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Components Of An Information System Information Technology Essay

The purpose of this report is to provide an examination of MIS procedures of Ufone Telecommunication Ltd. We measure the weaknesses and advantages. We will see MIS insurance policies in firm and how far they are adding to the business plan and we will also find how to increase the quality of product and the pressure of customers and frustrated employees.

Analyzing the entire MIS way in Ufone, we discuss the three procedures. These plans do have a great deal of weaknesses in them with some strong items as well.

At the finish we give our recommendation about how precisely these MIS insurance policies can succeed once again and how they can improve the production level through reward system. Ufone needs some immediate and extreme changes to keep the business going

Ufone is a subsidiary of Pakistan Telecommunication Company. Authorities heads Pakistan Telecommunication Company. It is the only Pakistani-owned mobile provider in the united states. It had been founded 9 years ago with a simple target to develop one unique telecommunications entity of Pakistan id. Government adopted Ufone in January 2001, since that time it includes seen a energetic and full throttled velocity of development and wealth.

PTML, a 100% owned or operated subsidiary of PTCL was established to operate mobile GSM 900 services. The business commenced its procedures, under the brand of Ufone, from Islamabad on January 29, 2001. Ufone broadened its coverage and has added new places and highways to its coverage network. Ufone now includes over 300 key towns and dominant highways across Pakistan providing the customers best quality service and value for money.

With a total current investment of over $350 Million, including a agreement of $161 Million for growth & capacity for 2006-07, PTML feels in solid commitment to development, security & consistency. Ufone uses Siemens's infrastructure, and gets ongoing superior scientific support from Siemens. Most of all, it has Siemens's support running a business Management.

System Concepts:

A system can be simply defined as a group of interrelated or interacting elements building a unified whole entire. Many types of systems are available in the physical and natural sciences, in modern technology, and in real human modern culture. Thus, we can discuss of the physical system of sunlight and its planets, the natural system of our body, the technological system of an petrol refinery, and the socioeconomic system of a small business organization.

A system is a group of interrelated components working alongside one another toward a typical goal by taking inputs and producing outputs in an organized change process. Such something (sometimes called a vibrant system) has three basic interacting components or functions:

Input involves recording and assembling elements that go into the machine to be processed. For example, raw materials, energy, data, and individuals attempts must be secured and structured for handling.

Processing involves change process that converts input into outcome. Instances are a production process, the human being breathing process, or mathematical calculations.

Output involves transferring elements that contain been produced by a change process to their ultimate destination. For instance, finished products, human services, and management information must be sent to their individuals users.


A making system accepts raw materials as input and produces finished goods as result. An information system also is something that accepts resources (data) as suggestions and process the min to products (information) as result.


A system with feedback and control components may also be called a cybernetic system, that is, a self-monitoring, self-regulating system.

Feedback is data about the performance of something. For instance, data about sales performance is feedback to a sales director.

Control includes monitoring and assessing feedback to find out whether something is moving toward the achievement of its goal. The control function then makes necessary alterations to a system's input and control components to ensure which it produces proper productivity. For example, a sales administrator exercises control when she or he reassigns salespersons to new sales territories after assessing opinions about their sales performance. Responses is generally included as part of the idea of the control function since it is such a necessary part of its procedure.


A familiar example of a self-monitoring, self-regulating system is the thermostat handled heating system within many homes; it automatically screens and regulates itself to


An information system is a system that accepts data resources as input and functions them into info products as end result.

An information system is determined by the resources of individuals (customers and it is specialists), hardware (machines and mass media), software (programs and procedures), data (data and knowledge basis), and sites (communications press and network support) to execute input, processing, end result, storage area, and control activities that convert data resources into information products.

This information system model highlights the associations among the components and activities of information systems. It offers a framework that emphasizes four major principles that can be applied to all types of information systems:

People, hardware, software, data, and networks are the five basic resources of information systems. A people tool include customers and IS specialists, hardware resources consisting of machines and marketing, software resources including both programs and HARDWARE RESOURCES.

The concept of Hardware resources includes all physical devices and materials used in information control. Specially, it includes not only machines, such as computer systems and other equipment, but also all data press, that is, all tangible things on which data is recorded, from bed linens of paper to magnetic disks.

