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British Airways Cultural Practice Analysis


The goal of this article is to demonstrate the social practice at English Airways. English Airways have their own ethnic practice. An organisational culture is a robust tool that influences the behaviour of their customers of the organisation and to help them become more effective. Culture is a push that helps organisation to operate beyond their awareness since it helps them to explain a lot of their puzzling and disappointment experience in life (Schein, 2010). In addition, it helps us to comprehend the cultural power that enable us to comprehend ourselves better.

Everyone want to work in an organisation culture that is made of another culture because different employee brings different life experience to the organisation. An organisation culture is affected by the creator, executives, and professionals because they're in charge of making a decision and strategic path. An company has a life of their own and gain, value, tactics, and values.

Culture cannot be defined by a single definition, matching to Hofstede 2016 organisational culture is the "way in which members of the organisation relate with one another, their work and the exterior world in comparison to other organisations". Another definition is "The set of beliefs, beliefs, and norms, together with symbols like dramatized events and personalities that presents the unique personality of an company and the context to use it in it and because of it" (Morgan, 2006). One third definition is "The terms they use combined with the regularities in the conversation such as "thank you" accompanied by "don't talk about it" or "How is your entire day going up to now", "just fine". Observed interaction patterns, traditions, and traditions become evident in every groups in a number of situations (e. g. Goffman, 1959, 1967; Jones, Moore & Snyder, 1988; Trice & Beyer, 1993; Van Maanen, 1979) (as cited in Schein & Schein 2016).

As explained in Schein & Schein (2016) company is one of the most difficult organisation features to improve includes founders, leadership, and services.

Background of English Airways

British Airways (BA) is the major airline in the United Kingdom which provides home and international air service for passengers and cargo. They are simply based in Waterside and their main hubs are London Heathrow and Gatwick international airport which operate both brief and long haul flight (Uk Airways, 2016).

In 1972 the United Kingdom federal founded the British Airways Board to control English Overseas Airways Corporation, British Euro Airways, Cambrian Airways and Northeast Airlines and all four-company merged on 31 March 1974 to create Uk Airways.

After being, circumstances company for almost 13 years, British Airways was privatized in Feb 1987. In 1987 the extended with the acquisition of English Caledonian, followed by Dan-air in 1992 and then in 2012 by Uk Midland International.

On 21 January 2011, English Airways merged with Iberia to create International Airlines Group (IAG). IAG is the third largest airline group on earth and second largest in European countries in term of gross annual earnings. IAG is also outlined in the FTSE 100 index and on the London STOCK MARKET.

British airways have significantly more than 280 aircraft that happen to be Boeing jets and airbus and they have more than 42, 000 employees. They operate in 75 countries with 150 destinations which include Europe, North, Central and Latin America.

British Airways Environment: Cultural Practice

British Airways ethnical practice is about how precisely they organise themselves, their beliefs, rules, and types of procedures. British Airways cultural practice is based on their hierarchy system whereas information is passed down from the panel of directors to the exec managers than to the various departments to put into practice every supervisor oversee all activities. Then the managers then move the information upwards to the professional directors who'll complete it to the mother board of directors where in fact the discourse on any issues concerning the information will be offer with.

At Uk Airways, they would rather use both role and task culture, two culture out of Charles Handy's four types of culture. The Open up University (2016) explained that Convenient model will not display and shared learning that can identify progression or culture. Role culture is where in fact the structure is identified and employees know their job and who to article too. Job culture is in which a team is a made to complete a particular task. An activity culture offers some gain to employees, for example, they are encouraged because they feel empowered to produce a decision within the team.

British airways social practice is to work with everyone from different track record, ethnicity, sex, age group, culture and faith and treat them fairly without the discrimination plus they also want to provide their customers maximum satisfaction at all time. They build a conducive environment for almost all their customers and provide maximum security whatsoever time when customers plank their airplane. At British Airways health insurance and safety for those customers is very important that why they make it their point of responsibility to give a conducive environment to all or any their customers and also to ensure these are safe in any way time.

British Airways cultural practice is to carter a fantastic environment because of their employees and customers, in term of the protection of aircraft and good customers service. They make sure they provide a safe aircraft by checking the program twice before passenger begins boarding the plane because they don't want to put their passengers in danger. In addition they make sure they have the very best of the range plane with the best facilities to meet customers demand also to give customers the best experience.

Focus of the survey

This statement will give attention to British Airways, their ethnical methods how Schein's cultural model theoretical framework can apply to English Airways cultural practice. Uk Airways has gone through different mergers and acquisitions. They utilized differing people from different contest, religion, and history. However, Uk Airways is very successful but like any other company, they may have their drawbacks. Relating to Grugulis & Wilkinson 2002 Uk Airways as been through crises after another from the terminal 5 disasters to cabin crew goes on strike.

