to direct the patient to restoration of the balance in the subsystem. Depressive disorder is one of the most typical common mental-health problems in health facilities. Loneliness, concern with death, helplessness, irritation, anger, and hopelessness are a few of the obstacles of post-retirement encountered by older people. Despair has many symptoms one of them having trouble drifting off to sleep (Parker, 2001). These symptoms tend to be seen as problems and most people try dealing with them rather than watching change of habit in the average person and rebuilding balance.
Depression can be resolved by bettering the external environment of the individual. Mavis et al (2011) claims that anti-depressants are available and can be used to treat major depression. He continues to state that older people always have difficulties with their carers thus adding more problems to the healing process. The nurse should involve the individual in organizations; give medication to encourage recovery of the internal environment, and concerning them in activities that spark their passions. Individual remedy and connection with loved ones is vital for the recovery of these patients. Despair is a mental complication and just like others, it impacts the mind. The nurses have a responsibility to attempt to stimulate your brain in the right course to encourage quick recovery and development of the mental system.
Mavis (2011) confirms that a few of the sources of depression include health issues, loneliness, an adverse life-event, and even some medication. Corresponding to him, melancholy is an insight to more cognitive issues that the elderly have to deal with. That's where the environment comes in. the internal, (subsystems), need to be held in balance. The exterior environment helps the patient easily fit into properly and be free with the nurses. The individual opens up easily to go over problems when the encompassing is to his comfort. Nurses have to help them fit in to the care centers.
In realization, the behavioral system theory is very helpful in the treating mental illnesses. The mind is damaged by your body's subsystems and ensuring restoration of balance in the subsystems goes quite a distance in treatment of mental conditions especially among the elderly. Not being able to express their feelings to the carers is a major problem to the resolution of aggressive tendencies. Boosting their environment and making the patient comfortable calms them down and thus improve the inside environment as well.