This essay will analyse Piaget and Eriksons theory of development, as well as the durability and weaknesses of the ideas. It will outline research for and against discrete phases of development.
Piaget developed a four level theory of cognitive development to spell it out patterns of expansion throughout a life expectancy. The first level of Piaget's cognitive theory is 'sensory-motor level'. During this time period, infants discover environment through senses and activities. This helps small children to solve problems, such as; tugging a cloth to secure a toy. Moreover, babies learn that things continue to exist even without experiencing. The second phases of Piaget's theory include, 'pre-operational'. Children at this time be capable of develop language to spell it out people, events and feelings. Thus, cognitions of children are more complex in comparison to sensory motor level. Hence, children have functions of many feats they cannot perform earlier. E. g. folks are able to symbolize activities and ideas via drawing and pretending play. Third stage of Piaget cognitive theory is 'concrete operational'. Individuals in this phase have a problem accepting theoretical concepts. However, children develop the ability to think logically, in comparison to those of sensory motor unit and preoperational level. Consequently, during this stage children defeat with characteristics of egocentricism. Furthermore, the fourth level of Piaget cognitive theory is 'formal functional', individual's improvement skills of logical thoughts, organized planning and deductive reasoning to resolve hypothetical problems (McLeod, 2009).
Like Piaget, Erikson thought that development occurs in series of stages. Thus, Erikson formulated 'eight age ranges of man's theory' to recognize psychological and public changes within a life routine. Each level poses a unique crisis that folks must simultaneously fix to develop a wholesome personality. For example, life problems in first level of Erikson's theory includes; learning to 'trust or mistrust' others in the form of a maternal physique (Sims, 2012). For instance, if a mom is not capable of reaching a child's needs this cause a sense of insecurity and lack of trust. Furthermore, life turmoil in second stage includes; 'autonomy versus pity', individual's strength are directed towards physical skills. Hence, support of communal network leads to a sense of autonomy and self-esteem. Furthermore, individuals in third and fourth stage become curious about themselves while others. Thus, children get started to explore and manipulate objects to develop a sense of mastery and competence. Within the fifth stage, adults seek to develop personal identity through forming relationships with companions and friends. As a result, unresolved conflicts at this time lead to personality diffusion and lack of intimacy. Moreover, in seventh stage of Piaget's cognitive theory people seek to add and bring positive changes into the society. Additionally, life problems during last stage includes; 'integrity versus despair'. Elderly makes self-reflections, thus unsuccessful outcomes of this level can lead to fear of fatality and feeling of regret (Cherry, 2012).
Piaget's cognitive theory is based on his children, hence, it is not representative to other people of various social economical backgrounds. To get this, Cole (1990) features that children in non-literate societies have delays in understanding Piaget's experimental tasks. In addition, specific differences are dismissed such as, the affect of education and culture; hence, it lacks external validity. Furthermore, Fahrmein (1978) found that children in Nigeria and Hausa didn't understand Piaget's basic process until the age of 11 or later. In addition, Piaget's cognitive theory lacks ecological validity; e. g. the three hill task boosts many criticisms as members lived in areas that got no mountains. Hughes (1975) suggested that children could descanter with natural responsibilities using policeman, alternatively than mountains that they have never experienced before.
In support of Erikson's theory comes information from Bowlby and Freud (Buczynski, 2012) who suggested that early on life experiences results future personality development. Although Erikson is able to account for continuous development of personality throughout a person's life, but there is absolutely no justification of how an individual moves in one stage to another.
Muuss (1980) show that Piaget and Erikson's theory recognized development as some discrete stages that happen to be associated with a long time that individual's experience. Similarly, Piaget and Erikson encounter development through cycles in which changes in development are quick. Nevertheless, Globerson (1985) features that development is continuous functioning, somewhat than occurring in several periods. Hence, discontinuity theories of Erikson and Piaget aren't valid and reliable as folks are struggling to learn task that want the capacity of later phases, also changes in behaviours aren't rapid. For example, many people spend long periods at a certain stage before moving to another. To get this, Flavell (1969) discovered that children do not show stage specific learning capacity. E. g. some children achieve Piaget's jobs later then Piaget advised. Thus according to cole et al. (1989) culture and environmental conditions have been disregarded within the theory, hence levels of development are not universal. In the same way, behaviourists accentuates that development is a continuing process where life activities and changes in effects affects individual behaviour and personality. On the other hand, Freud and Bowlby point out individuals' proceeds through various periods of development, that happen to be seen as a qualitative changes that comprise learning.
In conclusion, theories have demonstrated that folks proceeds through a number of stages to build up a wholesome personality. However, within the ideas individual's dissimilarities are dismissed, hence they aren't representative. Overall Piaget theories is approximately cognitive development and Erikson's theory is based on personality develop. They are both completely different theories which consider two aspects within individual development.