Example of hardware in computer-based information systems are:

Computer systems, which contain central processing items formulated with microprocessors, and variety of interconnected peripheral devices.

Examples are microcomputer systems, midrange computer systems, and large mainframe personal computers.

Computer peripherals, that happen to be devices like a keyboard or digital mouse for source of data and directions, a video display or printer for output of information, and magnetic or optical disks for storage space of data resources.


The concept of Software Resources includes all sets of information processing instructions. This common idea of software includes not only the pieces of operating instructions called programs, which immediate and control computers, but also the units of information control instructions needed by people, called strategies.

It is important to understand that even information systems that avoid computers have a software reference component. That is true even for the information systems of old times, or the manual and machine-supported information systems still used in the planet today. They all require software resources in the form of information control instructions and methods to be able to properly catch, process, and disseminate information with their users.


You should be able to recognize input, handling, output, storage and control activities occurring in virtually any information system you are studying.

INPUT OF DATA Learning resource:

Data about business trades and other occasions must be captured and ready for control by the suggestions activity. Input normally takes the form of data entrance activities such as recording and editing. End uses typically record data about orders on some type of physical medium such as newspaper form, or type in it straight into your personal computer system. This usually carries a variety of editing activities to ensure they have recorded data correctly. Once inserted, data may be transferred onto a machine-readable medium such as a magnetic drive until needed for processing. For instance, data about sales trades can be noted on source documents such as newspaper sales order varieties. (A source record is the initial formal

record of a purchase). Alternately, salespersons can take sales data using computer keyboards or optical scanning devices; they are aesthetically prompted to enter into data correctly by video exhibits. This gives them with a more convenient and effective user interface, that is, ways of end user suggestions and end result with your personal computer system. Methods such as optical scanning and displays of selections, prompts, and fill-in-the-blanks types make it easier for end users to enter data appropriately into an information system.


Data is normally subjected to handling activities such as calculating, looking at, sorting, classifying, and summarizing. These activities coordinate, analyze and manipulate data, thus converting them into information for end users. The quality of any data stored within an information system must also be maintained by way of a continual process of correcting and upgrading activities. For instance, data received in regards to a purchase can be

(1) added to a running total of sales results,

(2) compared to a standard to ascertain eligibility for a sales discount,

(3) sorted in numerical order predicated on product identification amounts,

(4) grouped into product categories (such as food and non-food items),

(5) summarized to give a sales manager with information about various product categories, and finally,

(6) used to update sales data.


Information in various forms is transmitted to end-users and made available to them in the end result activity. The purpose of information systems is the development of appropriate information products for customers.

Common information products messages, reports, forms, and graphic images, which might be provided by video tutorial displays, audio reactions, newspaper products, and media. For example, a sales director may view a video screen to be sure of the performance of a salesperson, accept a computer-produced tone of voice message by mobile phone, and receive a printout of regular sales results.


Storage is a basic system element of information systems. Storage space is the information system activity in which data and information are maintained in an prepared manner for later use. For instance, just as written text materials is prepared into words, sentences, paragraphs, and documents, stored data is often organized into areas, records, data, and databases. This helps its later use in handling or its retrieval as outcome when needed by users of a



An important information system activity is the control of its performance. An information system should produce opinions about its type, processing, output, and the machine is meeting established performance criteria. Then appropriate system activities must be changed so that proper info products are produced for end users. For instance, a administrator may discover that subtotals of sales sums in a sales report do not add up to total sales. This might imply that data admittance or processing strategies have to be corrected. Then changes would need to be made to ensure that all sales trades. would be properly captured and refined with a sales information system.


There are extensive sorts of information systems in the real world. All of them use hardware, software, network, and people resources to transform data resources into information products. Some are simple manual information systems, where people use simple tools such as pencils and paper, or even machines such as calculators and typewriters. Others are computer founded information systems that rely on a variety of networked computer systems to accomplish their information handling activities. As business person, you should be able to identify the fundamental the different parts of information systems you face in real life. Which means that you ought to be in a position to identify. Individuals, hardware, software, data, and network resources they use. The type of information products they produce. Just how they perform input, handling, output, storage space and control activities. How they support the business enterprise procedures, managerial decision-making, or competitive advantage of a small business.