Organisational culture is vital for Uk Airways because it helps them to set their value, opinion, how employees should react, direction for the company and help build tranquility within the company. Matching to Lief et al (2012), British Airways culture is the centre of their organisational culture whether it is internal or external environment change. For instance, if there is a rise in competitive competition, organisational culture to adjust the organisation must modify or make an effort to change their culture to be able to survive on the market.

Theoretical Platform

Theoretical framework provides a specific outlook on which to examine a topic. Triandis (1984) claim that theoretical platform is a specific theory about aspects of human presence such as ethnic perspective. These theories can then be employed to the study of actual incidents. You will discover multi theories about culture, such as

  • Geert Hofstede - Hofstede's cultural dimensions
  • Edgar Schein - Edgar Schein's social model
  • Charles Convenient - Charles Handy's four types of culture
  • Globe "Global Authority and organisational behaviour effectiveness"
  • Edward T. Hall - Hall's social factors low context/high context
  • Trompenaars Style of Country wide culture differences

All these theoretical frameworks can be found; however, I will discuss both of these model Hofstede's ethnic sizes and Schein's cultural model.

Hofstede declare that there are six proportions of culture, he provides out a research between 1967 and 1973 on about 100, 000 IBM employees in more than 70 countries predicated on global cultures at work (as cited in Nationwide culture 2010). The six proportions are:

  • Power Distance Index - electricity distance is how electricity is distributed. It is also a hierarchical order, which everyone has a location in which no justification is needed.
  • Individualism vs Collectivism - individualism is grouped as a loose-knit cultural model where an individual only cares about them immediate family themselves. Whereas collectivism is a good knit model, where an individual expert their relative or a team to provide for them in trade for loyalty.
  • Masculinity vs femininity - is also called tough vs tender culture. Masculinity can be an organisation look for materials rewards for success, assertiveness, and heroism. Whereas femininity stands for standard of living and looking after the weak. In other words, both masculinity and femininity will be the behavior with an organisation.
  • Uncertainty Avoidance Index - is the particular level a risk taking an company feels comfortable with. Society feels uneasy with doubt and the issues with this dimension is that the future can't ever be known.
  • Long Term Orientation vs Short Term Normative Orientation - this dimension is sometimes called normative vs pragmatic. Every population must deal with the history while facing today's and future. In this particular dimension contemporary society who credit score low prefer to maintain time-honored customs and norms whereas world who credit score high ensure they encourage thrift and take more pragmatic procedure.
  • Indulgence vs Restraint - indulgence is where society looks forward to the natural human drives to take pleasure from life and have fun. Whereas restraint is the necessity to have regulation by strict communal norms.

Schein's model spotlight three level of culture in a organisation. The particular level ranges from tangible things you can view and feel to value and values. The three levels are:


Even though artifacts are what the thing is, notice and feel, it also is visible products of the organisation such as its vocabulary, its style in clothing, its lists of value and its own physical environment (Schein & Schein, 2016).


The second level is about the organisation ethics, the particular organisation means? Their goals, vision, and mission. What's their aspiration? Things that the organisation portrays as their value such as praise and honesty.


The last level, which is considered the most crucial level. Relating to Schein & Schein 2016, everyone at the company of to agree with something that works for these people such as morals, behaviour, and expectations when they were establishing the organisation.

Hofstede's vs. Schein's Model

As stated in Schein (2010), Schein assume that culture is a couple of assumption that is collective by a group of people to solve a problem/concern within an organisation. As for Hofstede, he believes that culture is produced in an specific through acquisition such as symbols and beliefs over a lifetime through the physical and cultural environment (Rajala, Ruokonen & Ruismaki, 2012). Despite the fact that both Hofstede and Schein theoretical framework concentrate on symbols rituals and value. Hofstede contrast from Schein because Hofstede say that company culture can't be change and Schein believe it could be changed.

According to Rajala, Ruokonen & Ruismaki (2012), Hofstede believe that supervisor must change their mental program, in another term the way they want to adapt to the international environment by implying the national ethnicities within the organisation culture. Alternatively, Schein believes that senior managers should reinforce the complete organisation culture through their learning experience.

British Airways culture is embracing over the complete organisation whether it is geographies, gender or on the airplane. Schein model focuses on how to overcome issues whether it is internal or external through share learning, unlike Hofstede model (Morschett, Schramm-Klein & Zentes, 2011). Uk Airways use assumptions on the cultural practice to make a positive working culture and set up the Uk Airways way about how to work across territories.

