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Communication Healthcare

This essay can look at communication inside a healthcare setting and will give cases from literature to show the value of communication. It'll use the task of (Ellis& Beattie, 1986) and also (Egan, 1990) as models for effective communication. It will discuss whether these models are sufficient alone to permit effective communication and can also draw on personal experience from the medical area.

Communication underpins all the nursing interventions (Minardi& Riley, 1997). Communication is a fundamental tool for professional medical delivery (Rungapadiachy, 1999). To hear someone else is the most caring work of all, Tuning in and going to are certainly the main aspects of being a nurse (Burnard, 1992).

(Roper, 2001) Emphasizes communication as a fundamental element of the unique function of nursing.

(Peplau, 1988) used the word, psychodynamic nursing, to describe the dynamic relationship between a nurse and an individual.

Peplau referred to four phases of the romantic relationship:

The orientation period, where the person and the nurse mutually identify the person's problem.

The identification period, in which the person identifies with the nurse, thus taking help.

The exploitation stage, where the person makes use of the nurse's help.

The resolution phase, where the person allows new goals and frees herself or himself from the partnership.

Peplau also determined six nursing tasks of the nurse:

  • Counselling Role - working with the patient on current problems
  • Leadership Role - working with the patient democratically
  • Surrogate Role - figuratively ranking in for aperson in the patient's life
  • Stranger - recognizing the patient objectively
  • Learning resource Person - interpreting the medical plan to the individual
  • Coaching Role - offering information and assisting the individual learn

(Betts, 1992) expresses that individuals have a basic drive to relate with one another, which is portrayed through communication. Even if conversation doesn't happen, smiling as is not smiling a form of communication albeit non verbal.

Communication can be conceptualized as a series of components that want a message, transmitter, recipient and a channel for transmission. Many of these elements can be classified into either verbal or non-verbal components. Both of these categories combine in the skill of effective listening, which is a cornerstone of effective communication (Minardi& Riley, 1997).

(Ellis & Beattie, 1986) used a diagram to demonstrate the communication system, (appendix a).

The communication system is divided into verbal and non-verbal parts. The verbal communication contains words, clauses and sentences, which permits the exchange of information, clarification of issues, demonstrating understanding and offer support and route.

The non-verbal system contains four elements:

Prosodic, which can be used to provide emphasis to verbal communication through intonation and tempo.

Paralinguistic, which are the vocal but non-verbal expressions such as mmm, ah that will permit the person offering the info the confirmation that they are being paid attention to.

Kinesic, is body language, for example cosmetic expressions, gestures, position of the recipient.


The standing aspect, which might include appearance, personal space.

Although a model of communication can simply demonstrate the communication process it can also oversimplify.

A model only offers a framework for observing, understanding and predicting what occurs when two different people communicate (Heath, 1995).

Effective communication between a nurse and a patient is a conscious, goal aimed process that differs from casual or social interactions. It is carried out as an instrument with which to build up trust, result change, promote health, provide boundaries, reinforce, orient, express, identify and work at goals (Schultz & Videbeck, 2002)

An essential requirement within effective communication is the capability to understand the communication. Each factor of communication must be examined separately. For example, within the Kinesic element,

(Egan 1990) supplies the acronym, SOLER, when considering the facet of body gestures. Egan suggests to:

Sit Squarely in relation to your client,

Maintain an Open up posture,

Lean just a bit towards the client,

Maintain reasonable Eyes contact,


Through personal experience whilst in the professional medical area I've integrated this acronym and found it effective although having to examine my very own activities later to assess whether its was used to its full probable. I have found that to sit down squarely with your client isn't just the best position this has offered cycles of uncomfortableness both for myself and visibly to the individual. By relaxing in this position there is certainly less chance to break eyes contact without showing sidetracked or disinterested. Start body posture can provide a feeling of disinterest as well as increasing nervousness in myself in situations where there could be a threat of physical aggression. Inside the suggestion that Egan gives of relaxing, this has been easier sometimes when the other recommendations of Egan's have been modified.

(Betts, 1992) expresses it is important never to stare at the patient for too much time as this can be viewed as an intimidating gesture as can also distance where too close can be seen as an invasion or a danger or too much can be interpreted as the nurse being unable to cooperate.

Within the verbal aspect additionally it is very important to the nurse to identify the difference between a person saying what they imply and indicating what they say (Minardi& Riley, 1997).

An exemplory case of this from my very own scientific experience was while having a dialogue with an individual, they told me that they just wished to kill themself. Whenever we explored this statement further the individual said that they didn't actually suggest they wanted to kill themselves but instead that they felt they couldn't deal with current problems. By sitting down and speaking about these problems, lots were able to be resolved and more discussed. In this example and with such an alarming affirmation for students nurse it could have been a simple get out to dismiss the assertion.

(Speight, 1991) however, areas that by responding in this manner could have resulted in the patient being unwilling to explore this statement further. Speight suggests that reflection can be used as a communication approach.

For example, when the patient made the assertion, the response that might be used is one of " you want to destroy yourself?" and in doing so encouraging a further response from the individual about the statement.

To allow effective communication the professional medical worker must also be familiar with the average person factors engaged. All communication between individuals has inner factors that can affect the sending or acquiring of the communication, these may include values, goals, physical and mental claims and the perceptions of others jobs, status and personality. External factors can include environmental, social, natural, psychological and monetary influences (George, 1990).

(Minardi& Riley, 1997) shows that additionally it is important in being a powerful communicator to ensure that the vocabulary used during communication is at a level that may be comprehended through familiarity of words.

Once the fundamentals of communication are known, in order to carefully turn this into effective communication it is important for the medical care worker to look at their own activities through representation (Minardi& Riley, 1997).

This may be done using a style of representation such as Gibbs reflective circuit (appendix 2). Gibbs identifies five tips for reflection. Description, feelings, evaluation, evaluation, summary and action.

By using Gibbs reflective cycle I have been in a position to identify hurdles either personal, environmental or on a physical level. This I really believe has led me to a greater understanding of my own activities, thoughts or thoughts and helped me identify solutions to these obstacles.


In realization, this essay has identified and examined types of communication and discussed the many elements involved. They have given examples from literature to stress the value of communication and identified elements needed towards communication being effective within professional medical. It has attracted on personal experience form the clinical area to demonstrate the abilities required in maintaining a therapeutic romantic relationship and also identified the necessity for ongoing representation during the communication processes.

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