This kind of understanding will help you be a better user, programmer, and manager of information system.


You will also see that the roles given to the info systems functions have expand significantly over the years.


Until the 1990s, the role of information systems was simple, business deal control, record-keeping, accounting, and other electric data control (EDP) applications. Then another role was added, as the idea of management information system (MIS) was conceived. This new role focused on providing managerial end users with predefined management records that would give managers the info they necessary for decision making purposes.

By the 1970s, it was noticeable that the pre-specified information products made by such management information systems weren't adequately meeting lots of the (DSS) was created. The brand new role for information systems was to provide managerial end users with random and interactive support with their decision-making functions.


When information systems focus on providing information and support for effective decision making by professionals, these are called management support systems.


Management information systems (MIS) are the most frequent form of management support systems. They offer managerial end users with information products that support much of their day-to-day decision-making needs. Management information systems provide a variety of information and shows to management. The items of these information products are specified beforehand by managers in order that they contain information that managers need. Management information systems get information about internal operations from database which may have been updated by transaction finalizing systems. In addition they obtain data about the business environment from external source. Info products provided to managers include shows and reports that can be equipped (1) on demand, (2) occasionally,

according to a predetermined agenda.


Decision support systems (DSS) are a natural development from information reporting systems and purchase control systems. Decision support systems are interactive, computer-based information systems that use decision models and specialized database to assist your choice making process of managerial customers.


Executive information systems (EIS) are management information systems personalized to the tactical information needs of top management. Top professionals get the information they want from many sources, including words, memos, periodicals, and records produced personally as well as by computer systems


Knowledge Management systems (KMS), Workers create, plan, and show important business knowledge wherever and whenever it is necessary. For example, many knowledge management systems rely on Internet and intranet Internet sites, knowledge bases, and dialogue community forums as key technology for gathering, storing, and disseminating business knowledge. In this way, knowledge management systems help in company learning and knowledge creation and dissemination within the business enterprise.


The tactical role of information systems involves using it to develop products, services, and features that give a firm strategic advantages on the competitive pushes it faces in the global marketplace. This creates tactical information system, information systems that support or form the competitive position and strategies of an business. So a strategic information system can be almost any information systems (TPS, MIS, DSS, etc. ) that helps an organization gain a competitive advantages, reduce a competitive drawback, or meet other proper enterprise objectives.


As a future managerial end user, it's important for you to recognize that information systems immediately support both functions and management activities in the business functions of accounting, fund, human resource management, marketing, and businesses management. Such business information systems are needed by all business functions.

For example, marketing professionals need information about sales performance and styles provided by marketing information systems. Financial professionals need information concerning financing costs and investment returns provided by financial information systems.


It is also important to realize that information systems in the real world are typically integrated combinations of several types of information systems we have just mentioned. That's because conceptual classification of information systems are made to emphasize the

THE SYSTEMS Procedure:

The systems method of problem dealing with used a systems orientation to define problems and opportunities and develop alternatives. Studying an issue and formulating a solution involve the next interrelated activities:

1. Recognize and define a difficulty or opportunity using systems thinking.

2. Develop and examine alternative system solutions.

3. Choose the system solution that best fulfills the needs you have.

4. Design the chosen system solution.

5. Use and evaluate the success of the designed system.


Problems and opportunities are recognized in the first step of the systems strategy. A problem can be defined as a basic condition that is creating undesirable results. An opportunity is a

basic condition that displays the potential for attractive results. Symptoms must be segregated from problems. Symptoms are merely signals associated with an root cause or problem.


Systems thinking is to try to find systems, subsystems, and components of systems in virtually any situation you're studying. This viewpoint ensures that important factors and their interrelationships are considered. This is also called by using a systems context, or possessing a systemic view of a predicament.

example, the business enterprise group or business process when a problem or opportunity occurs could be looked at as a system of input, control, output, feedback, and control components.

Then to comprehend issues and save it, you would determine if these basic system functions are being properly performed.


The sales function of a business may very well be a system. You might then ask: Is poor sales performance (output) triggered by inadequate advertising effort (suggestions), out-of-date sales procedures

(control), incorrect sales information (opinions), or limited sales management (control)? Shape illustrates this concept.