As explained in Rajala, Ruokonen & Ruismaki (2012), Schein model concentrate on a energetic organisational culture where a administrator can make a cultural change, better within the company alternatively than them bring ethnic change to a national level through talk about learning. British Airways have different learning program that helps professionals to give attention to having a great working environment for employees. However Hofstede model focuses on national civilizations statistic based on internal ethnic change.

Based on the debate stated above, it would be suitable to apply Schein theoretical framework, artifacts, prices and assumption to English Airways cultural tactics because Schein focuses on the partnership between leadership and culture of the organisation. Whereas Hofstede looks at national culture. Schein model also looks at the leader, how they condition and form the organisation culture through their values, values, assumption and techniques (Schein, 2010). Values, language, behaviour, worth, and symbols are extremely important to British Airways because they offer culture personal information and stableness working environment for everybody.

Schein's Model on English Airways Cultural Practice

Using Schein's model on BA cultural practice it can help their organisational behaviours becomes clearer. For instance, they can profess moral standards and high cosmetic at the second level. While exhibiting curiously at the 3rd level.


One of British Airways most noticeable artifacts is their logo was influenced by the union jack which is a distant echo of the velocity bird mark.

Another artifact for Uk Airways is their brand, English Airways value their brand since it is what they are a symbol of. The core of their brand is "To Fly. To Serve". It is their longstanding motto that represents their Coat of Arms and what they assure their customers.

Another artifact for British Airways is their standard, with over 300 uniforms from 1980.

British Airways has a specialist culture where employees have to dressed up appropriately in any way time and follow rigid policies. Regarding to Osborn (2014) a few of British Airways tight uniform plans are:

  • Hair no more than collar size, clean and clipped back again (food handlers)!
  • Worn up hairstyles must be neat and tidy without wispy bits.
  • 1 stud earring in gold.
  • No chipped nail varnish and must be either red or very natural pale tones, no blacks, blues etc.
  • Lipstick to fit your uniform colours.
  • No exterior badges on clothing or bags (only name badges or suitcases labels).
  • Tights only in dark (free from snags) always take spares.
  • Shoes polished and simple black for man & girl, no buckles etc. Women shoes no higher than several inches wide for the heel.
  • Uniform totes and suitcases plain black or navy blue and no stickers (wheelie luggage to squeeze in the over head locker).
  • Jackets to be worn fastened all the time.
  • Gillets (in journey overalls) to be worn at all times during the service on board.
  • Hats to be worn when walking through the air-port and in the public eye.
  • Uniform jackets to be worn at exactly the same time (as a staff) i. e. all on or all off, if it is hot weather outside.
  • Ties and cravats to be worn at all times.
  • Shirts clean and well ironed, clean white.
  • Sleeves never to be rolled up.
  • Skirts to sit on the knee no higher.
  • Trousers not to be changed e. g. narrowed.
  • Name badges to be worn all the time with your wings on your jacket lapel.
  • No chewing gum EVER.
  • No eating in front of public unless an awful delay or discreetly on board.
  • Do not use cell phones whilst walking through the terminal or on board the aeroplanes.
  • No rucksacks or shopping carriers.
  • Never use bad dialect or critic the air travel.


British Airways prices their workers because they play a substantial role in deciding the organisation culture. The employee's attitudes have a major effect on the culture at English Airways. The frame of mind of employees affects the culture at BA. British Airways eyesight and mission statement are "To be the most exclusive and first choice airline for all air travel travelers" and "One destination looks for to ensure our customers fly confidently that, along, we are behaving responsibility to take care of the world we live in". with these British isles Airways are showing their employees and customers they are safe on the ground or in the air. They also want employees and customers to feel safe and confident when they are soaring with British Airways.


At the most deepest and important level, tacit assumption is where British Airways culture elements unseen and cognitively identified in everyday activity between employees. These elements are an component of culture British Airways often find taboo to go over within the company. British Airways have some unspoken rules which acclimated with their attributes over time. Therefore they use research and carry out informal interviews with employees but these cannot draw out attributes. English Airways need to know that culture at this level can be an underlying assumption driving a car component that is often missed by organisational behaviourists.


This report claim that British Airway has a strong hierarchy, they have both role and job cultural practice at the company.

I will conclude this survey that BA must have a culture that shows how each section works together and how communication is passed using their hierarchy. Also, it is very important for BA showing their customers they value them by providing maximum customers satisfaction in any way time.

Changes in new legislation, competition or the business environment may require a new culture. However, they may new an entire group of organisational beliefs and assumption might need to be changed. So the business can develop and survive. Therefore the exec of to pursued the worth of the business and make sure it is accepted by the employees.

From this article, we can say culture is the way we do things. On this framework culture is the way we assess people values and behavior and culture is also an influence on human behaviour and how human behaviour and exactly how human perform at work.

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