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SYSTEMS Research:

It is an in-depth research of person information needs that produces useful requirements that are being used as the basis for the look of a fresh information system. Systems analysis

traditionally involves an in depth study of:

1. The info needs of the organization and customers like yourself.

2. The activities, resources, and products of any present information systems.

3. The info system capabilities necessary to meet your details needs, and those of other customers.


An organization analysis is an important first step in systems examination. How can anyone improve an information system if indeed they know very little about the organizational environment where that system is situated? They can't. That's why the members of the development team need to know something about the


Before you design a new system, it is important to study the system that'll be improved or changed (if there is one). You need to investigate how this system uses hardware, software, network, and people resources to convert data resources, such as ventures data, into information products, such as reports and displays. You then should document how the information system activities of insight, processing, output, storage, and control are accomplished.

Operating Systems:

The most important system software package for any computer is its operating system. An operating-system is an built in system of programs that manages the businesses of the CPU, control buttons the insight/output and storage resources and activities of the computer system, and provides various support services as the computer executes the application form programs of users.

The primary reason for an operating system is to increase the productivity of any computer system by working it in the most effective manner. An operating-system minimizes the amount of human involvement required during handling. It helps the application programs perform common businesses Repository Management Systems.

A DBMS program helps corporation use their designed series of data documents and files known as directories. It allows different consumer program programs to easily access the same database. For instance, a DBMS makes it easy for a worker database to be utilized by payroll, employee benefits, and other real human tool programs. A DBMS also simplifies the process of retrieving information from databases by means of displays and studies. Instead of needing to write computer programs to remove information, customers can ask simple questions in a query dialect. Thus, many DBMS plans provide fourth-generation vocabulary (4GLs) and other application development features.

Examples of popular mainframe and midrange plans are DB2 by IBM and Oracle 8 by Oracle Corporation.

Other System Management Programs:

Several other styles of system management software are sold as split programs or are included as part of an operating system. Electricity programs, or utilities, are an important example. Programs like Norton Utilities perform miscellaneous housekeeping and file conversion functions. Examples include data backup, data restoration, virus safety, data compression, and file defragmentation. Most os's also provide many utilities that perform a variety of helpful tasks for computer users.

Other examples of system support programs include performance screens and security screens. Performance screens are programs that monitor and adapt the performance and consumption of one or even more computer systems to keep them running efficiently, Security screens are deals that monitor and control the use of computer systems and provide alert messages and record proof unauthorized use of computer resources. A recently available trand is to merge both types of programs into operating systems like Microsoft's Glass windows NT Server, or into system management software like Computer Associates' CAUnicenter, that can control both mainframe systems and servers in a data centre.

Advantages and Disadvantages:

A high-level language is obviously better to learn and understand than an assembler words. Also, high-level languages have less-rigid guidelines, varieties, and syntaxes, therefore the potential for problems is reduced. However, high-level languages programs are usually less successful than assembler language programs and require a increased amount of computer time for translation into machine instructions. Business Applications of Telecommunications.

Telecommunications is the mailing of information in any form (e. g. , words, data, words, and images) in one location to another using electronic or light-emitting mass media. Data communications is a more specific term that describes the transmitting and receiving of data over communication links between one or more computer systems and a variety of source/output terminals. The conditions teleprocessing, telematics, and telephony could also be used since they echo the integration of computer-based information processing with telecommunications and cell phone technology. However, all kinds of telecommunications now count heavily on personal computers and computerized devices. Because of this, the broader term telecommunications can be used as a synonym for data marketing communications activities.

Figure illustrates a few of the many possible business applications of telecommunications. It organizations telecommunications applications into the major categories of enterprise collaboration systems, electronic commerce systems,

The Internet Revolution:

The explosive growth of the Internet is the revolutionary technology trend of the 1990s. The Internet has become the largest and most important network of sites today, and is evolving into the information superhighway of tomorrow. THE WEB is constantly widening, as more and more businesses and other organizations and their users, computers, and networks join its global web. Thousands of business, educational, and research networks now connect millions of computer systems and users in more than 200 countries to each other. The Internet in addition has turn into a key system for a quickly expanding set of information and entertainment services and business applications, including enterprise collaboration and digital business systems.

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